Skip to main content

Introduction to Solid Waste Management

  • Chapter
  • First Online:
Solid Waste Engineering and Management

Part of the book series: Handbook of Environmental Engineering ((HEE,volume 23))

Abstract

An increase in population growth, industrial development, and urbanization has led to increasing solid waste generation. Complications associated with solid waste can be dated back to ancient history. The waste produced and collected in an urban area is called municipal solid waste (MSW), mainly associated with the wastes produced from domestic, industrial, commercial, and institutional areas. The amount and composition of waste vary by country. New and effective strategies are generally needed to design urbanization models, and policies are required for effective solid waste management. All aspects of waste storage, collection, transportation, sorting, disposal, and related management are included in solid waste management. It does not stop after collection only, but what needs to be done with the wastes is part of the important aspects of the whole management protocol. Basic waste data are included in this chapter. These include their types, sources, quantity, and compositions. Next, the functional elements of the waste management system are discussed, which among others, includes the aspects of storage, collection, transportation, recovery and processing, composting, thermal treatment, and the final disposal. The legislation related to waste is also discussed, followed by the descriptions of the integrated solid waste management.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Chapter
USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
eBook
USD 129.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Hardcover Book
USD 169.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

Similar content being viewed by others

Abbreviations

APCr:

Air Pollution Control Residues

ASME:

American Society of Mechanical Engineers

C&I:

Commercial and industrial

C&D:

Construction and demolition

CBA:

Cost-Benefit Analysis

BFR:

Brominated flame retardants

CFC:

Chlorofluorocarbons

HCFC:

Hydrochlorofluorocarbons,

EIA:

Environmental Impact Assessment

EPA:

Environmental Protection Act

EU:

European Union

HFA:

Humic and fulvic acids

ISWM:

Integrated solid waste management

LCA:

Life Cycle Assessment

MSW:

Municipal solid waste

MFA:

Material Flow Analysis

PWCS:

Pneumatic waste conveyance system

RCRA:

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

RA:

Risk Assessment

RMA:

Rubber Modified Asphalt

SEA:

Strategic Environmental Assessment

SoEA:

Socio-economic Assessment

SA:

Sustainable Assessment

S/S:

Solidification/stabilization

TDA:

Tyre-Derived Aggregate

UNEP:

United Nations Environment Programme

US:

United States

USEPA:

US Environmental Protection Agency

UK:

United Kingdom

VFA:

Volatile fatty acids

%:

Percentage

$:

American dollar

Per capita:

head/person or individual

References

  1. USEPA-US Environmental Protection Agency. (2013). Waste-hazardous waste-waste minimisation [Online]. Available from http://www.epa.gov/waste/hazard/wastemin/index.htm. Accessed 22 Mar 2021.

  2. USEPA-US Environmental Protection Agency. (2021a). Criteria for the definition of solid waste and solid and hazardous waste exclusions [Online]. Available from https://www.epa.gov/hw/criteria-definition-solid-waste-and-solid-and-hazardous-waste-exclusions. Accessed 22 Mar 2021.

  3. USEPA-US Environmental Protection Agency. (2020). Advancing sustainable materials management: 2018: Tables and figures, November.

    Google Scholar 

  4. HKEPD-Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department. (2020). Monitoring of solid waste in Hong Kong Waste statistics for 2019, Statistics Unit, Environmental Protection Department, Hong Kong, December 2020.

    Google Scholar 

  5. IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, the 2019 Refinement was considered in May 2019 during the IPCC’s 49th Session (Kyoto, Japan) and adopted/accepted on 12 May 2019 (Decision – IPCC-XLIX-9 – Adoption and Acceptance of 2019 refinement). Accessed online on 26 July 2020.

    Google Scholar 

  6. OECD-Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. (2021). Municipal waste generation and treatment [Online]. Available from. https://stats.oecd.org/Index.aspx?DataSetCode=WSECTOR. Accessed 22 Mar 2021.

  7. Eurostat. (2021). Municipal waste statistics [Online]. Available from https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php?%20title=Municipal_waste_statistics&oldid=343958%20. Accessed 22 Mar 2021.

  8. Kaza, S., Yao, L., Bhada-Tata, P., & Van Woerden, F. (2018). What a waste 2.0: A global snapshot of solid waste management to 2050 (Urban Development Series). World Bank. https://doi.org/10.1596/978-1-4648-1329-0. License: Creative Commons Attribution CC BY 3.0 IGO.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  9. UNEP-United Nations Environment Programme. (2017). Highlights Asia waste management outlook-Summary for decision maker. Nairobi, Kenya.

    Google Scholar 

  10. Abdel-Shafy, H. I., & Mansour, M. S. M. (2018). Solid waste issue: Sources, composition, disposal, recycling, and valorization. Egyptian Journal of Petroleum. (in press).

    Google Scholar 

  11. Buttol, P., Masoni, P., Bonoli, A., Goldoni, S., Belladonna, V., & Cavazzuti, C. (2007). LCA of integrated MSW management systems: Case study of the Bologna District. Waste Management, 27(8), 1059–1070.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. Hui, Z., AiHong, M., YanQiu, L., QingHai, L., & YanGuo, Z. (2014). An overview of characteristics of municipal solid waste fuel in China: Physical, chemical composition and heating value. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 36, 107–122. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2014.04.024

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. USEPA-US Environmental Protection Agency. (2021b). Wastes-non-hazardous waste-industrial waste [Online]. Available from https://archive.epa.gov/epawaste/nonhaz/industrial/special/web/html/index-5.html. Accessed 22 Mar 2021.

  14. Pashkevich, M. A. (2017). Chapter 1 – Classification and environmental impact of mine dumps, author links open overlay panel. In Assessment, restoration and reclamation of mining influenced soils (pp. 1–32). Academic.

    Google Scholar 

  15. Collins, R. J., & Ciesielski, S. K. (1994). Recycling and use of waste materials and by-products in highway construction. In National cooperative highway research program synthesis of highway practice 199. Transportation Research Board.

    Google Scholar 

  16. USEPA-US Environmental Protection Agency (1985). Report to Congress on wastes from the extraction and beneficiation of metallic ores, phosphate rock, asbestos, overburden from uranium mining, and oil shale. Report No. EPA/530-SW-85-033,

    Google Scholar 

  17. Bowdish, L. (2016). Trash to treasure: Changing waste streams to profit streams, U.S (p. 21). Chamber of Commerce Foundation.

    Google Scholar 

  18. Food & Water Watch. (2021). Factory farm map: What’s wrong with factory farms? [Online]. Available from http://www.factoryfarmmap.org/problems/. Accessed 22 Mar 2021.

  19. Palese, A. M., Persiani, A., D’Adamo, C., Pergola, M., Pastore, V., Sileo, R., Ippolito, G., Lombardi, M. A., & Celano, G. (2020). Composting as manure disposal strategy in small/medium-size livestock farms: Some demonstrations with operative indications. Sustainability, 2020(12), 3315. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12083315

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Quest. (2021). [Online]. Available from https://www.questrmg.com/2019/08/08/food-waste-statistics-the-reality-of-food-waste/. Accessed 22 Mar 2021.

  21. Simão, L., Hotza, D., Raupp-Pereira, F., Labrincha, J. A., & Montedo, O. R. K. (2018). Wastes from pulp and paper mills – A review of generation and recycling alternatives. Cerâmica, 64(371).

    Google Scholar 

  22. Labfresh. (2021). [Online]. Available from https://labfresh.eu/pages/fashion-waste-index. Accessed 22 Mar 2021.

  23. USEPA-US Environmental Protection Agency. (2021c). Facts and figures about materials, waste and recycling- wood: Material-specific data [Online]. Available from https://www.epa.gov/facts-and-Fig.s-about-materials-waste-and-recycling/wood-material-specific-data. Accessed 22 Mar 2021.

  24. Ed Suttie. (2004). Wood waste management-UK update, final workshop COST Action E22 ‘Environmental optimisation of wood protection’, Lisbon-Portugal, 22nd – 23rd March.

    Google Scholar 

  25. FPA. (2019). State of industry report, flexible packaging association, September 2019 [Online]. Available from https://www.packworld.com/home/news/15693115/fpa-publishes-2019-state-of-the-flexible-packaging-industry-report. Accessed 22 Mar 2021.

  26. Scotia Bank. (2021). Global economics|Global Auto Report, January 27, 2021 [Online]. Available from https://www.scotiabank.com/ca/en/about/economics/economics-publications/post.other-publications.autos.global-auto-report.january-27-2021.html. Accessed 22 Mar 2021.

  27. Statisca. (2019). U.S. paper products market value 2015–2025, Statisca, November 2019 [Online]. Available from https://www.statista.com/statistics/1066665/us-paper-products-market-value/. Accessed 22 Mar 2021.

  28. Statisca. (2021). Waste statistics in Abu Dhabi Emirates, July 2020 [Online]. Available from https://www.statista.com/statistics/895550/uae-total-solid-waste-generated/. Accessed 22 Mar 2021.

  29. Poon, C. S., Yu, A. T. W., Wong, A., & Yip, R. (2013). Quantifying the impact of construction waste charging scheme on construction waste management in Hong Kong. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 139(5), 466–479. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)CO.1943-7862.0000631. hdl:10397/6714. ISSN:1943-7862.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Wang, Y., Zhang, X., Liao, W., Wu, J., Yang, X., Shui, W., Deng, S., Zhang, Y., Lin, L., Xiao, Y., Yu, X., & Peng, H. (2018). Investigating impact of waste re-use on the sustainability of municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration industry using energy approach: A case study from Sichuan Province, China. Waste Management, 77, 252–267. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2018.04.003

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. European Commission. (2018). EU construction and demolition waste protocol and guidelines. Internal Market, Industry, Entrepreneurship and SMEs-European Commission [Online]. Available from https://ec.europa.eu/growth/content/eu-construction-and-demolition-waste-protocol-0_en. Accessed 22 Mar 2021.

  32. CIS-Construction Industry Scheme. (2021). GOV.UK [Online]. Available from https://www.gov.uk/what-is-the-construction-industry-scheme. Accessed 22 Mar 2021.

  33. Yu, A., Poon, C., Wong, A., Yip, R., & Jaillon, L. (2013). Impact of construction waste disposal charging scheme on work practices at construction sites in Hong Kong. Waste Management, 33(1), 138–146. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2012.09.023. hdl:10397/6713. S2CID 20266040.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. CIDB. (2008). Guidelines on construction waste management. Construction Industry Development Board Malaysia.

    Google Scholar 

  35. Forti, V., Baldé, C. P., Kuehr, R., & Bel, G. (2020). The Global E-waste Monitor: Quantities, flows and the circular economy potential. United Nations University (UNU)/United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR)-Co-Hosted SCYCLE Programme, International Telecommunication Union (ITU) & International Solid Waste Association (ISWA), Bonn/Geneva/Rotterdam.

    Google Scholar 

  36. Cho, R. (2018). What can we do about the growing e-waste problem? General Earth Institute, August 27, 2018 [Online]. Available from https://blogs.ei.columbia.edu/2018/08/27/growing-E-waste-problem/. Accessed 22 Mar 2021.

  37. Agence nationale pour la gestion des déchets radioactifs. (2020). Édition 2018 de l’inventaire national des matières et déchets radioactifs l’Essentiel 2020 (p. 15). Agence nationale pour la gestion des déchets radioactifs, April 2020.

    Google Scholar 

  38. JAEA – The Japan Atomic Energy Agency. (2019). White paper on nuclear energy 2019 (p. 276). JAEA, August 2020 [Online]. Available from http://www.aec.go.jp/jicst/NC/about/hakusho/index_e.htm. Accessed 22 Mar 2021.

  39. World Nuclear Association. (2021). Storage and disposal of radioactive waste [Online]. Available from https://www.world-nuclear.org/information-library/nuclear-fuel-cycle/nuclear-waste/storage-and-disposal-of-radioactivE-waste.aspx. Accessed 22 Mar 2021.

  40. Marine Conservation Society. (2019). Great British Beach clean 2019 report, November 2019.

    Google Scholar 

  41. Mohajerani, A., Burnett, L., Smith, J. V., Markovski, S., Rodwell, G., Rahman, T., Kurmus, H., Mirzababaei, M., Arulrajah, A., Horpibulsuk, S., et al. (2020). Recycling waste rubber tyres in construction materials and associated environmental considerations: A review. Resources, Conservation & Recycling, 155, 104679.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. Morin, J. E., & Farris, R. J. (2000). Recycling of 100% cross linked rubber powder by high temperature high pressure sintering. Encyclopedia of Polymer Science and Engineering, 37, 95–101.

    Google Scholar 

  43. ISRI. (2019). Recycling industry yearbook 2019.

    Google Scholar 

  44. Macie, S., Justyna, K. L., Helena, J., & Adolf, B. (2012). Progress in used tyres management in the European Union: A review. Waste Management, 32(10), 1742–1751. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2012.05.010

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  45. Fazli, A., & Rodrigue, D. (2020). Waste rubber recycling: A review on the evolution and properties of thermoplastic elastomers. Materials, 13, 782. Imbernon, L., & Norvez, S. (2016). From landfilling to vitrimer chemistry in rubber life cycle. European Polymer Journal, 82, 347–376.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  46. Saha, P. (2018). Rubber recycling: Challenges and developments. Royal Society of Chemistry.

    Google Scholar 

  47. Chatziaras, N., Psomopoulos, C. S., & Themelis, N. J. (2016). Use of waste derived fuels in cement industry: A review. Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, 27(2), 178–193.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  48. Mangi, S. A., Wan Ibrahim, M. H., Jamaluddin, N., Arshad, M. F., & Mudjanarko, S. W. (2019). Recycling of coal ash in concrete as a partial cementitious resource. Resources, 8, 99. https://doi.org/10.3390/resources8020099

    Article  Google Scholar 

  49. Dwivedi, A., & Jain, M. K. (2014). Fly ash-waste management and overview: A review. Recent Research in Science and Technology, 6(1), 30–35.

    Google Scholar 

  50. Hannan, J. (2021). Chemical makeup of fly and bottom ash varies significantly; must be analyzed before recycled. ThermoFisher Scientific [Online]. Available from https://www.thermofisher.com/blog/mining/chemical-makeup-of-fly-and-bottom-ash-varies-significantly-must-be-analyzed-before-recycled/#:~:text=The%20European%20Coal%20Combustion%20Products,of%20fly%20ash%20at%2043%25.&text=The%20chemical%20makeup%20of%20fly,of%20the%20coal%20being%20burned. Accessed 22 Mar 2021.

  51. Airquality news.com. (2021). Rule change sought on Air Pollution Control residues [Online]. Available from https://airqualitynews.com/2016/04/14/rule-change-sought-on-air-pollution-control-residues/#:~:text=What%20is%20Air%20Pollution%20Control,to%20a%20non%2Dhazardous%20landfill. Accessed 22 Mar 2021.

  52. Karagiannidis, A., Samaras, P., Kasampalis, T., Perkoulidis, G., Ziogasa, P., & Zorpas, A. (2011). Evaluation of sewage sludge production and utilization in Greece in the frame of integrated energy recovery. Desalination and Water Treatment, 33, 185–193.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  53. IWA. (2021). Sludge production [Online]. Available from https://www.iwapublishing.com/news/sludge-production. Accessed 22 Mar 2021.

  54. Yang, G., Zhang, G., & Wang, H. (2015). Current state of sludge production, management, treatment and disposal in China. Water Research. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2015.04.002

  55. Chandler, A. J., Eighmy, T. T., Hartlen, O., Kosson, D., Sawell, S. E., van der Sloot, H., & Vehlow, J. (1997). Municipal solid waste incinerator residues (Studies in Environmental Science, International Ash Working Group) (Vol. 67). Elsevier Science.

    Google Scholar 

  56. UK Department for Business. (2020). Energy and industrial strategy, digest of UK energy statistics: renewable sources of energy (DUKES 6.4), July.

    Google Scholar 

  57. Tinmaz, E., (2002). Research on integrated solid waste management system in Corlu Town. Master thesis, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey.

    Google Scholar 

  58. Recyclingbin.com. (2021). Recycling facts [Online]. Available from https://www.recyclingbin.com/Recycling-Facts#:~:text=Recycling%20Facts-,Paper,from%20the%20air%20each%20year. Accessed 22 Mar 2021.

  59. Tchobanoglous, G. H., & Theisen, S. V. (1993). Integrated solid waste management: Engineering principle and management issue. International Ed. McGraw – Hill Book Co.

    Google Scholar 

  60. Wilson, D. C., Cowing, M. J., Oelz, B., Scheinberg, A., Stretz, J., Velis, C. A., Rodic, L., Masterson, D., Vilches, R., & Whiteman, A. D. (2014). ‘Wasteaware’ benchmark indicators for integrated sustainable waste management in cities. Waste Management, 35, 329–342.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  61. Waste Collection Report. ISWA Working Group on Collection and Transportation Technology. (2007) [Online]. Available from https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Underground-Automated-Vacuum-Waste-Collection-for-(-Dixit-Rastogi/d8a662a748b2e1d19cb8f1962ef9d44b9ea21325. Accessed 22 Mar 2021.

  62. Chafer, M., Sole-Mauri, F., Sole, A., Boer, D., & Cabeza, L. F. (2019). Life cycle assessment (LCA) of a pneumatic municipal waste collection system compared to traditional truck collection. Sensitivity study of the influence of the energy source. Journal of Cleaner Production, 231, 1122–1135. with permission from Elsevier.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  63. Recycling Magazine. (2020). Best practices for construction waste management-trends, analyses, opinions and facts for the recycling industry. Recycling magazine 04/2020 [Online]. Available from https://www.recycling-magazine.com/ausgabe/recycling-magazine-04-2020/. Accessed 22 Mar 2021.

  64. OECD. (2021). Municipal waste, generation and treatment. OECD-The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development [Online]. Available from https://stats.oecd.org/Index.aspx?DataSetCode=MUNW#. Accessed 22 Mar 2021.

  65. Parvez, N., Agrawal, A., & Kumar, A. (2019). Solid waste management on a campus in a developing country: A study of the Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee. Recycling, 2019(4), 28. https://doi.org/10.3390/recycling4030028

    Article  Google Scholar 

  66. USEPA-US Environmental Protection Agency. (2021d). Sustainable management of food- types of composting and understanding the process [Online]. Available from https://www.epa.gov/sustainable-management-food/types-composting-and-understanding-process. Accessed 22 Mar 2021.

  67. Odeh, A., & Al-Sa’ed, R. (2018). Evaluation of windrow composting pilots for domestic organic waste amended by horse manure and biosolids. In 6th Balkans Joint Conference and Exhibition, 7–9 November 2018, Expocity Albania, Tirana, Albania.

    Google Scholar 

  68. Michaels, T., & Krishnan, K. (2018). Directory of waste to energy facilities. Energy Recovery Council US, October 2018.

    Google Scholar 

  69. Tolvik Consulting Limited, UK. (2020). Energy from waste statistics-2019, May.

    Google Scholar 

  70. Worldatlas. (2019). Largest landfills, waste sites, and trash dumps in the world [Online]. Available from https://www.worldatlas.com/articles/largest-landfills-waste-sites-and-trash-dumps-in-the-world.html. Accessed 22 Mar 2021.

  71. Eunomia. (2021). Recycling-who really leads the world? Identifying the world’s best municipal waste recyclers [Online]. Available from https://resource.co/sites/default/files/World%20Recycling%20League%20-%20Full%20Report%20-%20FINAL.pdf. Accessed 22 Mar 2021.

  72. Shehzad, A., Bashir, M. J. K., Sethupathi, S., & Lim, J. (2015). An overview of heavily polluted landfill leachate treatment using food waste as an alternative and renewable source of activated carbon. Process Safety and Environmental Protection, 6, 1–42. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psep.2015.09.005

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  73. Aziz, H. A., & Ramli, S. F. (2018). Recent development in sanitary landfilling and landfill leachate treatment in Malaysia. International Journal of Environmental Engineering, 9, 201–229. https://doi.org/10.1504/ijee.2018.10018737

    Article  Google Scholar 

  74. Costa, A. M., de Souza Marotta Alfaia, R. G., & Campos, J. C. (2019). Landfill leachate treatment in Brazil – An overview. Journal of Environmental Management, 232, 110–116. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2018.11.006

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  75. Pasalari, H., Farzadkia, M., Gholami, M., & Emamjomeh, M. M. (2019). Management of landfill leachate in Iran: Valorization, characteristics, and environmental approaches. Environmental Chemistry Letters, 17, 335–348. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10311-018-0804-x

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  76. WHO. (2014). Safe management of wastes from health-care activities. WHO.

    Google Scholar 

  77. Emery, A., Davies, A., Griffiths, A., & Williams, K. (2007). Environmental and economic modelling: A case study of municipal solid waste management scenarios in Wales. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 49(3), 244–263.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  78. Wang, L. K., & Pereira, N. C. (1980). Handbook of environmental engineering, Volume 2, Solid waste processing and resources recovery (480 pages). The Humana Press.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  79. Hung, Y. T., Wang, L. K., & Shammas, N. K. (2014). Handbook of environment and waste management: Land and groundwater pollution control (Vol. 2, 1091 pages). World Scientific.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  80. Wang, L. K., Wang, M. H. S., Hung, Y. T., & Shammas, N. K. (2016). Natural resources and control processes (493–623 pages). Springer.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  81. Hung, Y. T., Wang, L. K., & Shammas, N. K. (2020). Handbook of environment and waste management: Acid rain and greenhouse gas pollution control (Vol. 3, 770 pages). World Scientific.

    Book  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Hamidi Abdul Aziz .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Glossary

US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)

is the United States federal government agency whose mission is to protect human and environmental health.

Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)

is the process of examining the anticipated environmental effects of a proposed project from consideration of environmental aspects at the design stage

American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)

is an American professional association that promotes the art, science, and practise of multidisciplinary engineering and allied sciences around the world.

Cost–benefit analysis (CBA)

is a systematic process that businesses use to analyse which decisions to make.

Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)

is a methodology for assessing environmental impacts associated with all the stages of the life cycle of a commercial product, process, or service.

Material Flow Analysis (MFA)

is an analytical method to quantify flows and stocks of materials in a system.

Socio-economic Assessment (SoEA)

is the analysis of social, cultural, economic, and political conditions of individuals, groups, communities and organizations.

Risk Assessment (RA)

is the process of identifying and analysing potential events that may negatively impact individuals or the environment and making judgements on the tolerability of the risk on the basis of a risk analysis.

Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA)

is a systematic decision support process aiming to ensure that environmental and possibly other sustainability aspects are considered effectively in policy, plan, and programme making.

Resource Conservation And Recovery Act (RCRA)

is the principal federal law in the United States governing the disposal of solid waste and hazardous waste, which was enacted in 1976.

United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)

is the leading environmental authority in the United Nations system.

Volatile fatty acids (VFA)

are short-chain fatty acids composed mainly of C2–C6 carboxylic acids produced in the anaerobic digestion process, which does not need sterilization, additional hydrolysis enzymes, or high-cost pre-treatment step.

Air Pollution Control Residues (APCr)

is typically a mixture of ash, carbon, and lime.

Brominated flame retardants (BFR)

are mixtures of man-made chemicals that are added to a wide variety of products, including for industrial use, to make them less flammable.

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC)

are fully or partly halogenated paraffin hydrocarbons that contain only carbon (C), hydrogen (H), chlorine (Cl), and fluorine (F), produced as a volatile derivative of methane, ethane, and propane.

Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFC)

are compounds containing carbon, hydrogen, chlorine, and fluorine.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2021 Springer Nature Switzerland AG

About this chapter

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this chapter

Aziz, H.A., Abu Amr, S.S., Vesilind, P.A., Wang, L.K., Hung, YT. (2021). Introduction to Solid Waste Management. In: Wang, L.K., Wang, MH.S., Hung, YT. (eds) Solid Waste Engineering and Management. Handbook of Environmental Engineering, vol 23. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-84180-5_1

Download citation

Publish with us

Policies and ethics