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Tangerine (Citrus reticulata L.) Wastes: Chemistry, Properties and Applications

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Mediterranean Fruits Bio-wastes

Abstract

Horticultural crops, especially fruits and vegetables, are highly consumed as food and food products. These items are consumed either uncooked, partially cooked, or fully cooked, according to their nature and the cooking process. A large amount of waste is generated from fruit- and vegetable-based industries and household kitchens. According to the FAO, waste generated from fruits and vegetable processing is estimated by 25–30% of the total product. This waste is rich in active compounds and has high nutritional content. Utilization of this waste into beneficial by-products could represent an essential strategy for reducing significant dietary and economic loss as well as the negative environmental impacts. The most common wastes include pomace, peels, rind, and seeds are fabulously rich in valuable bioactive compounds such as carotenoids, enzymes, phenolics, essential oils, vitamins, and many other compounds. These bioactive compounds show their application in various industries, including food industries to develop edible films, health industries for probiotics, and other industries for valuable and natural products. The utilization of these low-cost waste for producing the high value-added product is a novel step in its sustainable utilization. Tangerine is commonly produced and consumed as fresh or processed worldwide. The Mediterranean area produces the best and high-quality tangerine in the world. It is a high vitamin C source and rich in nutrients and provides many medicinal and health benefits. According to the new information released by the FAO, considering the influences of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19), populations with extreme starvation in the world will perhaps increase. Consequently, countries should gain proficiencies and try to reduce trade-related costs, for example, by reducing food waste and losses. Therefore, the present chapter intends to summarize the different types of waste originating from Tangerine (Citrus reticula L.) and highlight their potential in developing edible films, probiotics, nanoparticles, carbon dots, microbial media, biochar, and biosorbents.

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Abbreviations

BBB:

Blood-Brain Barrier

EFA:

Essential Fatty Acids

HMG-CoA:

3-hydroxy-3-methlyglutaryl coenzyme A

MUFA:

Monounsaturated Fatty Acids

PUFA:

Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

SFA:

Saturated Fatty Acids

UFA:

Unsaturated Fatty Acids

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Correspondence to Ahmad A. Omar .

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© 2022 The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG

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Omar, A.A., ElSayed, A.I., Mohamed, A.H. (2022). Tangerine (Citrus reticulata L.) Wastes: Chemistry, Properties and Applications. In: Ramadan, M.F., Farag, M.A. (eds) Mediterranean Fruits Bio-wastes. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-84436-3_11

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