Skip to main content

Informal Networks Among Immigrant Entrepreneurs: Case of Croatia

  • Chapter
  • First Online:
Informality, Labour Mobility and Precariousness

Abstract

This chapter investigates networking activities among ethnic entrepreneurs in Croatia, a former socialist economy with low rates of immigrants and an increasing emigration wave. Moreover, this study looks at the ways ethnic entrepreneurs use different network types to access different resources. Croatia has faced turbulent transitional environment and despite recent improvements, institutional framework is still not stimulating for entrepreneurs. Besides usual barriers for entrepreneurs, immigrant entrepreneurs face additional formal and informal barriers. Some of these are partly solved or diminished by using informal networks. Despite that fact, the informal networks are still underresearched in Southeastern Europe. There are several takeaways from this study. First, the informal networks appear to serve as substitutes to missing or insufficiently efficient institutions of the formal networks aimed at foreigners’ needs, entrepreneurs in this case. Second, the conclusion focuses on the role of the ‘extension’ of the expat groups that the ethnic entrepreneurs consider vital for their business establishment and development, but for their private life as well. These are mostly Croatian citizens, fluent in English, who are recognised as reliable local partners. Still, the general population in Croatia is relatively slow in integrating foreigners. Finally, in their informal networks, the ethnic entrepreneurs are used to in-group cooperation and support. That shall be utilised in further initiatives targeting them, particularly in mentoring and training programmes. This research contributes to the literature on informal networks of ethnic entrepreneurs in post-socialist European countries, more specifically in SEE countries with similar legacy and similar EU trajectory. Despite reliance on the most recent primary data from Croatia, this study shall have broader resonance for other (post-socialist) countries sharing similar development and migration-related pattern.

This research was partly implemented within the research project ‘Institutional support to the immigrant entrepreneurs in Croatia: socioeconomic and legal aspects’ funded by the University of Zagreb (short-term research grant in 2020).

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Chapter
USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
eBook
USD 99.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book
USD 129.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info
Hardcover Book
USD 129.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

Similar content being viewed by others

Notes

  1. 1.

    This also implies a mandatory membership fee.

  2. 2.

    None of the respondents is a member of the Chamber of Crafts as all of them own limited liability company.

  3. 3.

    Association representing businesses in Croatia, membership is paid, but voluntary (unlike Croatian Chamber of Commerce).

  4. 4.

    An illustration of the lack of public activities in English for the wider audience of foreigners: In November 2019, in the Facebook group Expats in Zagreb, there were several posts looking for ‘Frozen 2’ (extremely popular movie for kids) in English at any public place in Zagreb. No positive response was found among public announcements.

  5. 5.

    This finding is also confirmed by series of interviews with foreign entrepreneurs featured in the Total Croatia News at https://www.total-croatia-news.com/tag/croatia-foreign-entrepreneur.

References

  • ACT Group (2019). Social Entrepreneurship as an Enabling Environment for Migrants’ Employment and Integration. Interreg Central Europe SEE ME IN, Zagreb, September 2019.

    Google Scholar 

  • Aidis, R., Estrin, S., and Mickiewicz, T. (2008). Institutions and Entrepreneurship Development in Russia: A Comparative Perspective. Journal of Business Venturing, 23(6), 656–672.

    Google Scholar 

  • Aliaga-Isla, R., and Rialp, A. (2012). How Do Information and Experience Play a Role in the Discovery of Entrepreneurial Opportunities? The Case of Latin-American Immigrants in Barcelona. Latin American Business Review, 13(1), 59–80.

    Google Scholar 

  • Aliaga-Isla, R., and Rialp, A. (2013). Systematic Review of Immigrant Entrepreneurship Literature: Previous Findings and Ways Forward. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, 25(9–10), 819–844.

    Google Scholar 

  • Aligica, P. D., and Tarko, V. (2014). Crony Capitalism: Rent Seeking, Institutions and Ideology. Kyklos, 67(2), 156–176.

    Google Scholar 

  • Alpeza, M., Oberman, M., and Has, M. (2018). Small and Medium Enterprises Report Croatia 2018. CEPOR—SMEs & Entrepreneurship Policy Center, Zagreb. http://www.cepor.hr/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/EN-SME-Report-2018-za-web.pdf.

  • Birley, S. (1985). The Role of Networks in the Entrepreneurial Process. Journal of Business Venturing, 1(1), 107–117.

    Google Scholar 

  • Brković, Č., and Koutkova, K. (2018). Štela. In Ledeneva, A. (Ed.) The Global Encyclopaedia of Informality: Understanding Social and Cultural Complexity. Volume 1. London: UCL Press, pp. 54–58. https://doi.org/10.14324/111.9781911307907.

  • Bužinkić, E. (Ed.) (2017). MIGRENT—Migrant (Social) Entrepreneurship as a Tool of Socio-Economic Emancipation of Migrants. Centre for Peace Studies and Taste of Home, Zagreb. https://www.cms.hr/system/publication/pdf/92/Publikacija_Migrent.pdf.

  • Čapo, J. (2019). Economic Activities and Agency of “Love-Driven” International Migrants in the City of Zagreb. In Rajković Iveta, M., Kelemen, P., and Župarić-Iljić, D. (Eds.) Contemporary Migration Trends and Flows on the Territory of Southeast Europe. Zagreb: Filozofski fakultet, pp. 195–212. https://openbooks.ffzg.unizg.hr/index.php/FFpress/catalog/view/35/44/1824-1.

  • Čapo, J., and Kelemen, P. (2018a). Mixing Ethnic and Non-ethnic Economic Strategies: Migrant Entrepreneurs in Zagreb. Narodna umjetnost, 55(2), 29–56. https://doi.org/10.15176/vol55no202.

  • Čapo, J., and Kelemen, P. (2018b). The City and International Migrants. Institute of Ethnology and Folklore Research, Zagreb. http://www.citymaking.eu/wp-content/uploads/2018/09/The_City_and_International_Migrants.pdf.

  • Castles, S., Hein de Haas, M., and Miller, M. J. (2014). The Age of Migration: International Population Movements in the Modern World (5th ed.). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

    Google Scholar 

  • Castles, S., and Miller, M. J. (2009). The Age of Migration: International Population Movements in the Modern World (4th ed.). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

    Google Scholar 

  • CBS—Croatian Bureau of Statistics (2019). International Migration. https://www.dzs.hr/Hrv_Eng/Pokazatelji/Stanovnistvo%20-%20migracije.xlsx.

  • Chand, M., and Ghorbani, M. (2011). National Culture, Networks and Ethnic Entrepreneurship: A Comparison of the Indian and Chinese Immigrants in the US. International Business Review, 20(6), 593–606.

    Google Scholar 

  • Chavdarova, T. (2015). Perceptions vs. Practices: Nepotism in Small Businesses in Bulgaria. In Morris, J., and Polese, A. (Eds.) Informal Economies in Post-Socialist Spaces: Practices, Institutions and Networks. Palgrave Macmillan UK, pp. 154–174.

    Google Scholar 

  • Chavdarova, T. (2018). Vruzki. In Ledeneva, A. (Ed.) The Global Encyclopaedia of Informality: Understanding Social and Cultural Complexity. Volume 1. London: UCL Press, pp. 64–67. https://doi.org/10.14324/111.9781911307907.

  • CPS/IHZ—Centre for Peace Studies & Impact Hub Zagreb. (2019). Country Analysis of Self-Employment and Entrepreneurship Initiatives for TCN. BEST, Zagreb.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dabić, M., Vlačić, B., Paul, J., Dana, L. P., Sahasranamam, S., and Glinka, B. (2020). Immigrant Entrepreneurship: A Review and Research Agenda. Journal of Business Research, 113, 25–38.

    Google Scholar 

  • Das, T. K., and Teng, B. S. (1997). Sustaining Strategic Alliances: Options and Guidelines. Journal of General Management, 22(4), 49–64.

    Google Scholar 

  • Davidsson, P., and Honig, B. (2003). The Role of Social and Human Capital Among Nascent Entrepreneurs. Journal of Business Venturing, 18(3), 301–331.

    Google Scholar 

  • Drakopoulou-Dodd, S., and Patra, E. (2002). National Differences in Entrepreneurial Networking. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, 14(2), 117–134.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dreher, A., and Schneider, F. (2010). Corruption and the Shadow Economy: An Empirical Analysis. Public Choice, 144, 215–238.

    Google Scholar 

  • EC—European Commission (2018). Special Eurobarometer 469—Integration of Immigrants in the European Union, April 2018. https://ec.europa.eu›index.cfm›ResultDoc›download›DocumentKy.

    Google Scholar 

  • Eurostat (2019). Migration and Migrant Population Statistics, March 2019. https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/Migration_and_migrant_population_statistics#Migration_flows:_Immigration_to_the_EU_from_non-member_countries_was_2.4_million_in_2017.

  • Evald, M. R., Klyver, K. I. M., and Svendsen, S. G. (2006). The Changing Importance of the Strength of Ties Throughout the Entrepreneurial Process. Journal of Enterprising Culture, 14(1), 1–26.

    Google Scholar 

  • Giljević, T., and Lalić Novak, G. (2018). Coordination Instruments in Croatian Integration Policy: Classification, Evaluation, and Proposals for Improvements. In Koprić, I., Lalić Novak, G., and Vukojičić Tomić, T. (Eds.) Migrations, Diversity, Integration and Public Governance in Europe and Beyond. Zagreb, Croatia: Institute for Public Administration, pp. 341–362.

    Google Scholar 

  • Greve, A., and Salaff, J. W. (2003). Social Networks and Entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 28(1), 1–22.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hite, J. M., and Hesterly, W. S. (2001). The Evolution of Firm Networks: From Emergence to Early Growth of the Firm. Strategic Management Journal, 22(3), 275–286.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hoang, H., and Antoncic, B. (2003). Network-Based Research in Entrepreneurship. Journal of Business Venturing, 18(2), 165–187.

    Google Scholar 

  • Horak, S., and Klein, A. (2016). Persistence of Informal Social Networks in East Asia: Evidence from South Korea. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 33(3), 673–694.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hsu, C. (2005). Capitalism Without Contracts Versus Capitalists Without Capitalism: Comparing the Influence of Chinese Guanxi and Russian Blat on Marketization. Communist and Post-Communist Studies, 38(3), 309–327.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hsu, C., Liu, Z., and Huang, S. (2012). Managerial Ties in Economy Hotel Chains in China. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 24(3), 477–495.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ireland, R. D., Tihanyi, L., and Webb, J. W. (2008). A Tale of Two Politico-Economic Systems: Implications for Entrepreneurship in Central and Eastern Europe. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 32(1), 107–130.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jack, S. (2005). The Role, Use and Activation of Strong and Weak Network Ties: A Qualitative Analysis. Journal of Management Studies, 42(6), 1233–1259.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jack, S. L., and Anderson, A. R. (2002). The Effects of Embeddedness on the Entrepreneurial Process. Journal of Business Venturing, 17(5), 467–487.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jurković, R., and Rajković Iveta, M. (2016). “Okus doma”: integracija azilanata protkana transnacionalnim procesima i promicanjem kulinarskih tradicija. Studia ethnologica Croatica, 28(1), 147–178.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kariv, D., Menzies, T. V., Brenner, G. A., and Filion, L. J. (2009). Transnational Networking and Business Performance: Ethnic Entrepreneurs in Canada. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 21(3), 239–264.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kauffman Foundation (2009). Kauffman Index of Entrepreneurial Activity. Retrieved 29 November 2019. http://www.kauffman.org/uploadedFiles/kiea_042709.pdf.

  • Kets de Vries, M. F., and Florent-Treacy, E. (2003). Roustam Tariko (A): Russian Entrepreneur. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 27(3), 299–313.

    Google Scholar 

  • King, R. (2018). Context-Based Qualitative Research and Multi-sited Migration Studies in Europe, In Zapata-Barrero R., and Yalaz E. (Eds.) Qualitative Research in European Migration Studies, IMISCOE Research Series. Cham: Springer.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kloosterman, R., Van Der Leun, J., and Rath, J. (1999). Mixed Embeddedness: (In) Formal Economic Activities and Immigrant Businesses in the Netherlands. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 23(2), 252–266.

    Google Scholar 

  • Klyver, K., and Foley, D. (2012). Networking and Culture in Entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, 24(7–8), 561–588.

    Google Scholar 

  • Koutkova, K. (2015). The Importance of Having štela: Reproduction of Informality in the Democratization Sector in Bosnia. In Morris, J., and Polese, A. (Eds.) Informal Economies in Post-Socialist Spaces: Practices, Institutions and Networks. Palgrave Macmillan UK, pp. 139–153.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kuti, S., and Božić, S. (2011). Analitičke dimenzije za istraživanje transnacionalnih aktivnosti: primjer kineskih migranata u Hrvatskoj. Revija za sociologiju, 41(3), 315–340. https://doi.org/10.5613/rzs.41.3.3.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kuznetsov, A., McDonald, F., and Kuznetsova, O. (2000). Entrepreneurial Qualities: A Case from Russia. Journal of Small Business Management, 38(1), 101–107.

    Google Scholar 

  • Larson, A., and Starr, J. A. (1993). A Network Model of Organization Formation. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 17(2), 5–15.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lechner, C., and Dowling, M. (2003). Firm Networks: External Relationships as Sources for the Growth and Competitiveness of Entrepreneurial Firms. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, 15(1), 1–26.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ledeneva, A. (2008). Blat and Guanxi: Informal Practices in Russia and China. Comparative Studies in Society and History, 50(1), 118–144.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lekaj, A., Gregov, Z., and Varlandy Supek, M. (2015). Temeljne značajke manjinskog poduzetništva na primjeru poduzetništva albanske nacionalne manjine u Hrvatskoj. Obrazovanje za poduzetništvo - E4E, 5(2), 69–82. Retrieved from https://hrcak.srce.hr/149531.

  • Light, I., and Bonacich, E. (1988). Immigrant Entrepreneurs: Koreans in Los Angeles, 1965–1982. University of California Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Manolova, T. S., Eunni, R. V., and Gyoshev, B. S. (2008). Institutional Environments for Entrepreneurship: Evidence from Emerging Economies in Eastern Europe. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 32(1), 203–218.

    Google Scholar 

  • Manolova, T. S., and Yan, A. (2002). Institutional Constraints and Entrepreneurial Responses in a Transforming Economy: The Case of Bulgaria. International Small Business Journal, 20(2), 163–184.

    Google Scholar 

  • Martinez, M. A., and Aldrich, H. E. (2011). Networking Strategies for Entrepreneurs: Balancing Cohesion and Diversity. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, 17(1), 7–38.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mostajer Haghighi, A., and Lynch, P. (2012). Entrepreneurship and the Social Integration of New Minorities: Iranian Hospitality Entrepreneurs in Scotland. Tourism Review, 67(1), 4–10.

    Google Scholar 

  • Nreca, K., and Gregov, Z. (2018). Uloga žena u obiteljskim poduzećima albanske nacionalne manjine u Hrvatskoj. Obrazovanje za poduzetništvo - E4E, 8 (Special issue), 73–94. Retrieved from https://hrcak.srce.hr/196916.

  • Ostgaard, T. A., and Birley, S. (1994). Personal Networks and Firm Competitive Strategy—A Strategic or Coincidental Match? Journal of Business Venturing, 9(4), 281–305.

    Google Scholar 

  • Otten, J. (2018). Vrski. In Ledeneva, A. (Ed.) The Global Encyclopaedia of Informality: Understanding Social and Cultural Complexity. Volume 1. London: UCL Press, pp. 62–64. https://doi.org/10.14324/111.9781911307907.

  • Peng, Y. (2004). Kinship Networks and Entrepreneurs in China’s Transitional Economy. American Journal of Sociology, 109(5), 1045–1074.

    Google Scholar 

  • Polese, A. (2013). Drinking with Vova: A Ukrainian Entrepreneur Between Informality and Illegality. The Informal Post-Socialist Economy: Embedded Practices and Livelihoods. London and New York: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Polese, A. (2015). Informality Crusades: Why Informal Practices Are Stigmatized, Fought and Allowed in Different Contexts According to an Apparently Ununderstandable Logic. Caucasus Social Science Review, 25(1), 1–26

    Google Scholar 

  • Polese, A. (forthcoming). Labour Mobility and Precariousness: Why Informality Ends Up Replacing and Supplementing the State for the Invisible and the Vulnerable. In Polese, A., Turaeva, R., and Urinboyev, R. (Eds.) Informality and Mobility in Eastern Europe: People, Spaces, Movements. London: Palgrave.

    Google Scholar 

  • Puffer, S. M., McCarthy, D. J., and Boisot, M. (2010). Entrepreneurship in Russia and China: The Impact of Formal Institutional Voids. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 34(3), 441–467.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rath, J., and Swagerman, A. (2011). Promoting Ethnic Entrepreneurship in European Cities. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rehn, A., and Taalas, S. (2004). ‘Znakomstva I Svyazi’ (Acquaintances and connections)–Blat, the Soviet Union, and Mundane Entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, 16(3), 235–250.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rusinovic, K. (2008). Transnational Embeddedness: Transnational Activities and Networks Among First- and Second-Generation Immigrant Entrepreneurs in the Netherlands. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 34(3), 431–451.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sarasvathy, Saras D. (2018). What Makes Entrepreneurs Entrepreneurial? Darden Case No. UVA-ENT-0065. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=909038.

  • Schutjens, V., and Stam, E. (2003). The Evolution and Nature of Young Firm Networks: A Longitudinal Perspective. Small Business Economics, 21(2), 115–134.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sequeira, J. M., and Rasheed, A. A. (2006). Start-Up and Growth of Immigrant Small Businesses: The Impact of Social and Human Capital. Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship, 11(4), 357–375.

    Google Scholar 

  • Šimić Banović, R. (2015) Cutting the Red Ribbon but Not the Red Tape: The Failure of Business Environment Reform in Croatia. Post-Communist Economies, 27(1), 106–128.

    Google Scholar 

  • Šimić Banović, R. (2016). Is Culture an Underpinning or Undermining Factor in the Business Environment of the Transitional Countries? In Ateljević, J., and Trivić, J. (Eds.) Economic Development and Entrepreneurship in Transition Economies: Issues, Obstacles and Perspectives. Springer International Publishing, pp. 11–37.

    Google Scholar 

  • Šimić Banović, R. (2019). Uhljeb—A Post-Socialist Homo Croaticus: A Personification of the Economy of Favours in Croatia? Post-Communist Economies, 31(3), 279–300.

    Google Scholar 

  • Šimić Banović, Ružica, Alpeza, Mirela, and Brzozowski, Jan (2019). Immigrant Entrepreneurship in Croatia: Exploring Its Potential, (Rising) Barriers and Integration Patterns, September 1. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3528132.

  • Singer, S., Šarlija, N., Pfeifer, S., and Oberman Peterka, S. (2019) Što čini Hrvatsku (ne)poduzetničkom zemljom? - GEM Hrvatska 2018, CEPOR—SMEs and Entrepreneurhip Policy Center, Zagreb. http://www.cepor.hr/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/GEM2018zaweb.pdf.

  • ———. (2021). Što čini Hrvatsku (ne)poduzetničkom zemljom? GEM Hrvatska 2019–2020. CEPOR, Zagreb.

    Google Scholar 

  • Skokic, V., Lynch, P., and Morrison, A. (2019). Veza: An Informal Network of Tourism Entrepreneurs. Annals of Tourism Research, 77, 26–37.

    Google Scholar 

  • Staber, U., and Aldrich, H. E. (1995). Cross-National Similarities in the Personal Networks of Small Business Owners: A Comparison of Two Regions in North America. Canadian Journal of Sociology, 20(4), 441–467.

    Google Scholar 

  • Stanojevic, D., and Stokanic, D. (2018). Veza. In Ledeneva, A. (Ed.) The Global Encyclopaedia of Informality: Understanding Social and Cultural Complexity. Volume 1. London: UCL Press, pp. 58–62. https://doi.org/10.14324/111.9781911307907.

  • Steenberg, R. (2016). The Art of Not Seeing Like a State: On the Ideology of “Informality”. Journal of Contemporary Central and Eastern Europe, 24(3), 293–306. https://doi.org/10.1080/0965156X.2016.1262229.

  • Strobl, A., and Kronenberg, C. (2016). Entrepreneurial Networks Across the Business Life Cycle: The Case of Alpine Hospitality Entrepreneurs. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 28(6), 1177–1203.

    Google Scholar 

  • Transparency International (2019). Corruption Perceptions Index 2018: Croatia. https://www.transparency.org/country/HRV.

  • Troskot, Z., Prskalo, M. E., and Šimić Banović, R. (2019). Ključne odrednice iseljavanja visokokvalificiranog stanovništva: slučaj Hrvatske s komparativnim osvrtom na nove članice EU-a. Zbornik radova Pravnog fakulteta u Splitu, 56(4), 877–904.

    Google Scholar 

  • Volery, T. (2007). Ethnic Entrepreneurship: A Theoretical Framework. In Dana, L. P. (Ed.) Handbook of Research on Ethnic Minority Entrepreneurship. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing, pp. 30–41.

    Google Scholar 

  • Waldinger, R., Aldrich, H., and Ward R. (1990). Opportunities, Group Characteristics and Strategies. In Waldinger, R., Aldrich, H., and Ward, R. (Eds.) Ethnic Entrepreneurs: Immigrant Business in Industrial Societies. London: Sage, pp. 13–48.

    Google Scholar 

  • Yoo, J. K. (2000). Utilization of Social Networks for Immigrant Entrepreneurship: A Case Study of Korean Immigrants in the Atlanta Area. International Review of Sociology, 10(3), 347–363.

    Google Scholar 

  • Yoon, I. J. (1991). The Changing Significance of Ethnic and Class Resources in Immigrant Businesses: The Case of Korean Immigrant Businesses in Chicago. International Migration Review, 25(2), 303–332.

    Google Scholar 

  • Zhang, J. (2010). The Problems of Using Social Networks in Entrepreneurial Resource Acquisition. International Small Business Journal, 28(4), 338–361.

    Google Scholar 

  • Zhang, J., Soh, P. H., and Wong, P. K. (2011). Direct Ties, Prior Knowledge, and Entrepreneurial Resource Acquisitions in China and Singapore. International Small Business Journal, 29(2), 170–189.

    Google Scholar 

  • Zimmer, C., and Aldrich, H. (1987). Resource Mobilization Through Ethnic Networks: Kinship and Friendship Ties of Shopkeepers in England. Sociological Perspectives, 30(4), 422–445.

    Google Scholar 

  • World Economic Forum (2018). The Global Competitiveness Report 2018. Cologny/Geneva, Switzerland. https://www.weforum.org/reports/the-global-competitveness-report-2018.

Download references

Remark

The authors are thankful to student-assistant Matea Nikolić for her research help.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Ružica Šimić Banović .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2022 The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG

About this chapter

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this chapter

Šimić Banović, R., Škokić, V., Alpeza, M. (2022). Informal Networks Among Immigrant Entrepreneurs: Case of Croatia. In: Polese, A. (eds) Informality, Labour Mobility and Precariousness. International Political Economy Series. Palgrave Macmillan, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-82499-0_4

Download citation

Publish with us

Policies and ethics