This chapter presents the state of the art in terms of the intersections between incarceration and generations. We start by exploring the conceptual definitions of both incarceration and generation. We argue that the expansion of the penal landscape makes us consider not only the different forms of incarceration in present times but also their impacts on specific age groups. Subsequently, we show how the intersections between these two concepts are being discussed theoretically and empirically, providing a brief state-of-the-art review of the existing literature, mainly in the social, criminal and legal studies, particularly with a focus on generations. This framework provides structure and guidance to the setting of the entire volume’s rationale. Generation as a life stage is the core perspective common to all the chapters included in this volume, which discusses the experiences, dynamics, cultures, interventions and impacts of incarceration concerning different generations: childhood, youth and emerging adulthood, adulthood and older age.
- Penal landscape
- Life stage
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Deprivation of liberty, according to Rule 11 (b) of the Havana Rules means “any form of detention or imprisonment or the placement of a person in a public or private custodial setting, from which this person is not permitted to leave at will, by order of any judicial, administrative or other public authority”.
For detailed information about this project, follow the link https://www.fredomforimmigrants.org/.
For detailed information about this non-profit organization, which promotes the human rights of people who have been detained for reasons related to their non-citizen status, follow the link https://www.globaldetentionproject.org/.
Abner, C. (2006) Graying prisons. States face challenges of an aging inmate population. StateNews, 8–11.
ACNUR. (2019) Global trends. Forced displacement in 2018. UNHCR—United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. https://www.unhcr.org/5d08d7ee7.pdf
Adams, M., & Vedder, C. (1961). Age and crime: Medical and sociologic characteristics of prisoners over 50. Geriatrics, 16, 177–181.
Aday, R. (1994). Aging in prison: A case study of new elderly offenders. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 38(1), 79–91.
Aday, R. (2003). Aging prisoners: Crisis in American corrections. Praeger Publishers.
Aday, R., & Krabill, J. (2011) Women aging in prison: A neglected population in the correctional system.
Aday, R., & Maschi, T. (2019). The challenge of managing aging prisoners. In D. L. Polaschek, A. Day, & C. Hollin (Eds.), The Wiley international handbook of correctional psychology (pp. 144–158). Wiley.
Aday, R., & Wahidin, A. (2016). Older prisoners’ experiences of death, dying and grief behind bars. The Howard Journal of Crime and Justice, 55(3), 312–327.
Almeida, A. N. (2006). La sociologie et la construction de l’enfance. Regards du côte de la famille. In R. Sirota (Ed.), Éléments pour une Sociologie de l’Enfance (pp. 115–123). Presses Universitaires.
Arnett, J. (2000). Emerging adulthood: A theory of development from the late teens through the twenties. American Psychologist, 55(5), 469–480.
Arnett, J. (2015). Emerging adulthood: The winding road from the late teens through the twenties. Oxford University Press.
Avieli, H. (2021). ‘A sense of purpose’: Older prisoners’ experiences of successful ageing behind bars. European Journal of Criminology. https://doi.org/10.1177/1477370821995142
Baidawi, S., Trotter, C., & Flynn, C. (2016). Prison experiences and psychological distress among older inmates. Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 59(3), 252–270.
Baidawi, S., Shelley, T., Trotter, C., Browning, C., Collier, P., O’Connor, D., & Sheehan, R. (2011). Older prisoners-A challenge for Australian corrections. Trends and Issues. Crime and Criminal Justice, Australian Institute for Criminology, Australian Government, 461, 421–440.
Baier, G. (1961). The aged inmate. American Journal of Corrections, 23(4–6), 30–34.
Barnes, L. (1999). Doing time quietly: A profile of older prisoners and their experiences of imprisonment in South Australia. University of Sydney.
Beck, U. (2007). Power in the global age: A new global political economy. Polity.
Bereswill, M. (2006). Inside-out: Resocialisation from prison as a biographical process. A longitudinal approach to the psychodynamics of imprisonment. Journal of Social Work Practice, 18(3), 115–336.
Bhuller, M., Dahl, G., Løken, K., & Mogstad, M. (2018). International effect of incarceration (NBER Working Paper No. 24227). http://www.nber.org/papers/w24227
Billari, F. C., Hiekel, N., & Liefbroer, A. C. (2019). The social stratification of choice in the transition to adulthood. European Sociological Review, 35(5), 599–615.
Bochenek, M. (2017). Children behind bars: The global overuse of detention of Children. Human Rights Watch. https://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/childrenindetention_0.pdf
Bosworth, M. (2017). Immigration detention, punishment and the transformation of justice. Social & Legal Studies, 26. https://doi.org/10.1177/0964663917747341
Bosworth, M. (2019). Immigration detention, punishment and the transformation of justice. Social & Legal Studies, 28(1), 81–99. https://doi.org/10.1177/0964663917747341
Bosworth, M., & Turnbull S. (2015a). Immigration, detention, and the expansion of penal power in the United Kingdom. In K. Reiter & A. Koenig (Eds.), Extreme punishment. Palgrave studies in prisons and penology. Palgrave Macmillan. https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137441157_4
Bosworth, M., & Kaufman, E. (2011). Foreigners in a carceral age: Immigration and imprisonment in the United States. Stanford Law & Policy Review, 22, 429–454.
Bosworth, M., & Turnbull, S. (2015b). Immigration detention, punishment, and the criminalization of migration. In S. Pickering & J. Ham (Eds), The Routledge handbook on crime and international migration (pp. 91–106). Routledge.
Bristow, J. (2016). Why study generations? In J. Bristow (ed.), The sociology of generations. New directions and challenges (pp. 1–17). London: Palgrave.
Carvalho, M. J. L. (2015). Rehabilitating and educating for responsible autonomy: Two sides of a path to personal and social well-being. In R. Carneiro (Ed.), Youth, offense and well-being: Can science enlighten policy? (pp. 227–254).CEPCEPUCP.
Castles, S., Haas, H., & Miller, M. (2014). The age of migration: International population movement in the modern world. Palgrave Macmillan.
Chaiklin, H. (1998). The elderly disturbed prisoner. Clinical Gerontologist, 20(1), 47–62.
Cheliotis, L. K. (2013). Behind the veil of philoxenia: The politics of immigration detention in Greece. European Journal of Criminology, 10(6), 725–745.
Christiaens, J. (Ed.). (2015). It’s for your own good. Researching youth justice practices. VUB Press.
Clemmer, D. (1940). The prison community. Christopher Publishing House.
Codd, H. (2020). Prisons, older people, and age-friendly cities and communities: Towards an inclusive approach. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(24), 9200. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17249200
Cood, H. (2020). Prisons, older people, and age-friendly cities and communities: Towards an inclusive approach. International Journal of Environmental Public Health, 17(24). https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17249200
Codd, H. (2018). Ageing in prison. In S. Westwood (Ed.), Ageing, diversity and equality: Social justice perspectives. Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315226835
Cohen, S., & Taylor, L. (1972). Psychological survival: The experience of long-term imprisonment. Penguin Books.
Cox, A. (2020). The language of incarceration. Incarceration. https://doi.org/10.1177/2632666320940859
Crawley, E., & Sparks, R. (2006). Is there life after imprisonment? How elderly men talk about imprisonment and release. Criminology & Criminal Justice, 6(1), 63–82.
Crewe, B. (2011). Depth, weight, tightness: Revisiting the pains of imprisonment. Punishment & Society, 13(5), 509–529.
Crewe, B., Hulley, S., & Wright, S. (2017). The gendered pains of life imprisonment. British Journal of Criminology, 57(6), 1359–1378.
Crewe, B. (2009). The prisoner society. Power, adaptation, and social life in an English prison. Oxford University Press.
Cullen, F. T., Wozniak, J. F., & Frank, J. (1985). The rise of the elderly offender: Will a “new” criminal be invented? Crime and Social Justice, 15, 151–165.
Cunha, M. I. (2008). Prisão e sociedade: Modalidades de uma conexão. In M. I. Cunha (Ed.), Aquém e além da prisão: cruzamentos e perspetivas (pp. 33–78). 90º Graus Editora.
Cunneen, C., Goldson, B., & Russell, S. (2018). Human rights and youth justice reform in England and Wales: A systemic analysis. Criminology and Criminal Justice, 18(4), 405–430.
Currie, E. (1998). Crime and punishment in America. Henry Holt and Company.
Davis, A. Y. (2003). Are prisons obsolete? Seven Stories Press.
Davoren, M., Fitzpatrick, M., Caddow, F., Caddow, M., O’Neill, C., O’Neill, H., & Kennedy, H. G. (2015). Older men and older women remand prisoners: Mental illness, physical illness, offending patterns and needs. International Psychogeriatrics, 27(5), 747–755. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1041610214002348
Deaton, D., Aday, R., & Wahidin, A. (2003). The effect of health and penal harm on aging female prisoners’ views of dying in prison. Journal of Death and Dying, 60(1), 51–70.
Devriese, M. (1989). Approche sociologique de la génération. Vingtième Siècle, Revue D’histoire, 22, 11–16. https://doi.org/10.3406/xxs.1989.2123
Drake, D. (2012). Prisons. Palgrave Macmillan.
Duarte, V., & Gomes, S. (Eds.). (2017). Espaços de Reclusão: questões teóricas, metodológicas e de investigação. Edições ISMAI.
Dünkel, F. (2014). Juvenile Justice systems in Europe—Reform developments between justice, welfare and ‘new punitiveness.’ KriminlogijosStudijos, 1, 32–76.
Elder, G. H., Jr. (1974). Children of the great depression. University of Chicago Press.
Elder, G. H., Jr. (1985). Perspectives on the life course. In G. Elder (Ed.), Life course dynamics: Trajectories and transitions, 1968–1980 (pp. 23–49). Cornell University Press.
Elder, G. H., Jr. (1998). The life course as developmental theory. Child Development, 69(1), 1–12.
Elder, G. H., Jr. (2001). Time, human agency, and social change: Perspectives on the life course. In A. Piquero & P. Mazerolle (Eds.), Life course criminology—Contemporary and classic readings (pp. 3–20). Wadsworth Thomson Learning.
Fagan, J. (2010). The contradictions of juvenile crime & punishment. Daedalus, 139(3), 43–61.
Faiver, K. L. (1998). Health care management issues in corrections. American Correctional Association.
Farrall, S., Goldson, B., Loader, I., & Dockley, A. (2016). Introduction: Re-shaping the penal landscape. In S. Farrall, B. Goldson, I. Loader, & A. Dockley (Eds.), Justice and penal reform: Re-shaping the penal landscape. Routledge.
Farrington, D. (1986). Age and crime. Crime and Justice, 7, 189–250.
Farrington, D. P., Loeber, R., & Howell, J. C. (2012). Young adult offenders: The need for more effective legislative options and justice processing. Criminology & Public Policy, 11(4), 729–750.
Fassin, D. (2011). Policing borders, producing boundaries. The governmentality of immigration in dark times. Annual Review of Anthropology, 40, 213–226. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-anthro-081309-145847
Fassin, D. (2017). Prison worlds. An ethnography of the Carceral condition. Polity Press.
Fazel, S., Hope, T., O’Donnell, I., Piper, M., & Jacoby, R. (2001). Health of elderly male prisoners: Worse than the general population, worse than younger prisoners. Age and Ageing, 30(5), 403–407.
Ferreira, V. S. (2017). Posfácio. Um olhar sobre os jovens como sujeitos de políticas e sociologias públicas. In D. H. Laranjeira & R. E. Barone (Eds.), Juventude e Trabalho. Desafios no mundo contemporâneo (pp. 385–388). EDUFBA.
Ferreira, V. S. (2019). Jovens e gerações em tempos de crise: entre Portugal e o contexto global. In V. Colaço, I. Germano, L. Miranda, & J. P. Barros (Eds.), Juventudes em Movimento: Experiências (pp. 34–68). Expressão Gráfica Editora e Universidade Federal do Ceará.
Ferreira, V. S. (Ed.). (2020). Special issue: Values, practices and discourses on generations. Youth Studies and Generations. https://doi.org/10.3390/books978-3-03928-327-9
Filinson, R. (2016). A day in the life: How time is spent doing time among older inmates. Activities. Adaptation & Aging, 40(2), 125–149.
France, A., & Roberts, S. (2015). The problem of social generations: A critique of the new emerging orthodoxy in youth studies. Journal of Youth Studies, 18(2), 215–230. https://doi.org/10.1080/13676261.2014.944122
Freedman, H. (1948). Rehabilitation of the older prisoner. Journal of Clinical Psychopathology, 9, 226–232.
Galland, O. (2011). Sociologie de la Jeunesse. Armand Colin.
Garland, D. (2001). The culture of control. Crime and social order in contemporary society. University of Chicago Press.
Garland, D. (2013). Penality and the penal state. Criminology, 51(3), 475–517.
Gewerth, K. E. (1988). Elderly offenders: A review of previous research. In B. McCarthy & R. Langworthy (Eds.), Older offenders: Perspectives in criminology and criminal justice (pp. 14–31). Praeger.
Gilleard, C. (2004). Cohorts and generations in the study of social change. Social Theory & Health, 2,. https://doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.sth.8700023
Ginn, S. (2012). Elderly prisoners. BMJ, 345.
Goetting, A. (1983). The elderly in prison: Issues and perspectives. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 20, 291–309.
Goldson, B. (2013). Unsafe, unjust and harmful to wider society: Grounds for raising the minimum age of criminal responsibility in England and Wales. Youth Justice: An International Journal, 13(2), 111–130.
Goldson, B. (2015). The circular motions of penal politics and the pervasive irrationalities of child imprisonment. In B. Goldson & J. Muncie (Eds.), Youth crime and justice (2nd ed.). Sage.
Goldson, B. (2019). Reading the present and mapping the future(s) of Juvenile justice in Europe: Complexities and challenges. In B. Goldson (Ed.), Juvenile justice in Europe: Past, present and future. Routledge.
Goldson, B. (2020). Excavating youth justice reform: Historical mapping and speculative prospects. Howard Journal of Crime and Justice, 59(3), 317–334.
Goldson, B., & Kilkelly, U. (2013). International human rights standards and child imprisonment. International Journal of Children’s Rights, 21(2), 345.
Goldson, B., & Muncie, J. (Eds.). (2015). Youth justice and crime. Sage.
Goldson, B., Cunneen, C., Russell, S., Brown, D., Baldry, E., Schwartz, M., & Briggs, D. (2021). Youth justice and penality in comparative context. Routledge.
Gomes, S. (2014). Caminhos para a Prisão. Editora Húmus.
Gomes, S. (2019). As Vozes da Prisão - Práticas e Vivências de Reinserção Social Intramuros. Editora Húmus.
Granja, R. (2017). Para cá e para lá dos muros: Negociar relações familiares durante a reclusão. Afrontamento.
Grant, A. (1999). Elderly inmates: Issues for Australia. Trends & Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice. Australian Institute of Criminology.
Guia, M., & Gomes, S. (Eds.). (2019). Prisons. Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-13077-0
Haggerty, K. D., & Bucerius, S. (2020). The proliferating pains of imprisonment. Incarceration. https://doi.org/10.1177/2632666320936432
Halsey, M., & Vel-Palumbo, M. (2020). Generations through prison—Experiences of intergenerational incarceration. Routledge.
Harvey, J. (2007). Young men in prison: Surviving and adapting to life inside. Willan Publishing.
James, A., & James, A. (2004). Constructing childhood. Palgrave Macmillan.
Javeau, C. (2006). La problématisation de l’enfance, des enfants et de l’enfant dans la société dite «du risque». In R. Sirota (Ed.), Éléments pour une Sociologie de l’Enfance (pp. 297–306). Presses Universitaires.
Jewkes, Y. (2005). Men behind bars: “Doing” masculinity as an adaptation to imprisonment. Men and Masculinities, 8(1), 44–63.
Jewkes, Y. (2005). Loss, liminality and the life sentence: Managing identity through a disrupted lifecourse. In A. Liebling & S. Maruna (Eds.), The effects of imprisonment (pp. 366–388). Willan Publishing.
Jewkes, Y., Bennett, J., & Crewe, B. (2016). Handbook on prisons. Routledge.
Johnson, R., & Toch, H. (1982). The pains of imprisonment. Sage.
Kalhan, A. (2010). Rethinking immigration detention. Columbia Law Review, 110, 42–58.
Keller, O., & Vedder, C. (1968). Crimes that old persons commit. The Gerontologist, 8, 43–50.
Kertzer, D. I. (1983). Generation as a sociological problem. Annual Review of Sociology, 9, 25–49.
Kilkelly, U. (2016). Advancing the rights of young people in Juvenile justice: The impact of Juvenile Law Center. Temple Law Review, 88(4), 629–652.
Kim, K. D., & Peterson, B. (2014). Aging behind bars: Trends and implications of graying prisoners in the federal prison system. Urban Institute.
Klaassen M.A.K., Rap S.E., Rodrigues P.R. & Liefaard T. (eds) (2020) Safeguarding children’s rights in immigration law, Antwerp: Intersentia.
Kolivoski, K. M., & Shook, J. J. (2016). Incarcerating Juveniles in adult prisons: Examining the relationship between age and prison behavior in transferred Juveniles. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 43(9), 1242–1259. https://doi.org/10.1177/0093854816631793
Kuanliang, A., Sorensen, J., & Cunningham, M. (2008). Juvenile inmates in an adult prison system—Rates of disciplinary misconduct and violence. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 35(9), 1186–1201. https://doi.org/10.1177/0093854808322744
Laird, R. (2021). Regional international Juvenile incarceration models as a blueprint for rehabilitative reform of Juvenile criminal justice systems in the United States. The Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 111(2): 571–603.
LeBel, T., & Maruna, S. (2012). Life on the outside: Transitioning from prison to the community. In J. Petersilia & K. R. Reitz (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of sentencing and corrections. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199730148.013.0027
Liebling, A., & Maruna, S. (2005). Introduction: The effects of imprisonment revisited. In A. Liebling & S. Maruna (Eds.), The effects of imprisonment (pp. 1–29). Willan Publishing.
Liefaard, T. (2008). Deprivation of liberty of children in light of international human rights law and standards. School of Human Rights Research Series.
Liefaard, T. (2017). Access to justice for children deprived of their liberty in center for human rights and humanitarian law. In P. Children (Ed.), Anti-torture initiative (pp. 57–80). American University, Washington College of Law.
Liefaard, T. (2018). Deprivation of liberty of children. In U. Kilkelly & T. Liefaard (Eds.), International human rights of children (pp. 321–357). Springer.
Loeber, R., Farrington, D. P. (2014). Age-crime curve. In G. Bruinsma & D. Weisburd (Eds.), Encyclopedia of criminology and criminal justice. Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-5690-2_474
Lucas, H. M., Lozano, C. J., Valdez, L. P., Manzarate, R., Angelli, F., & Lumawag, J. (2018). A grounded theory of successful aging among select incarcerated older Filipino women. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 77, 96–102.
Mackenzie, D. L. (2006). What works in corrections: Reducing the criminal activities of offenders and delinquents. Cambridge University Press.
Malinchak, A. A. (1980). Crime and gerontology. Prentice-Hall.
Mallart, F. (2019). Findas linhas: circulações e confinamentos pelos subterrâneos de São Paulo (PhD dissertation). Faculdade de Filosofia, Letras e Ciências Humanas, São Paulo. https://doi.org/10.11606/T.8.2019.tde-30102019-185218
Mann, N. (2012). Doing harder time? The experiences of an ageing male prison population in England and Wales. Ashgate Publishing.
Mannheim, K.  (1952). The problem of generations. In P. Kecskemeti (Ed.), Essays on the sociology of knowledge (pp. 276–320). Routledge and Kegan Paul.
Marshall, I. (Ed.). (1997). Minorities, migrants, and crime: Diversity and similarity across Europe and the United States. Sage.
Maschi, T., Viola, D., & Sun, F. (2013). The high cost of the international aging prisoner crisis: Well-being as the common denominator for action. The Gerontologist, 53(4), 543–554.
Mears, D., & Cochran, J. (2015). Prisoner reentry in the era of mass incarceration. Sage.
Medlicott, D. (2011). Surviving the prison place: Narratives of suicidal prisoners. Ashgate.
Meyer, J., Franco-Paredes, C., Parmar, P., Yasin, F., & Gartland, M. (2020). COVID-19 and the coming epidemic in US immigrations detention centres. Le Lancet. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30295-4
Moberg, D. (1953). Old age and crime. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 43(6), 764–776.
Moore, M. (2013). Save money, protect society and realise youth potential. Improving Youth Justice systems during a time of economic crisis. International Juvenile Justice Observatory.
Moore, L. D., & Elkavich, A. (2008). Who’s using and who’s doing time: Incarceration, the war on drugs, and public health. American Journal of Public Health, 98(5), 782–786. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2007.126284
Moreira, J. (1994). Vidas Encarceradas: Estudo Sociológico de uma Prisão Masculina. Centro de Estudos Judiciários.
Nowak, M. (2019). The United Nations global study on children deprived of liberty. United Nations. https://digitallibrary.un.org/record/3813850
Nowak, M., & Krishan, M. (2020). The UN global study on children deprived of liberty: The role of academia in ‘making the invisible and forgotten visible.’ Crime Prevention and Justice in, 2030, 231–249. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-56227-4_11
Petersilia, J., & Tonry, M. (1999). Prisons. University of Chicago Press.
Pew Research Center. (2015). The whys and hows of generations research. https://www.pewresearch.org/politics/2015/09/03/the-whys-and-hows-of-generations-research/.
Poehlmann-Tynan, J., & Pritzl, K. (2019). Parent–child visits when parents are incarcerated in Prison or Jail. In J. Eddy & J. Poehlmann-Tynan (Eds,), Handbook on children with incarcerated parents. Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-16707-3_10
Pratt, J. (2007). Penal populism. Routledge.
PRI—Penal Reform International. (2019). Global Prison Trends 2019. Penal Reform International’s (PRI) and Thailand Institute of Justice (TIJ). https://www.penalreform.org/resource/global-prison-trends-2019/
PRI—Penal Reform International. (2020). Global Prison Trends 2020. Penal Reform International’s (PRI) and Thailand Institute of Justice (TIJ). https://www.penalreform.org/resource/global-prison-trends-2020/
PRI—Penal Reform International and Interagency Panel on Juvenile Justice. (2012). Ten-point plan for fair and effective criminal justice for children. Penal Reform International.
Price, J. (2020). The experience of young people transitioning between youth offending services to probation services. Probation Journal, 67(3), 246–263. https://doi.org/10.1177/0264550520939166
Pruin, I., & Dünkel, F. (2015). Better in Europe? European responses to young adult offending. Barrow Cadbury Trust.
Reeves, C. (Ed.). (2016). Experiencing imprisonment—Research on the experience of living and working in carceral institutions. Routledge.
Robertson, O. (2007). The impact of parental imprisonment on children. Quaker United Nations Office.
Rodrigues, A. M. (2002). Novo olhar sobre a questão penitenciária. Coimbra Editora.
Romão, M. (2015). Prisão e Ciência Penitenciária em Portugal. Edições Almedina.
Ruiz, A.C., Palma, M. O., y Vives, C. L. (2019). Jóvenes inmigrantes extutelados. El tránsito a la vida adulta de los menores extranjeros no acompañados en el caso español. Ehquidad. Revista Internacional de Políticas de Bienestar y Trabajo Social, 12, 31–52. https://doi.org/10.15257/ehquidad.2019.0009
Ryder, N. B. (1965). The cohort as a concept in the study of social change. American Sociological Review, 30, 843–861.
Ryo, E. (2019). Understanding immigration detention: Causes, conditions, and consequences. Annual Review of Law and Social Science, 15, 97–115.
Schmidt, E. P., Rap, S. E., & Liefaard, T. (2020). Young adults in the justice system: The interplay between scientific insights, legal reform and implementation in practice in the Netherlands. Youth Justice. https://doi.org/10.1177/1473225419897316
Seymour, C. (1998). Children with parents in prison: Child welfare policy, program, and practice issues. Child Welfare LXXVII, 5, 469–493.
Shichor, D., & Kobrin, S. (1978). Criminal behavior among the elderly. The Gerontologist, 18(2), 213–218. https://doi.org/10.1093/geront/18.2.213
Silva, R. A. (2019). Envelhecer e viver na prisão: as vivências prisionais de reclusos/as idoso/as (PhD dissertation). ICS, Universidade do Minho.
Skarupski, K. A., Gross, A., Schrack, J., Deal, J., & Eber, G. (2018). The health of America’s aging prison population. Epidemiologic Reviews, 40(1), 157–165.
Smoyer, A. B., Madera, J. E., & Blankenship, K. M. (2019). Older adults’ lived experience of incarceration. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 58(3), 220–239.
Sparkes, A. C., & Day, J. (2016). Aging bodies and desistance from crime: Insights from the life stories of offenders. Journal of Aging Studies, 36, 47–58.
Stevens, B. A., Shaw, R., Bewert, P., Salt, M., Alexander, R., & Gee, B. (2018). Systematic review of aged care interventions for older prisoners. Australasian Journal on Ageing, 37(1), 34–42.
Stoker, L. (2014). Reflections on the Study of Generations in Politics. The Forum, 12(3), 377–396. https://doi.org/10.1515/for-2014-5012.
Stumpf, J. (2006). The crimmigration crisis: Immigrants, crime, and sovereign power. American University Law Review, 56, 367–419.
Sykes, G. (1958). The society of captives. Princeton University Press.
Toch, H. (1975) Men in crisis: Human breakdowns in prison. Aldine.
Toch, H. (1977). Living in prison: The ecology of survival. Free Press.
Toch, H. (1992). Violent men: An inquiry into the psychology of violence. American Psychological Association.
Tonry, M. (1994). Racial disproportion in US prisons. The British Journal of Criminology, 34, 97–115.
Travis, J. (2005). But they all come back: Facing the challenges of prisoner reentry. Urban Institute Press.
Turnbull, S. (2017). Immigration detention and punishment. Criminology and Criminal Justice. https://doi.org/10.1093/acrefore/9780190264079.013.231
Turnbull, S., & Hasselberg, I. (2017). From prison to detention: The carceral trajectories of foreign national prisoners in the United Kingdom. Punishment & Society, 19(2), 135–154.
Turner, M., & Peacock, M. (2016). Improving palliative care for prisoners: The ‘both sides of the fence’ study. Prison Service Journal, 224, 42–47.
Ulmer, J. T., & Steffensmeier, D. J. (2014). The age and crime relationship: Social variation, social explanations. In K. Beaver, J. C. Barnes Brian, & B. Boutwell (Eds.), The nurture versus biosocial debate in criminology: On the origins of criminal behavior and criminality (pp. 377–396). Sage. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781483349114.n23
United Nations. (1981). Report to the general assembly on international youth year.
United Nations. (1989). Convention on the rights of the child. http://www.oijj.org/en/docs/general/convention-on-the-rights-of-the-child
Uprichard, E. (2008). Children as ‘being and becomings’: Children, childhood and temporality. Children & Society, 22, 303–313. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1099-0860.2007.00110.x
Vaughn, M. S., & Collins, S. C. (2004). Medical malpractice in correctional facilities: State tort remedies for inappropriate and inadequate health care administered to prisoners. The Prison Journal, 84(4), 505–534.
Visher, C. A., & Travis, J. (2003). Transitions from prison to community: Understanding individual pathways. Annual Review of Sociology, 29, 89–113.
Wacquant, L. (1999). ‘Suitable enemies’: Foreigners and immigrants in the prisons of Europe. Punishment & Society, 1(2), 215–223.
Wacquant, L. (2000). As Prisões da Miséria. Celta Editora.
Wacquant, L. (2009). Punishing the poor: The neoliberal governance of insecurity. Polity Press.
Wahidin, A. (2011). Ageing behind bars with particular reference to older women prisoners in prison. Irish Probation Service, 8, 109–123.
Warr, J. (2016). The prisoner: Inside and out. In Y. Jewkes, J. Bennett, & B. Crewe (Eds.), Handbook on prisons (pp. 586–604). Routledge.
Watson, R., Stimpson, A., & Hostick, T. (2004). Prison health care: A review of the literature. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 41(2), 119–128.
Webster, C., Simpson, D., MacDonald, R., Abbas, A., Cieslik, M., Shildrick, T., & Simpson, M. (2004). Poor transitions: Young adults and social exclusion. Policy Press.
Western, B. (2006). Punishment and inequality in America. Russell Sage Foundation.
Whisken, F. (1968). Delinquency and the aged. Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 1, 242–262.
Windzio, M. (2006). Is there a deterrent effect of pains of imprisonment?: The impact of ‘social costs’ of first incarceration on the hazard rate of recidivism. Punishment & Society, 8(3), 341–364.
Woodman, D. (2017). The sociology of generations and youth studies. In A. Furlong (Ed.), Routledge handbook of youth and young adulthood (pp. 20–26). Routledge.
Woodman, D., & Wyn, J. (2014) Youth and generation—Rethinking change and inequality in the lives of young people. Sage.
Wyness, M. (2006). Childhood and society. Palgrave Macmillan.
Zamble, E., & Porporino, F. J. (1988). Research in criminology. Coping, behavior, and adaptation in prison inmates. Springer-Verlag.
The English revision was financed by national funds through the FCT—Foundation for Science and Technology, I.P., within the scope of the project «UIDB/04647/2020» of CICS.NOVA—Interdisciplinary Centre of Social Sciences of NOVA School of Social Sciences and Humanities.
Carvalho acknowledges that her participation in this work was supported by the FCT—Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT), through an individual postdoctoral research grant (SFRH/BPD/116119/2016), under Operational Human Capital Program (POCH) funds, co-financed by the European Social Fund (ESF) and the Ministry of Science, Technology and Higher Education (MCTES).
Editors and Affiliations
Rights and permissions
© 2021 The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG
About this chapter
Cite this chapter
Gomes, S., de Carvalho, M.J.L., Duarte, V. (2021). Incarceration and Generation: Mapping a Conceptual, Theoretical and Empirical Field of Research. In: Gomes, S., de Carvalho, M.J.L., Duarte, V. (eds) Incarceration and Generation, Volume I. Palgrave Studies in Prisons and Penology. Palgrave Macmillan, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-82265-1_1
Publisher Name: Palgrave Macmillan, Cham
Print ISBN: 978-3-030-82264-4
Online ISBN: 978-3-030-82265-1
eBook Packages: Law and CriminologyLaw and Criminology (R0)