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Introduction to Solid Waste Management

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Solid Waste Engineering and Management

Part of the book series: Handbook of Environmental Engineering ((HEE,volume 23))


An increase in population growth, industrial development, and urbanization has led to increasing solid waste generation. Complications associated with solid waste can be dated back to ancient history. The waste produced and collected in an urban area is called municipal solid waste (MSW), mainly associated with the wastes produced from domestic, industrial, commercial, and institutional areas. The amount and composition of waste vary by country. New and effective strategies are generally needed to design urbanization models, and policies are required for effective solid waste management. All aspects of waste storage, collection, transportation, sorting, disposal, and related management are included in solid waste management. It does not stop after collection only, but what needs to be done with the wastes is part of the important aspects of the whole management protocol. Basic waste data are included in this chapter. These include their types, sources, quantity, and compositions. Next, the functional elements of the waste management system are discussed, which among others, includes the aspects of storage, collection, transportation, recovery and processing, composting, thermal treatment, and the final disposal. The legislation related to waste is also discussed, followed by the descriptions of the integrated solid waste management.

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Correspondence to Hamidi Abdul Aziz .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations


US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)

is the United States federal government agency whose mission is to protect human and environmental health.

Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)

is the process of examining the anticipated environmental effects of a proposed project from consideration of environmental aspects at the design stage

American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)

is an American professional association that promotes the art, science, and practise of multidisciplinary engineering and allied sciences around the world.

Cost–benefit analysis (CBA)

is a systematic process that businesses use to analyse which decisions to make.

Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)

is a methodology for assessing environmental impacts associated with all the stages of the life cycle of a commercial product, process, or service.

Material Flow Analysis (MFA)

is an analytical method to quantify flows and stocks of materials in a system.

Socio-economic Assessment (SoEA)

is the analysis of social, cultural, economic, and political conditions of individuals, groups, communities and organizations.

Risk Assessment (RA)

is the process of identifying and analysing potential events that may negatively impact individuals or the environment and making judgements on the tolerability of the risk on the basis of a risk analysis.

Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA)

is a systematic decision support process aiming to ensure that environmental and possibly other sustainability aspects are considered effectively in policy, plan, and programme making.

Resource Conservation And Recovery Act (RCRA)

is the principal federal law in the United States governing the disposal of solid waste and hazardous waste, which was enacted in 1976.

United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)

is the leading environmental authority in the United Nations system.

Volatile fatty acids (VFA)

are short-chain fatty acids composed mainly of C2–C6 carboxylic acids produced in the anaerobic digestion process, which does not need sterilization, additional hydrolysis enzymes, or high-cost pre-treatment step.

Air Pollution Control Residues (APCr)

is typically a mixture of ash, carbon, and lime.

Brominated flame retardants (BFR)

are mixtures of man-made chemicals that are added to a wide variety of products, including for industrial use, to make them less flammable.

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC)

are fully or partly halogenated paraffin hydrocarbons that contain only carbon (C), hydrogen (H), chlorine (Cl), and fluorine (F), produced as a volatile derivative of methane, ethane, and propane.

Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFC)

are compounds containing carbon, hydrogen, chlorine, and fluorine.

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Aziz, H.A., Abu Amr, S.S., Vesilind, P.A., Wang, L.K., Hung, YT. (2021). Introduction to Solid Waste Management. In: Wang, L.K., Wang, MH.S., Hung, YT. (eds) Solid Waste Engineering and Management. Handbook of Environmental Engineering, vol 23. Springer, Cham.

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