Skip to main content

Speaker Identification

  • 252 Accesses

Abstract

This chapter aims to provide information on how the analysis of a voice can assist in solving a crime. The field of phonetics is the science that deals with the production, the transfer and the perception of speech. Forensic phonetics is the subarea of phonetics that deals with the analysis of voice (and speech) for the purpose of criminal investigations. For example, in cases where the police have a suspect, a forensic phonetician may be asked to carry out a voice comparison. On the other hand, a voice profile in a kidnapping or blackmail case can reduce the number of possible suspects. Detailed transcriptions in the case of surveillance recordings derived from a taped telephone line or from surveillance equipment installed in a house or a car may be requested for investigative or evidentiary purposes. In addition, voice line-ups are constructed in cases, where the victim heard the attacker or kidnapper, but did not see the person. This chapter provides (1) an overview of the typical tasks that forensic phoneticians are asked to carry out, (2) a brief history of the field, (3) an overview of analysis methods and (4) a more detailed description of the auditory-acoustic approach with some examples that may assist junior-colleagues in the field. With this chapter, the author also hopes to make the area of speaker identification and forensic phonetics in general more accessible to the wider public.

Keywords

  • Auditory-acoustic approach
  • Forensic phonetics
  • Phonetics
  • Speaker comparison
  • Speaker identification
  • Speech
  • Voice
  • Voice comparisons
  • Voice line-ups
  • Voice profile

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-84330-4_9
  • Chapter length: 63 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   129.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-3-030-84330-4
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Hardcover Book
USD   169.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Fig. 9.1
Fig. 9.2
Fig. 9.3
Fig. 9.4
Fig. 9.5
Fig. 9.6
Fig. 9.7

Notes

  1. 1.

    The novice reader of forensic phonetics may find the following introductory books useful: Jessen (2012), Künzel (1987), and Hollien (1990, 2002). A more advance research is represented by the works of Nolan (1983) and Rose (2002). Overview articles include: Braun (2012), Eriksson (2012), French (1994), French and Stevens (2013), Foulkes and French (2012), Gfroerer (2006), Hollien et al. (2014), Jessen (2008, 2010), Künzel (2003), Morrison (2010), Nolan (1991, 1997), and Watt (2010).

  2. 2.

    Personal communication 25.03.2021.

  3. 3.

    A detailed account of the case and its context can be found in de Jong-Lendle (2016).

  4. 4.

    The chapters in the Bush et al. report ῾Cryptographic tools and methodsʼ (pp. 48–61) and ῾The sound spectrographʼ (pp. 61–99) give an account of these decoding efforts.

  5. 5.

    See also: https://griffonagedotcom.wordpress.com/2018/07/26/the-secret-military-origins-of-the-sound-spectrograph/.

  6. 6.

    The IAFPA Voiceprint Resolution is also made available on their site: https://www.iafpa.net/the-association/resolutions/.

  7. 7.

    For an example of a US firm offering aural/spectrographic voice identification, please go to https://www.owenforensicservices.com/voice-identification-the-aural-spectrographic-method/.

  8. 8.

    In contrast with the highly variable voice, a person’s DNA and fingerprints do not change over time and are highly specific. The author is aware of the fact that the analysis and interpretation of these patterns can still lead to erroneous results in the case of unclear fingerprints—for example, in 2004, the FBI identified an innocent person as the bomber in the Madrid train bombing case (Stacey, 2004). See Dror (2015) for examiner’s bias; Lander (1989) and Thompson (1995) for faint DNA-bands that allow different interpretations as occurred in the Castro case. An excellent study explaining the significance of this case with regard to the Frye ruling is Mnookin (2007). For a detailed explanation on intra-speaker variability, see Nolan (1997, pp. 749–753).

  9. 9.

    Useful introductions can be found in Drygajlo et al. (2015), Jessen (2008), and Rose (2002).

  10. 10.

    In the case, an intruder with an unusual talent for languages managed a convincing disguise in an emergency call, imitating a foreign accent in German. He later confessed to the call. The effectiveness of the automatic approach in this case is currently being explored.

  11. 11.

    For a review on fundamental frequency, see Jessen (2012, Chap. 3) and Braun (1995).

  12. 12.

    RBH is the abbreviation of the German words ῾Rauigkeit’, ῾Behauchtheit’ and ‘Heiserkeit’ (translated as rough, breathy and hoarse), nasality not being part of the RBH classification.

  13. 13.

    For a detailed review on the potential of the Laver framework for forensic phonetics , the limitations of voice quality judgements and the forensic value of formant measurements, see Nolan (2005).

  14. 14.

    Despite the fact that the fricative pronunciation of the /g/ is the non-prestige variant, it obviously does not prevent anyone from having a career: another person being known for his /g/ was former president Gorbatschow.

  15. 15.

    For a discussion on this topic, see Jessen (2007; 2012, pp. 133–145). Furthermore, a detailed account of the perception of articulation rate is included in Schubert and Sendlmeier’s work (2005), and also in Pfitzinger (2001) who compares syllable and phone rate.

  16. 16.

    For breathing patterns, see Grosjean and Collins (1979), Trouvain (2014), Trouvain, Fauth and Möbius (2016).

  17. 17.

    For a review on age estimation (from faces) and voices, see Moyse (2014).

  18. 18.

    For a detailed explanation of the problem, see Robertson and Vignaux (1995), and Rose (2002, pp. 55–79).

References

  • Abercrombie, D. (1967). Elements of general phonetics. Edinburgh University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Aitken, C. C. G. (1995). Statistics and the evaluation of evidence for forensic scientists. John Wiley & Sons.

    Google Scholar 

  • Amilon, K., Van de Weijer, J., & Schötz, S. (2007). The impact of visual and auditory cues in age estimation. In C. Müller (Ed.), Speaker classification II. Lectures notes in artificial intelligence (pp. 10–21). Springer.

    Google Scholar 

  • Anonymous. (1998). The voiceprint dilemma: Should voices be seen and not heard? Maryland Law Review, 35(2), 267–296.

    Google Scholar 

  • Baldwin, J., & French, F. (1990). Forensic phonetics. Pinter.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ball, M. J., Esling, J., & Dickson, C. (1995). The VoQS system for the transcription of voice quality. Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 25(2), 71–80. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0025100300005181

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Berg, A. S. (1998). Charles Lindbergh—Ein Idol des 20. Jahrhunderts. Karl Blessing Verlag.

    Google Scholar 

  • Boersma, P., & Weenink, D. (2018). Praat. Doing phonetics by computer. http://www.fon.hum.uva.nl/praat/

    Google Scholar 

  • Bolt, R. H., Cooper, F. S., David, E. E., Jr., Denes, P. B., Pickett, J. M., & Stevens, K. N. (1970). Speaker identification by speech spectrograms: A scientists’ view of its reliability for legal purposes. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 47, 597–612.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Bolt, R. H., Cooper, F. S., David, E. E., Jr., Denes, P. B., Pickett, J. M., & Stevens, K. N. (1973). Speaker identification by speech spectrograms: Some further observations. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 54, 531–534.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Boss, D., Gfroerer, S., & Neoustroev, N. (2003). A new tool for the visualization of magnetic features on audiotapes. The International Journal of Speech, Language and the Law—Forensic Linguistics, 10(2), 255–276. https://doi.org/10.1558/sll.2003.10.2.255

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Braun, A. (1995). Fundamental frequency – How speaker-specific is it? In A. Braun & J.-P. Köster (Eds.), Studies in forensic phonetics (pp. 9–23). WVT.

    Google Scholar 

  • Braun, A. (1996). Age estimation by different listener groups. Forensic Linguistics, 3, 65–73.

    Google Scholar 

  • Braun, A. (2012). Forensische Sprach- und Signalverarbeitung. In J. Bockemühl (Ed.), Handbuch des Fachanwalts Strafrecht (pp. 1644–1666). Carl Heymanns Verlag.

    Google Scholar 

  • Braun, A., & Cerrato, L. (1999). Estimating speaker age across languages. In Proceedings of the International Conference of Phonetic Sciences (pp. 1369–1372). San Francisco, USA.

    Google Scholar 

  • Braun, A., & Rietveld, T. (1995). The influence of smoking habits on perceived age. In K. Elenius & P. Branderud (Eds.), Proceedings of the 13th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences (pp. 294–297). Stockholm.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bricker, P. D., & Pruzansky, S. (1966). Effects of stimulus content and duration on talker identification. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 40, 1441–1449.

    Google Scholar 

  • Broeders, A. P. A. (1992). Verstaanbaarheidsverbetering – Het forensisch onderzoek van audio-opnamen (IV). Modus, 2, 42–43.

    Google Scholar 

  • Broeders, A. P. A. (1993). De stem als bewijsmateriaal: Forensisch spraakonderzoek 1. Onze Taal, 62(10), 230–231.

    Google Scholar 

  • Broeders, A. P. A., & Rietveld, A. (1995). Speaker identification by earwitnesses. Studies in Forensic Phonetics, 24–40.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bryan, R. (1991). The execution of the innocent. NYU Review of Law and Social Change, 18, 33.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bryson, B. (2013). One summer: America 1927. Transworld Publishers.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bush, V., Conant, J. B., Pratt, H., & National Defense Research Committee & Columbia University, Division of War Research. (1946). Speech and facsimile scrambling and decoding—Summary Technical Report of Divisions 13. Office of Scientific Research and Development, National Defense Research Committee. https://archive.org/details/speechfacsimiles03unit?view=theater

    Google Scholar 

  • Cerrato, L., Falcone, M., & Paoloni, A. (2000). Subjective age estimation of telephonic voices. Speech Communication, 31(2–3), 107–112. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-6393(99)00071-0

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Champod, C., & Meuwly, D. (2000). The inference of identity in forensic speaker recognition. Speech Communication, 31, 193–203.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Clark, H., & Fox Tree, J. E. (2002). Tree using uh and um in spontaneous speaking. Cognition, 84, 73–111.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Clifford, B. R. (1980). Voice identification by human listeners: On earwitness reliability. Law and Human Behavior, 4, 373–394.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Corley, M., & Stewart, O. W. (2008). Hesitation disfluencies in spontaneous speech: The meaning of um. Language and Linguistics Compass, 2, 589–602.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Crystal, D. (2010). The Cambridge encyclopedia of language. Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dantz, R., & Oehl, F. (2014). Jahrhundert-Verbrechen—Bruno Richard Hauptmann und die Entführung des Lindbergh-Babys. Saxophon Verlag.

    Google Scholar 

  • de Jong, G. (1998). Earwitness characteristics and speaker identification accuracy. Unpublished doctoral thesis, University of Florida, USA.

    Google Scholar 

  • de Jong, G., House, J., Cook, N., & Young, A. (2005). The speaker discriminating power of the final fall: Spontaneous speech. Presented at IAFPA, Marrakech.

    Google Scholar 

  • de Jong-Lendle, G. (2016). Der Strafprozess des Jahrhunderts—Die Geschichte eines Piloten, eines deutschen Immigranten, einer skeptischen Wissenschaftlerin und des Beginns der forensischen Phonetik. Literaturkritik.de, 2016(8).

    Google Scholar 

  • de Jong-Lendle, G., Nolan, F., McDougall, K., & Hudson, T. (2015). Voice lineups: A practical guide. Proceedings of the 17th ICPhS, August, Glasgow, UK.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dellwo, V. (2006). Rhythm and speech rate: A variation coefficient for deltaC. In P. Karnowski & I. Szigeti (Eds.), Language and language-processing (pp. 231–241). Peter Lang.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dellwo, V., Leemann, A., & Kolly, M. J. (2015). Rhythmic variability between speakers: Articulatory, prosodic, and linguistic factors. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 137(1513). https://doi.org/10.1121/1.4906837

  • Dirim, I., & Auer, P. (2004). Türkisch sprechen nicht nur die Türken. De Gruyter. https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110919790

  • Dror, I. E. (2015). Cognitive neuroscience in forensic science: Understanding and utilizing the human element. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences, 370(1674), 2014025. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2014.0255

  • Drygajlo, A., Jessen, M., Gfroere, S., Wagner, I., Vermeulen, J., & Niemi, T. (2015). Methodological guidelines for best practice in forensic semiautomatic and automatic speaker recognition. European Network of Forensic Science Institutes.

    Google Scholar 

  • Eckert, H., & Laver, J. (1994). Menschen und Ihre Stimmen. Weinheim.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ellis, S. (1994). The Yorkshire Ripper enquiry: Part I. Forensic Linguistics: The International Journal of Speech, Language and the Law, 1(2), 197–206.

    Google Scholar 

  • Eriksson, A. (2012). Aural/acoustic vs. automatic methods in forensic phonetic case work. In A. Neustein & H. Patil (Eds.), Forensic speaker recognition. Law enforcement and counter-terrorism (pp. 41–69). Springer.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • European Network of Forensic Science Institutes. (2015). ENFSI guideline for evaluative reporting in forensic science. Retrieved from https://enfsi.eu/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/m1_guideline.pdf

  • Evett, I. W. (1998). Towards a uniform framework for reporting opinions in forensic science casework. Science & Justice, 38(3), 198–202. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1355-0306(98)72105-7

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Foulkes, P., & French, P. (2012). Forensic speaker comparison: A linguistic-acoustic perspective. In L. M. Solan & P. M. Tiersma (Eds.), Oxford handbook of language and law (pp. 557–572). Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fraser, H. (2003). Issues in transcription: Factors affecting the reliability of transcripts as evidence in legal cases. Forensic Linguistics, 10(2), 203–226.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fraser, H. (2014). Transcription of indistinct forensic recordings. Language and Law, 1(2), 5–21.

    Google Scholar 

  • French, P. (1994). An overview of forensic phonetics with particular reference to speaker identification. Forensic Linguistics, 1, 169–181.

    Google Scholar 

  • French, P. (2017). A developmental history of forensic speaker comparison in the UK. English Phonetics, 271–286.

    Google Scholar 

  • French, P., Harrison, P., & Lewis, J. W. (2006). R v John Samuel Humble: The Yorkshire Ripper Hoaxer trial. International Journal of Speech Language and the Law, 13(2), 967.https://doi.org/10.1558/ijsll.2006.13.2.255

  • French, P., & Stevens, L. (2013). Forensic speech Science. In R. A. Knight & M. Jones (Eds.), The Bloomsbury companion to phonetics (pp. 183–197). Continuum. https://doi.org/10.5040/9781472541895.ch-012

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Frye v. United States. (1923). 293 F. 1013 (D.C. Cir. 1923), Court of Appeals of the District of Columbia.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gerlach, L., McDougall, K., Kelly, F., Alexander, A., & Nolan, F. (2020). Exploring the relationship between voice similarity estimates by listeners and by an automatic speaker recognition system incorporating phonetic features. Speech Communication, 124, 85–95. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.specom.2020.08.003

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Gfroerer, S. (2006). Sprechererkennung und Tonträgerauswertung. In G. Widmaier (Ed.), Müncher Anwaltshandbuch Strafverteidigung (pp. 2005–2526). C.H. Beck.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gold, E., & French, P. (2011). International practices in forensic speaker comparison. International Journal of Speech Language and the Law, 18. https://doi.org/10.1558/ijsll.v18i2.293

  • Goldman-Eisler, F. (1968). Psycholinguistics: Experiments in spontaneous speech. Academic.

    Google Scholar 

  • Grey, G., & Kopp, G. A. (1944). Voiceprint identification. Bell Telephone Laboratories Report, 1–14.

    Google Scholar 

  • Grosjean, F., & Collins, M. (1979). Breathing, pausing and reading. Phonetica, 36(2), 98–114.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Guillemin, B., & Watson, C. (2009). Impact of the GSM mobile phone network on the speech signal – Some preliminary findings. International Journal of Speech Language and The Law, 15(2). https://doi.org/10.1558/ijsll.v15i2.193

  • Harnsberger, J. D., Brown, W. S., Shrivastav, R., & Rothman, H. (2010). Noise and tremor in the perception of vocal aging in males. Journal of Voice, 24(5), 523–530. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvoice.2009.01.003

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Harnsberger, J. D., Shrivastav, R., Brown, W. S., Rothman, H., & Hollien, H. (2008). Speaking rate and fundamental frequency as speech cues to perceived age. Journal of Voice, 22(1), 58–69. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvoice.2006.07.004

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hauptmann, B. R. (1935). Die Lebenserinnerungen von Bruno Richard Hauptmann. In R. Dantz & F. Oehl (Eds.), Jahrhundertverbrechen-Bruno Richard Hauptmann und die Entführung des Lindbergh-Babys (pp. 53–203). Saxophon Verlag.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hazen, K. (2006). Idiolect. In K. Brown (Ed.), Encyclopedia of language & linguistics (Vol. 5, 2nd ed.). Elsevier.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hollien, H. (1990). The acoustics of crime. Springe.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hollien, H. (2002). Forensic voice identification. Academic.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hollien, H., Huntley-Bahr, R., & Harnsberger, J. D. (2014). Issues in forensic voice. Journal of Voice, 28(2), 170–184.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hollien, H., & McGlone, R. E. (1976). The effect of disguise on ῾voiceprintʼ identification. Journal of Criminal Defense, 2, 117–130.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hudson, T., de Jong, G., McDougall, K., Harrison, P., & Nolan, F. (2007). F0 statistics for 100 young male speakers of Standard Southern British English. In J. Trouvain (Ed.), Proceedings of the 16th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences (pp. 1809–1812). Saarbrücken, Germany.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hughes, S. M., & Rhodes, B. C. (2010). Making age assessments based on voice: The impact of the reproductive viability of the speaker. Journal of Social, Evolutionary, and Cultural Psychology, 4(4), 290–304. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0099282

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hughes, V., & Foulkes, P. (2014). The relevant population in forensic voice comparison: Effects of varying delimitations of social class and age. Speech Communication, 66. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.specom.2014.10.006

  • Huntley, R., Hollien, H., & Shipp, T. (1987). Influences of listener characteristics on perceived age estimations. Journal of Voice, 1(1), 49–52. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0892-1997(87)80024-3

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Huys, T., & Krabbé, T. (Producers). (2019, November 18). De schrijver, de moordenaar en zijn vrouw, [Television broadcast]. : BNNVARA.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jessen, M. (2007). Forensic reference data on articulation rate in German. Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society, 47(2), 50–67.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Jessen, M. (2008). Forensic phonetics. Language and Linguistics Compass, 2, 671–711.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Jessen, M. (2010). The forensic phonetician: Forensic speaker identification by experts. In M. Coulthard & A. Johnson (Eds.), The Routledge handbook of forensic linguistics (pp. 378–394). Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jessen, M. (2011). Conclusions on voice comparison evidence in Germany and a challenging case.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jessen, M. (2012). Phonetische und linguistische Prinzipien des forensischen Stimmenvergleichs. LINCOM.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jessen, M., Koster, O., & Gfroerer, S. (2005). Influence of vocal effort on average and variability of fundamental frequency. The International Journal of Speech, Language and the Law, 12(2), 174–213. https://doi.org/10.1558/sll.2005.12.2.174

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Johnson, C., & Hollien, H. (1984). Speaker identification utilizing selected temporal speech features. Journal of Phonetics, 12, 319–326.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kehrein, R. (2021, Juli 1). Wo kommt die/der denn her? Dialektkarten für das Speakerprofiling. Sprachspuren – Berichte aus dem Deutschen Sprach Atlas. Retrieved from https://www.sprachspuren.de/author/roland-kehrein/

  • Kersta, L. G. (1962). Voiceprint identification. Nature, 196, 1253–1257.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kluge, K., Müller M., Dubielzig, C., Meinerz C., & Masthoff, H. (2018). Distribution of voice quality features in German. Preliminary results. Poster presentation of the Conference of the International Association for Forensic Phonetics and Acoustics. Huddersfield, UK.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kohler, K. J. (1977). Einführung in der Phonetik des Deutschen. Erich Schmidt Verlag.

    Google Scholar 

  • Köster, O., Jessen, M., Khairi, F., & Eckert, H. (2007). Auditory-perceuptual identification of voice quality by expert and non-expert listeners.

    Google Scholar 

  • Köster, O., & Köster, J.-P. (2004). The auditory-perceptual evaluation of voice quality in forensic speaker recognition. The Phonetician, 89, 9–37.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kraayeveld, H. (1997). Idiosyncrasy in prosody. Speaker and speaker group identification in Dutch using melodic and temporal information. Doctoral thesis, Katholieke Universiteit Nijmegen, The Netherlands. Retrieved from https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/43592901.pdf

  • Kreiman, J., & Gerrat, B. (2011). Comparing two methods for reducing variability in voice quality measurements. Journal of Speech Language and Hearing Research, 54, 803–812.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Künzel, H. J. (1987). Sprechererkennung: Grundzüge forensischer Sprachverarbeitung. Heidelberg: Kriminalistik Verlag.

    Google Scholar 

  • Künzel, H. J. (1990). Phonetische Untersuchungen zur Sprechererkennung durch linguistisch naive Personen, Zeitschrift für Dialektologie und Linguistik, 69. Steiner Verlag.

    Google Scholar 

  • Künzel, H. J. (1997). Some general phonetic and forensic aspects of speaking tempo. Forensic Linguistics, 4, 48–83.

    Google Scholar 

  • Künzel, H. J. (2003). Die forensische Sprachverarbeitung. Ein Überblick über den gegenwärtigen Stand. Kriminalistik, 57, 676–684.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lander, E. S. (1989). DNA fingerprinting on trial. Nature, 339(6225), 501–505. https://doi.org/10.1038/339501a0

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Laver, J. (1980). The phonetic description of voice quality. Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Laver, J. (1994). Principles of phonetics. Cambridge University Press.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Lindbergh, C. A. (1953). The spirit of St. Louis. Scribner.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lindh, J. (2006). Preliminary descriptive F0-statistics for young male speakers. Lund University Working Papers, 52, 89–92.

    Google Scholar 

  • Martin, S., de Jong-Lendle, G., Duckworth, M., & Kehrein, R. (2021). The variability of stuttering: A forensic phonetic study. Poster presented at the IAFPA conference in Marburg, August.

    Google Scholar 

  • McDougall, K. (2004). Speaker-specific formant dynamics: An experiment on Australian English /aI/. The International Journal of Speech, Language and the Law, 11(1), 103–130. https://doi.org/10.1558/sll.2004.11.1.103

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • McDougall, K. (2006). Dynamic features of speech and the characterisation of speakers: Towards a new approach using formant frequencies. The International Journal of Speech, Language and the Law, 13, 89–126.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • McDougall, K., & Duckworth, M. (2017). Profiling fluency: An analysis of individual variation in disfluencies in adult males. Speech Communication, 95, 16–27. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.specom.2017.10.001

  • McGehee, F. (1937). The reliability of the identification of the human voice. Journal of General Psychology, 17, 249–271.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • McGehee, F. (1944). An experimental study of voice recognition. Journal of General Psychology, 31, 53–65.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Mnookin, J. L. (2007). People V. Castro: Challenging the forensic use of DNA evidence. Journal of Scholarly Perspectives, 3(1). https://escholarship.org/uc/item/362776cz

  • Morrison, G., Sahito, F., Jardine, G., Djokic, D., Clavet, S., Berghs, S., & Dorny, C. (2016). INTERPOL survey of the use of speaker identification by law enforcement agencies. Forensic Science International, 263, 92–100. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2016.03.044

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Morrison, G. S. (2010). Forensic voice comparison. In I. Freckelton, & H. Selby (Eds.), Expert evidence (pp. 1–106). Thomson Reuters.

    Google Scholar 

  • Morrison, G. S., Ochoa, F., & Tharmarajah, T. (2012). Database selection for forensic voice comparison. Proceedings of Odyssey 2012: The Language and Speaker Recognition Workshop.

    Google Scholar 

  • Moyse, E. (2014). Age estimation from faces and voices: A review. Psychologica Belgica, 54(3), 255–265. https://doi.org/10.5334/pb.aq

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Nagao, K. (2006). Cross-language study of age perception. Unpublished doctoral thesis, Indiana University, USA.

    Google Scholar 

  • Nawka, T., & Anders, L. C. (1996). Die auditive Bewertung heiserer Stimmen nach dem RBH-System.

    Google Scholar 

  • Nederlands Forensisch Instituut. (2016). Vakbijlage – vergelijkend spraakonderzoek. Retrieved from https://www.forensischinstituut.nl/publicaties/publicaties/2020/02/03/vakbijlage-vergelijkend-spraakonderzoek

  • Nederlands Forensisch Instituut. (2017). De reeks waarschijnlijkheidstermen van het NFI en het Bayesiaanse model voor interpretatie van bewijs. Vakbijlage (Versie 2.2 mei 2017).

    Google Scholar 

  • Neiman, G. S., & Applegate, J. A. (1990). Accuracy of listener judgments of perceived age relative to chronological age in adults. Folia Phoniatrica et Logopaedica, 42(6), 327–330. https://doi.org/10.1159/000266090

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Nolan, F. (1983). The phonetic bases of speaker recognition. Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Nolan, F. (1991). Forensic phonetics. Journal of Linguistics, 27, 483–493.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Nolan, F. (1997). Speaker recognition and forensic phonetics. In W. Hardcastle, & J. Laver (Eds.), The handbook of phonetic sciences (pp. 744–767). Blackwell.

    Google Scholar 

  • Nolan, F. (2001). Speaker identification evidence: Its forms, limitation, and roles. In Proceedings of the Conference on Law and Language: Prospects and Retrospect (pp. 1–19). Levi, Finnland.

    Google Scholar 

  • Nolan, F. (2003). A recent voice parade. The International Journal of Speech, Language and the Law—Forensic Linguistics, 10(2), 277–291. https://doi.org/10.1558/sll.2003.10.2.277

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Nolan, F. (2005). Forensic speaker identification and the phonetic description of voice quality. In W. J. Hardcastle, & J. Mackenzie Beck (Eds.), A figure of speech (pp. 385–413). Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Nolan, F., McDougall, K., De Jong, G., & Hudson, T. (2009). The DyViS database: Style-controlled recordings of 100 homogeneous speakers for forensic phonetic research. International Journal of Speech Language and the Law, 16(1), 31–57. https://doi.org/10.1558/ijsll.v16i1.31

    Google Scholar 

  • Orton, H., & Halliday, W. J. (Eds.). (1962). Survey of English dialects basic material: Vol. 1, The six northern counties and the Isle of Man. E. J. Arnold.

    Google Scholar 

  • Orton, H., Sanderson, S., & Widdowson, J. (Eds.). (1978). The linguistic atlas of England. Croom Helm.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pfitzinger, H. R. (2001). Phonetische Analyse der Sprechgeschwindigkeit. Forschungsberichte des Instituts für Phonetik und sprachliche Kommunikation, 38, 117–264.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pike, K. L. (1945). The intonation of American English. University of Michigan Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Potter, R. (1945). Visible patterns of sound. Science, 102(2654), 463–470. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1673144

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Potter, R., Kopp, K., & Green, H. (1947). Visible speech (Bell telephone laboratories series). D. Van Nostrand Company.

    Google Scholar 

  • Poza, F., & Begault, D., & (2005). Voice identification and elimination using aural-spectrographic protocols. Proceedings of the Audio Engineering Society Conference, Denver, USA.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ptok, M., Natke, U., & Oertle, H. M. (2006). The management of stammering. Deutsches Arzteblatt, 103, 1216–1221.

    Google Scholar 

  • R. v. Anthony O’Doherty. (2002). Court of appeal in Northern Ireland. Ref: NICB3173.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ramus, F., Nespor, M., & Mehler, J. (1999). Correlates of linguistic rhythm in the speech signal. Cognition, 73, 265–292.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Reich, A. R., Moll, K. L., & Curtis, J. F. (1976). Effects of selected vocal disguises upon spectrographic speaker identification. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 60, 919–925.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Rietveld, A. C. M., & Broeders, A. P. A. (1991). Testing the fairness of voice parades: The similarity criterion. In Proceedings of the International Congress of Phonetic Sciences (pp. 46–49). Aix-en-Provence, France.

    Google Scholar 

  • Riley, G. (2009). The stuttering severity instrument for adults and children (SSI-4) (4th ed.). PRO-ED.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rinke, P., Beier, K., Kaul, R., Schmidt, T., Scharinger, M., & DeJong-Lendle, G. (2021). Neurophysiological evidences for automatic speaker recognition: Neural correlates of voice familiarity. In Talk Presented at the International Association for Forensic Phonetics and Acoustics Annual Conference, Marburg, Germany.

    Google Scholar 

  • Robertson, B., & Vignaux, G. A. (1995). Interpreting evidence. Wiley.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rodrigues, P., & Nagao, K. (2010). Effects of listener experience with foreign accent on perception of accentedness and speaker age. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 127(3), 1956. https://doi.org/10.1121/1.3384968

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Rose, P. (2002). Forensic speaker identification. Taylor & Francis.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Rothman, H. B. (1977). Perceptual (aural) and spectrographic identification of talkers with similar-sounding voices. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Crime Countermeasures (pp. 37–42). Oxford, UK.

    Google Scholar 

  • Samuel, A. G. (1981). The role of bottom-up confirmation in the phonemic restoration illusion. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 7(5), 1124–1131. https://doi.org/10.1037/0096-1523.7.5.1124

    Google Scholar 

  • San Segundo, E., Foulkes, P., French, P., Harrison, P., Hughes, V., & Kavanagh, C. (2019). The use of the vocal profile analysis for speaker characterization: Methodological proposals. Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 49(3), 353–380. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0025100318000130

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Schmidt, J. E., Herrgen, J., Kehrein, R., & Lameli, A. (Eds.) (2008). Regionalsprache.de (REDE). Forschungsplattform zu den modernen Regionalsprachen des Deutschen. Retrieved from https://regionalsprache.de

  • Schubert, A., & Sendlmeier, W. (2005). Was kennzeichnet einen guten Nachrichtensprecher im Hörfunk? Eine perzeptive und akustische Analyse von Stimme und Sprechweise. In W. Sendlmeier (Ed.), Sprechwirkung – Sprechstile in Funk und ernsehen (pp. 13–69). Logos.

    Google Scholar 

  • Schwartz, R. (2006). Voiceprints in the United States – Why they won’t go away. In J. Lindh, & A. Erikson (Eds.) Proceedings of the International Association of Forensic Phonetics and Acoustics Conference, Sweden.

    Google Scholar 

  • Seelmann-Eggebert, K. (Producer). (2012, 7th March). Kamenz und das Lindbergh Baby [Television broadcast]. Hamburg, Germany: Spiegel TV.

    Google Scholar 

  • Shipp, T., & Hollien, H. (1969). Perception of the aging male voice. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 12, 703–710.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Shipp, T., Qi, Y., Huntley, R., & Hollien, H. (1992). Acoustic and temporal correlates of perceived age. Journal of Voice, 6, 211–216.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Skoog Waller, S. (2021). Accuracy and confidence in estimation of speaker age. International Journal of Speech Language and The Law, 27, 2. https://doi.org/10.1558/ijsll.39700

  • Solan, L. M., & Tiersma, P. M. (2003). Hearing voices: Speaker identification in court. Hastings Law Journal, 54, 373–435.

    Google Scholar 

  • Solan, L. M., & Tiersma, P. M. (2005). Speaking of crime: The language of criminal justice. University of Chicago Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sporer, S. L. (1982). A brief history of the psychology of testimony. Current Psychological Reviews, 2, 323–340.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Stacey, R. B. (2004). Report on the erroneous fingerprint individualization in the Madrid train bombing case. The Journal of Forensic Identification, 54(6), 706–718.

    Google Scholar 

  • State v. Hauptmann, Atlantic Rep. (1935). 180, 809-829.

    Google Scholar 

  • Stotland, D. M., & Brown, G. O. (1978). Voiceprints. Dalhousie Law Journal, 4(3), 708–738.

    Google Scholar 

  • Thompson, C. (1985). Voice identification: Speaker identifiability and a correction of the record regarding sex effects. Human Learning, 4, 19–27.

    Google Scholar 

  • Thompson, W. C. (1995). Subjective interpretation, laboratory error and the value of forensic DNA evidence: Three case studies. In B. S. Weir (Ed.), Human identification: The use of DNA markers (Contemporary issues in genetics and evolution (CIGE)) (Vol. 4, pp. 153–168). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-306-46851-3_17

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Thompson, W. C., & Schumann, E. L. (1987). Interpretation of statistical evidence in criminal trials. Law and Human Behavior, 11, 167–187. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01044641

  • Tosi, O., Oyer, H., & Nash, E. (1972). Latest developments in voice identification. Abstract. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 51, 132.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Trouvain, J. (2014). Laughing, breathing clicking—The prosody of nonverbal vocalisations. In N. Campbell, D. Gibbon, & D. J. Hirst (Eds.), Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Speech Prosody (SP7) (pp. 598–602). Trinity College.

    Google Scholar 

  • Trouvain, J., Fauth, C., & Möbius, B. (2016). Breath and non-breath pauses in fluent and disfluent phases of German and French L1 and L2 Read Speech. Proceedings of the 8th Conference on Speech Prosody. Boston.

    Google Scholar 

  • Van Riper, C. (1973). The treatment of stuttering. Prentice Hall.

    Google Scholar 

  • Voelkle, M. C., Ebner, N. C., Lindenberger, U., & Riediger, M. (2012). Let me guess how old you are: Effects of age, gender, and facial expression on perceptions of age. Psychology and Aging, 27(2), 265–277. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0025065

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Warren, R. M. (1970). Perceptual restoration of missing speech sounds. Science, 392–393.

    Google Scholar 

  • Watt, D. (2010). The identification of the individual through speech. In C. Llamas, & D. Watt (Eds.), Language and identities (pp. 76–85). Edinburgh University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wells, G. L., & Loftus, E. F. (1984). Eyewitness research: Then and now. In G. L. Wells & E. F. Loftus (Eds.), Eyewitness testimony: Psychological perspectives (pp. 1–11). New York.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wiese, H. (2012). Kiezdeutsch. Ein neuer Dialekt entsteht. C. H. Beck.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Xue, A., & Hao, J. G. (2006). Normative standards for vocal tract dimensions by race as measured by acoustic pharyngometry. Journal of Voice, 20, 391–400.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Yairi, E., & Ambrose, N. (1999). Early childhood stuttering I: Persistency and recovery rates. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 42, 1097–1012.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Yairi, E., & Ambrose, N. (2013). Epidemiology of stuttering: 21st century advances. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 38, 66–87.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Yarmey, A. D. (1995). Earwitness speaker identification. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 1, 792–816.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Yarmey, A. D. (2007). The psychology of speaker identification and earwitness memory. In R. C. L. Lindsay, D. F. Ross, J. D. Read, & M. Toglia (Eds.), Handbook of eyewitness psychology: Memory for people, 2 (pp. 101–136). Erlbaum.

    Google Scholar 

  • Yarmey, A. D., Yarmey, M. J., & Todd, L. (2008). Frances McGehee (1912–2004): The first earwitness researcher. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 106(2), 387–394. https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.106.2.387-394

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

I am grateful to the editors for comments on an earlier draft of this article. Any errors remain my own.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Gea de Jong-Lendle .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2022 The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG

About this chapter

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this chapter

de Jong-Lendle, G. (2022). Speaker Identification. In: Guillén-Nieto, V., Stein, D. (eds) Language as Evidence. Palgrave Macmillan, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-84330-4_9

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-84330-4_9

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Palgrave Macmillan, Cham

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-030-84329-8

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-030-84330-4

  • eBook Packages: Social SciencesSocial Sciences (R0)