Skip to main content

“Beware of Terrorists, Spies and Chaos!”: Stabilization Techniques from the Arab Uprisings

  • Chapter
  • First Online:
Media and the Dissemination of Fear

Abstract

Based on work on the Arab Uprisings, this chapter shows how authoritarian regimes legitimize themselves as centres of power to colonize the digital public spheres. They rely on the dissemination of fear during times to stabilize the public mobilization and discredit social movements who challenge them. Using empirical examples, this chapter is interested in the qualitative thematic analysis of regimes’ arguments that spread fear, and connects them to the political, social and cultural access points in the Arab societies. The findings show how the regime framed any challenging potential for change as chaos and destabilization. The findings of three case studies show that securitization strategies were a central thread as on one level the Tahrir uprising was against the police, representing a repressive coercive state apparatus. In a conservative patriarchal society, the three cases showed how the need of security and stability is constructed through xenophobic, conservative and exclusive argumentation. Long before the US- and Euro-centric realization that social media contribute to polarized communication instead of Habermasian consensus, post-truth mediated politics were born in the MENA region.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Chapter
USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
eBook
USD 129.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book
USD 169.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info
Hardcover Book
USD 169.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

Notes

  1. 1.

    Sarah Wessel, “The ‘Third Hand’ in Egypt: Legitimation and the International Dimension in Political Transformations,” Middle East Law and Governance 10, no. 3 (2018): 341–374.

  2. 2.

    Cilja Harders, “Die Umbrüche in der Arabischen Welt: Zwischen Revolution und Restauration,” in “Protest, revolutions and transformations—The Arab World in a Period of Upheaval” Working paper, Arbeitsstelle Politik des Vorderen Orients (ed.) no. 1 (July 2011): 10–37.

  3. 3.

    Muhammad I. Ayish, “The New Arab Public Sphere,” in Medien und politische Kommunikation—Naher Osten und islamische Welt, Bd. 15, ed. Kai Hafez and Carola Richter (Berlin: Frank & Timme, 2008); Merlyna Lim, “Clicks, Cabs, and Coffee Houses: Social Media and Oppositional Movements in Egypt, 2004–2011,” Journal of Communication 62 (2012): 231–248; Sarah Khamis and Katherine Vaughn, “We are All Khaled Said: The Potentials and Limitations of Cyberactivism in Triggering Public Mobilization and Promoting Political Change,” Journal of Arab & Muslim Media Research 4, no. 2/3 (2011): 145–163.

  4. 4.

    Larry Diamond, “Liberation Technology,” Journal of Democracy 21, no. 3 (2010): 69–83.

  5. 5.

    Manuel Castells, Networks of Outrage and Hope: Social Movements in the Internet Age (Cambridge: Polity Press, 2015); W. Lance Bennett and Alexandra Segerberg, “The Logic of Connective Action,” Information, Communication & Society 15, no. 5 (2012), https://doi.org/10.1080/1369118X.2012.670661.

  6. 6.

    Hanan Badr, “Before the ‘Arab Spring’: How Challengers Pushed Counter-issues in Egypt’s Hybrid Media System,” Media, War & Conflict (December 2019), https://doi.org/10.1177/1750635219894611.

  7. 7.

    Marwan Kraidy, “Graffiti, Hypermedia and Heterotopia after the Arab Uprisings: New Media Practices and Configurations,” in New Media Configurations and Socio-Cultural Dynamics in Asia and the Arab World, ed. Nadja-Christina Schneider and Carola Richter (Baden-Baden: Nomos, 2015), 319–343.

  8. 8.

    Hanan Badr, “Limitations of the Social Media Euphoria in Communication Studies,” Égypte/Monde arabe 12 (2015). https://doi.org/10.4000/EMA.3451.

  9. 9.

    Carola Richter and Hanan Badr, “Communication Studies in Transformation: Self-Reflections on an Evolving Discipline in Times of Change,” in Academia in Transformation: Scholars Facing the Arab Uprisings, ed. Florian Kohstall, Carola Richter, Sarhan Dhouib, and Fatima Kastner (Baden: Nomos, 2018).

  10. 10.

    Sahar Khamis, “Media Use and Its Anomalies a Decade after the Arab Spring,” Arab Center Washington DC, 18 December 2020, http://arabcenterdc.org/policy_analyses/media-use-and-its-anomalies-a-decade-after-the-arab-spring/.

  11. 11.

    Ursula Lindsey, “Revolution and Counter-Revolution in the Egyptian Media,” Middle East Report Online, 15 February 2011, https://merip.org/2011/02/revolution-and-counter-revolution-in-the-egyptian-media/.

  12. 12.

    Badr, “Limitations of the Social Media Euphoria”; William L. Youmans and Jillian C. York, “Social Media and the Activist Toolkit: User Agreements, Corporate Interests, and the Information Infrastructure of Modern Social Movements,” Journal of Communication 62, no. 2 (2012): 315–329; Joshua A. Tucker, Yannis Theocharis, Margaret E. Roberts, and Pablo Barberá, “From Liberation to Turmoil: Social Media and Democracy,” Journal of Democracy 28, no. 4 (2017): 46–59.

  13. 13.

    Wael Eskandar, “How Twitter is Gagging Arabic Users and Acting as Morality Police,” OpenDemocracy, October 23, 2019, https://www.opendemocracy.net/en/north-africa-west-asia/how-twitter-gagging-arabic-users-and-acting-morality-police/.

  14. 14.

    Thorsten Quandt, “Dark Participation,” Media and Communication 6, no. 4 (November 2018), https://doi.org/10.17645/mac.v6i4.1519.

  15. 15.

    For a brief overview and milestones in Egypt after the Tahrir Revolution read Hanan Badr, “Egypt: A Divided and Restricted Media Landscape after the Transformation,” in Arab Media Systems, ed. Carola Richter and Claudia Kozman (Cambridge: Open Book Publishers, 2021).

  16. 16.

    The first project is the BMBF-funded project “Media, Culture, Transformation” (2012–2015) led by the author and hosted by Orient-Institut Beirut/Max Weber Foundation. The second project is the DFG-funded project “Media Functions in Transition” (2016–2019) led by Carola Richter at Freie Universität Berlin.

  17. 17.

    Udo Kuckartz, Qualitative Text Analysis: A Guide to Methods, Practice & Using Software (London: Sage, 2014).

  18. 18.

    Based on Jürgen Habermas, Faktizität und Geltung—Beiträge zur Diskurstheorie des Rechts und des demokratischen Rechtsstaats (Frankfurt: Suhrkamp, 1992); Nancy Fraser, “Rethinking the Public Sphere: A Contribution to the Critique of Actually Existing Democracy,” Social Text 72, no. 25/26 (1990): 56–80, https://doi.org/10.2307/466240.

  19. 19.

    Fraser, “Rethinking the Public Sphere.”

  20. 20.

    For more details see Habermas, Faktizität und Geltung; Hanan Badr, Framing von Terrorismus im Nahostkonflikt [Framing Terrorism in the Middle East Conflict] (Wiesbaden: Springer VS, 2017).

  21. 21.

    See Badr, “Before the ‘Arab Spring.’”

  22. 22.

    Richter and Badr, “Communication Studies in Transformation.”

  23. 23.

    Marianne Kneuer and Thomas Demmelhuber, Authoritarian Gravity Centers (London: Routledge, 2020).

  24. 24.

    Lindsey, “Revolution and Counter-Revolution.”

  25. 25.

    Lindsey, “Revolution and Counter-Revolution.”

  26. 26.

    Ramy Raoof, “State Surveillance and Protest: ‘They Try to Make People Think Twice before Taking to the Streets,’” Egyptian Initiative for Personal Rights, October 15, 2017, https://eipr.org/en/blog/ramy-raoof/2017/10/state-surveillance-and-protest-%E2%80%9Cthey-try-make-people-think-twice-taking.

  27. 27.

    Amr Hamzawy, “Egypt after the 2013 Military Coup: Law-making in Service of the New Authoritarianism,” Philosophy & Social Criticism 43, no. 4/5 (2017): 392–405.

  28. 28.

    Rana Mamdouh, “Egypt: Where a Facebook Post May Land You in Prison for a Decade,” February 28, 2021, https://daraj.com/en/68163/.

  29. 29.

    Badr, “Egypt: A Divided and Restricted Media Landscape.”

  30. 30.

    Hanan Badr and Nadia Leihs, “Egypt: No Horizons for Media Accountability?” in Global Handbook of Media Accountability, ed. Tobias Eberwein, Matthias Karmasin, and Susanne Fengler (Milton Park, Oxfordshire: Routledge, 2021 forthcoming).

  31. 31.

    Salwa Ismail, “The Egyptian Revolution against the Police,” Social Research 79, no. 2 (2012): 450.

  32. 32.

    Daniel Trottier and Christian Fuchs, Social Media, Politics and the State: Protests, Revolutions, Riots, Crime and Policing in the Age of Facebook, Twitter and YouTube (New York: Routledge, 2014).

  33. 33.

    Basma M. Abdel Aziz, “Torture in Egypt,” Torture 17, no. 1 (2007): 48–52; Heba Morayef, “Reexamining Human Rights Change in Egypt,” in Middle East Report Online 274 (2015), accessed June 14, 2017, http://www.merip.org/mer/mer274/reexamining-human-rights-change-egypt.

  34. 34.

    Ismail, “The Egyptian Revolution against the Police,” 435–462; Dina Wahba, “A Thug, a Revolutionary or Both? Negotiating Masculinity in Post-Revolutionary Egypt,” Middle East—Topics & Arguments 14 (2020): 56–65.

  35. 35.

    Naila Ismail, “Arab Citizen Journalism in Action: Challenging Mainstream Media, Authorities and Media Laws,” Westminster Papers in Communication and Culture 6, no. 1 (2009): 450.

  36. 36.

    Hebatullah Mahmoud Khalil, “Access Denied: Institutional Barriers to Justice for Victims of Torture in Egypt,” Torture 23, no. 1 (2013): 28–46.

  37. 37.

    Amro Ali and Dina El-Sharnouby, “Distorting Digital Citizenship: Khaled Said, Facebook, and Egypt’s Streets,” in Wired Citizenship: Youth Learning and Activism in the Middle East, ed. Linda Herrera and Rehab Sakr (New York: Routledge, 2014), 89–101.

  38. 38.

    Negar Azimi, “Bloggers against Torture,” The Nation, 19 February 2007, https://www.thenation.com/article/archive/bloggers-against-torture/.

  39. 39.

    Ismail, “Arab Citizen Journalism,” 92–112.

  40. 40.

    Wael Ghonim, Revolution 2.0 (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2013), 84.

  41. 41.

    Cilja Harders and Dina Wahba, “New Neighbourhood Power: Informal Popular Committees and Changing Local Governance in Egypt,” in Arab Politics Beyond the Uprisings. Experiments in an Era of Resurgent Authoritarianism, ed. Thanassis Cambanis and Michael Wahid Hanna (New York: The Century Foundation Press, 2017), 400–419.

  42. 42.

    Ali, Sambo. Talaat Zakaria: “In Tahrir Square There are Full Sex Relationships” YouTube video, 5:23. 11 February 2011, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VZVnHsUlqW8.

  43. 43.

    Wessel, “The ‘Third Hand’ in Egypt.”

  44. 44.

    Harders and Wahba, “New Neighbourhood Power.”

  45. 45.

    Hanan Badr, “Battleground Facebook: Contestation Mechanisms in the Social Media in the Framing of the Egypt’s Revolution 2011,” in Social Media Go to War: Rage, Rebellion and Revolution in the Age of Twitter, ed. Ralph D. Berenger (Spokane: Marquette Books, 2013), 399–422.

  46. 46.

    The Guardian, “Hosni Mubarak’s Speech: Full Text,” February 2, 2011, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2011/feb/02/president-hosni-mubarak-egypt-speech.

  47. 47.

    Lindsey, “Revolution and Counter-Revolution.”

  48. 48.

    Muriel Asseburg and Heiko Wimmen, “Dynamics of Transformation, Elite Change and New Social Mobilization in the Arab World,” Mediterranean Politics 21, no. 1 (2016).

  49. 49.

    Khalil Al-Anani, “Islamist Parties Post-Arab Spring,” Mediterranean Politics 17, no. 3. (2012): 466–472, https://doi.org/10.1080/13629395.2012.725309.

  50. 50.

    Hanan Badr, “Social Movements, Social Media and the Political Culture: Constitutional Debates in a Transformative Post-Revolutionary Egypt,” In Digital Media and the Politics of Transformation in the Arab World and Asia, ed. Carola Richter, Anna Antonakis, and Cilja Harders (Wiesbaden: Springer VS., 2018), 161–186.

  51. 51.

    Elizabeth Monier and Annette Ranko, “The Fall of the Muslim Brotherhood: Implications for Egypt,” Middle East Policy XX, no. 4 (2013): 111.

  52. 52.

    Wessel, “The ‘Third Hand’ in Egypt.”

  53. 53.

    Ashraf El-Sherif, “The Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood’s Failures. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace,” July 2014. https://carnegieendowment.org/files/muslim_brotherhood_failures.pdf; Monier and Ranko, “The Fall of the Muslim Brotherhood.”

  54. 54.

    Walaa Hussein, “Egypt’s Tamarod Outlives its Purpose,” Al-Monitor, May 8, 2014, https://www.al-monitor.com/originals/2015/05/egypt-tamarod-movement-political-campaign-mubarak-sisi.html.

  55. 55.

    Hanan Badr, “Public Sphere, New Media and Political Culture in Post-revolutionary Egypt,” Orient-Institut Studies 4 (2016), https://perspectivia.net/publikationen/orient-institut-studies/4-2016.

  56. 56.

    Nicola Pratt and Dina Rezk, “Securitizing the Muslim Brotherhood: State Violence and Authoritarianism in Egypt after the Arab Spring,” Security Dialogue 50, no. 3 (2019): 239–256; Wessel, “The ‘Third Hand’ in Egypt.”

  57. 57.

    Hanan Badr, “From Disruptive Power to Trapped Endurance: Egypt’s Journalistic Agency after the Tahrir Revolution,” in Critical Incidents in Journalism: Pivotal Moments Reshaping Journalism Around the World, ed. Edson C. Tandoc Jr., Joy Jenkins, Ryan J. Thomas, and Oscar Westlund (Milton Park, UK: Routledge, 2020).

  58. 58.

    Badr, “Egypt: A Divided and Restricted Media Landscape.”

  59. 59.

    Badr, “From Disruptive Power to Trapped Endurance.”

  60. 60.

    Daily News Egypt, “Al-Sisi Attends Seminar held by Armed Forces on ‘Evil Powers,’” February 9, 2017, https://dailynewsegypt.com/2017/02/09/al-sisi-attends-seminar-held-armed-forces-evil-powers/.

  61. 61.

    State Information Service, “Sisi Evil Powers are Still Targeting Our Homeland, Egypt Capable of Defeating Them,” April 30, 2020, https://www.sis.gov.eg/Story/145879/Sisi-Evil-powers-are-still-targeting-our-homeland%2C-Egypt-capable-of-defeating-them?lang=en-us.

  62. 62.

    Reporters Without Borders, “2020 World Press Freedom Index,” Accessed March 29, 2021, https://rsf.org/en/ranking.

  63. 63.

    Adel Iskandar, “Media as Method in the Age of Revolution: Statism and Digital Contestation,” in The Oxford Handbook of Contemporary Middle Eastern and North African History, ed. Amal Ghazal and Jens Hanssen (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2021), 342–364.

  64. 64.

    Sahar Khamis, “Media Use and Its Anomalies a Decade after the Arab Spring,” Arab Center Washington DC, 18 December 2020, http://arabcenterdc.org/policy_analyses/media-use-and-its-anomalies-a-decade-after-the-arab-spring/.

  65. 65.

    Vivienne Matthies-Boon, “Shattered Worlds: Political Trauma amongst Young Activists in Post-revolutionary Egypt,” The Journal of North African Studies 22, no. 4 (2017): 620–644, https://doi.org/10.1080/13629387.2017.1295855.

  66. 66.

    UNESCO, World Trends in Freedom of Expression and Media Development: Regional Overview of Arab States, 2017/2018. Paris: UNESCO, 2018. https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000266023.

  67. 67.

    Kai Hafez, “Arabisches Satellitenfernsehen—Demokratisierung ohne politische Parteien?” Politik und Zeitgeschichte 48 (2004): 17–23.

  68. 68.

    Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism, “The Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2020,” edited by Nic Newman, Richard Fletcher, Anne Schulz, Simge Andı, and Rasmus Kleis Nielsen (Oxford: Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism, 2020).

References

  • Abdel Aziz, Basma M. “Torture in Egypt.” Torture 17, no. 1 (2007): 48–52.

    Google Scholar 

  • Al-Anani, Khalil. “Islamist Parties Post-Arab Spring.” Mediterranean Politics 17, no. 3 (2012): 466–472. https://doi.org/10.1080/13629395.2012.725309.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ali, Amro, and Dina El-Sharnouby. “Distorting Digital Citizenship: Khaled Said, Facebook, and Egypt’s Streets.” In Wired Citizenship: Youth Learning and Activism in the Middle East, edited by Lina Herrera and Rehab Sakr, 89–101. New York: Routledge, 2014.

    Google Scholar 

  • Asseburg, Muriel, and Heiko Wimmen. “Dynamics of Transformation, Elite Change and New Social Mobilization in the Arab World.” Mediterranean Politics 21, no. 1 (2016): 2.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ayish, Muhammad I. “The New Arab Public Sphere.” In Medien und politische Kommunikation—Naher Osten und islamische Welt, Bd. 15, edited by Kai Hafez and Carola Richter. Berlin: Frank & Timme, 2008.

    Google Scholar 

  • Azimi, Negar. “Bloggers against Torture.” The Nation, February 19, 2007, https://www.thenation.com/article/archive/bloggers-against-torture/.

  • Badr, Hanan. “Battleground Facebook: Contestation Mechanisms in the Social Media in the Framing of the Egypt’s Revolution 2011.” In Social Media Go to War: Rage, Rebellion and Revolution in the Age of Twitter, edited by Ralph D. Berenger, 399–422. Spokane: Marquette Books, 2013.

    Google Scholar 

  • Badr, Hanan. “Before the ‘Arab Spring’: How Challengers Pushed Counter-issues in Egypt’s Hybrid Media System.” Media, War & Conflict (December 2019): 1–20. https://doi.org/10.1177/1750635219894611.

  • Badr, Hanan. “Egypt: A Divided and Restricted Media Landscape after the Transformation.” In Arab Media Systems, edited by Carola Richter and Claudia Kozman. Cambridge: Open Book Publishers, 2021.

    Google Scholar 

  • Badr, Hanan. Framing von Terrorismus im Nahostkonflikt (Framing Terrorism in the Middle East Conflict). Wiesbaden: Springer VS, 2017.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Badr, Hanan. “From Disruptive Power to Trapped Endurance: Egypt’s Journalistic Agency after the Tahrir Revolution.” In Critical Incidents in Journalism: Pivotal Moments Reshaping Journalism Around the World, edited by Edson C. Tandoc Jr., Joy Jenkins, Ryan J. Thomas, and Oscar Westlund. Milton Park, UK: Routledge, 2020.

    Google Scholar 

  • Badr, Hanan. “Limitations of the Social Media Euphoria in Communication Studies.” Égypte/Monde arabe 12 (2015): 177–193. https://doi.org/10.4000/EMA.3451.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Badr, Hanan. “Public Sphere, New Media and Political Culture in Post-revolutionary Egypt.” Orient-Institut Studies 4 (2016). https://perspectivia.net/publikationen/orient-institut-studies/4-2016.

  • Badr, Hanan. “Social Movements, Social Media and the Political Culture: Constitutional Debates in a Transformative Post-Revolutionary Egypt.” In Digital Media and the Politics of Transformation in the Arab World and Asia, edited by Carola Richter, Anna Antonakis, and Cilja Harders, 161–186. Wiesbaden: Springer VS, 2018.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Badr, Hanan, and Nadia Leihs. “Egypt: No Horizons for Media Accountability?” In Global Handbook of Media Accountability, edited by Tobias Eberwein, Matthias Karmasin, and Susanne Fengler. Milton Park, Oxfordshire: Routledge, 2022 (forthcoming).

    Google Scholar 

  • Bennett, W. Lance, and Alexandra Segerberg. “The Logic of Connective Action.” Information, Communication & Society 15, no. 5 (2012): 739–768. https://doi.org/10.1080/1369118X.2012.670661.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Castells, Manuel. Networks of Outrage and Hope: Social Movements in the Internet Age. Cambridge: Polity Press, 2015.

    Google Scholar 

  • Daily News Egypt. “Al-Sisi Attends Seminar Held by Armed Forces on “Evil Powers”.” February 9, 2017, https://dailynewsegypt.com/2017/02/09/al-sisi-attends-seminar-held-armed-forces-evil-powers/.

  • Diamond, Larry. “Liberation Technology.” Journal of Democracy 21, no. 3 (2010): 69–83.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • El-Sherif, Ashrad. “The Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood’s Failures. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.” July 2014. https://carnegieendowment.org/files/muslim_brotherhood_failures.pdf.

  • Eskandar, Wael. “How Twitter is Gagging Arabic Users and Acting as Morality Police.” OpenDemocracy, October 23, 2019. https://www.opendemocracy.net/en/north-africa-west-asia/how-twitter-gagging-arabic-users-and-acting-morality-police/.

  • Fraser, Nancy. “Rethinking the Public Sphere: A Contribution to the Critique of Actually Existing Democracy.” Social Text 72, no. 25/26 (1990): 56–80. https://doi.org/10.2307/466240.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ghonim, Wael. Revolution 2.0. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2013.

    Google Scholar 

  • Habermas, Jürgen. Faktizität und Geltung—Beiträge zur Diskurstheorie des Rechts und des demokratischen Rechtsstaats. Frankfurt: Suhrkamp, 1992.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hafez, Kai. “Arabisches Satellitenfernsehen—Demokratisierung ohne politische Parteien?” Politik und Zeitgeschichte 48 (2004): 17–23.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hamzawy, Amr. “Egypt after the 2013 Military Coup: Law-making in Service of the New Authoritarianism.” Philosophy & Social Criticism 43, no. 4/5 (2017): 392–405.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Harders, Cilja. “Die Umbrüche in der Arabischen Welt: Zwischen Revolution und Restauration” in “Protest, Revolutions and Transformations—The Arab World in a Period of Upheaval” (ed.) Working paper, Arbeitsstelle Politik des Vorderen Orients (ed.) no. 1 (July 2011): 10–37.

    Google Scholar 

  • Harders, Cilja. “‘State Analysis from Below’ and Political Dynamics in Egypt after 2011.” International Journal of Middle East Studies 47, no. 1 (February 2015): 148–151.

    Google Scholar 

  • Harders, Cilja, and Dina Wahba. “New Neighbourhood Power: Informal Popular Committees and Changing Local Governance in Egypt.” In Arab Politics Beyond the Uprisings. Experiments in an Era of Resurgent Authoritarianism, edited by Thanassis Cambanis and Michael Wahid Hanna, 400–419. New York: The Century Foundation Press, 2017.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hussein, Walaa. “Egypt’s Tamarod Outlives its Purpose.” Al-Monitor, May 8, 2014. https://www.al-monitor.com/originals/2015/05/egypt-tamarod-movement-political-campaign-mubarak-sisi.html.

  • Iskander, Adel. “Media as Method in the Age of Revolution: Statism and Digital Contestation.” In The Oxford Handbook of Contemporary Middle Eastern and North African History, edited by Amal Ghazal and Jens Hanssen, 342–364. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2021.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ismail, Naila. “Arab Citizen Journalism in Action: Challenging Mainstream Media, Authorities and Media Laws.” Westminster Papers in Communication and Culture 6, no. 1 (2009): 450.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ismail, Salwa. “The Egyptian Revolution against the Police.” Social Research 79, no. 2 (2012): 435–462.

    Google Scholar 

  • Khalil, Hebatullah Mahmoud. “Access Denied: Institutional Barriers to Justice for Victims of Torture in Egypt.” Torture 23, no. 1 (2013): 28–46.

    Google Scholar 

  • Khamis, Sahar. “Media Use and Its Anomalies a Decade after the Arab Spring.” Arab Center Washington DC, December 18, 2020. http://arabcenterdc.org/policy_analyses/media-use-and-its-anomalies-a-decade-after-the-arab-spring/.

  • Khamis, Sahar, and Katherine Vaughn. “We are All Khaled Said: The Potentials and Limitations of Cyberactivism in Triggering Public Mobilization and Promoting Political Change.” Journal of Arab & Muslim Media Research 4, no. 2/3 (2011): 145–163.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kneuer, Marianne, and Thomas Demmelhuber. Authoritarian Gravity Centers. London: Routledge, 2020.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Kraidy, Marwan. “Graffiti, Hypermedia and Heterotopia after the Arab Uprisings: New Media Practices and Configurations.” In New Media Configurations and Socio-Cultural Dynamics in Asia and the Arab World, edited by Nadja-Christina Schneider and Carola Richter, 319–343. Baden-Baden: Nomos, 2015.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kuckartz, Udo. Qualitative Text Analysis: A Guide to Methods, Practice & Using Software. London: Sage, 2014.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Lim, Merlyna. “Clicks, Cabs, and Coffee Houses: Social Media and Oppositional Movements in Egypt, 2004–2011.” Journal of Communication 62 (2012): 231–248.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lindsey, Ursula. “Revolution and Counter-Revolution in the Egyptian Media.” Middle East Report Online, February 15, 2011. https://merip.org/2011/02/revolution-and-counter-revolution-in-the-egyptian-media/.

  • Mamdouh, Rana. “Egypt: Where a Facebook Post May Land You in Prison for a Decade.” February 28, 2021. https://daraj.com/en/68163/.

  • Matthies-Boon, Vivienne. “Shattered Worlds: Political Trauma amongst Young Activists in Post-revolutionary Egypt.” The Journal of North African Studies 22, no. 4 (2017): 620–644. https://doi.org/10.1080/13629387.2017.1295855.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Monier, Elizabeth, and Annette Ranko. “The Fall of the Muslim Brotherhood: Implications for Egypt.” Middle East Policy XX, no. 4 (2013): 111–123.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Morayef, Heba. “Reexamining Human Rights Change in Egypt.” Middle East Report Online 274 (2015). Accessed June 14, 2017. http://www.merip.org/mer/mer274/reexamining-human-rights-change-egypt.

  • Pratt, Nicola, and Dina Rezk. “Securitizing the Muslim Brotherhood: State Violence and Authoritarianism in Egypt after the Arab Spring.” Security Dialogue 50, no. 3 (2019), 239–256.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Quandt, Thorsten. “Dark Participation.” Media and Communication 6, no. 4 (November 2018): 36–48. https://doi.org/10.17645/mac.v6i4.1519.

  • Raoof, Ramy. “State Surveillance and Protest: ‘They Try to Make People Think Twice before Taking to the Streets.’” Egyptian Initiative for Personal Rights, October 15, 2017. https://eipr.org/en/blog/ramy-raoof/2017/10/state-surveillance-and-protest-%E2%80%9Cthey-try-make-people-think-twice-taking.

  • Reporters Without Borders. “2020 World Press Freedom Index.” Accessed March 29, 2021. https://rsf.org/en/ranking.

  • Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism. “The Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2020,” edited by Nic Newman, Richard Fletcher, Anne Schulz, Simge Andı, and Rasmus Kleis Nielsen. Oxford: Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism, 2020.

    Google Scholar 

  • Richter, Carola, and Hanan Badr. “Communication Studies in Transformation: Self-Reflections on an Evolving Discipline in Times of Change.” In Academia in Transformation: Scholars Facing the Arab Uprisings, edited by Florian Kohstall, Carola Richter, Sarhan Dhouib, and Fatima Kastner, 143–160. Baden: Nomos, 2018.

    Google Scholar 

  • State Information Service. “Sisi Evil Powers are Still Targeting Our Homeland, Egypt Capable of Defeating Them.” April 30, 2020. https://www.sis.gov.eg/Story/145879/Sisi-Evil-powers-are-still-targeting-our-homeland%2C-Egypt-capable-of-defeating-them?lang=en-us.

  • The Guardian. “Hosni Mubarak’s Speech: Full Text.” February 2, 2011. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2011/feb/02/president-hosni-mubarak-egypt-speech.

  • Trottier, Daniel, and Christian Fuchs. Social Media, Politics and the State: Protests, Revolutions, Riots, Crime and Policing in the Age of Facebook, Twitter and YouTube. New York: Routledge, 2014.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Tucker, Joshua A., Yannis Theocharis, Margaret E. Roberts, and Pablo Barberá. “From Liberation to Turmoil: Social Media and Democracy.” Journal of Democracy 28, no. 4 (October 2017): 46–59.

    Google Scholar 

  • UNESCO. World Trends in Freedom of Expression and Media Development: Regional Overview of Arab States, 2017/2018. Paris: UNESCO, 2018. https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000266023.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wahba, Dina. “A Thug, a Revolutionary or Both? Negotiating Masculinity in Post-revolutionary Egypt.” Middle East—Topics & Arguments 14 (2020): 56–65.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wessel, Sarah. “The ‘Third Hand’ in Egypt: Legitimation and the International Dimension in Political Transformations.” Middle East Law and Governance 10, no. 3 (2018): 341–374.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Youmans, William L., and Jillian C. York. “Social Media and the Activist Toolkit: User Agreements, Corporate Interests, and the Information Infrastructure of Modern Social Movements.” Journal of Communication 62, no. 2 (2012): 315–329.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Hanan Badr .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2022 The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG

About this chapter

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this chapter

Badr, H. (2022). “Beware of Terrorists, Spies and Chaos!”: Stabilization Techniques from the Arab Uprisings. In: Ribeiro, N., Schwarzenegger, C. (eds) Media and the Dissemination of Fear. Global Transformations in Media and Communication Research - A Palgrave and IAMCR Series. Palgrave Macmillan, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-84989-4_11

Download citation

Publish with us

Policies and ethics