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The Potential of Kazakh Rail Transport Mode as a Competitive Transit Route Between Europe and China

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Part of the Lecture Notes in Mobility book series (LNMOB)

Abstract

The purpose of this research paper is to explore the potential of the railway network of the Republic of Kazakhstan as an effective and competitive transit transport route between China and Europe, as well as ensuring the accrued economic benefit to the Kazakh economy from the transit flows potentially generated. Kazakh territory was a major part of the old Silk Road, especially the southern regions of the current Republic. This was disrupted during the Soviet period, with borders closed and any transit forbidden. From her independence, Kazakhstan has intended to be an open and transparent state in terms of world trade and business. This desire has led the country to make use of her transit potential between China and Europe. To explore this, the research work applied multiple research methods: Multiple Regression analysis, Correlation analysis, PEST and SWOT analysis. The findings of the research allow us to suggest that Republic of Kazakhstan is on the way to reaping the economic benefits of being a transit state. To achieve the full potential of transit services, the research recommends a number of actions including strengthening the scientific support for the industry; formation of intersectoral coordination with focus on marketing of transport services and logistics; construction and organization of an international transit corridor “Western Europe—Western China”; formation of a flexible tariff policy; the elimination of physical barriers to the organization and operations of domestic transit traffic; and the streamlining of customs procedures; all to facilitate smooth border crossings.

Keywords

  • Kazakhstan
  • Europe
  • China
  • Rail freight transport and logistics
  • Potential transit transport
  • Economic benefits
  • Problems
  • Development needs

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Fig. 1

Notes

  1. 1.

    relevant data indicated in Appendix 1 and 2.

  2. 2.

    https://www.railjournal.com/freight/austria-backs-broad-gauge-extension-to-vienna/.

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Appendices

Appendix 1

Data for Regression and Correlation Analysis. Retrieved from Statistical Agency (2018) and World Bank (2019)

Year KZ income from railways mln. USD Transportation of goods by railways (mln tons) Railway freight turnover (bln ton-km) Export (mln US dollars) Import (mln US dollars) Railway transport lines length (km) GDP of KZ (bln.USD) Population of KZ mln
2000 275,197,889.2 171,896,512 125,258,963 939.25 1909.42 14,530 18.3 15,057,363
2001 336,411,609.5 183,811,454 135,778,825 1122.97 2803.43 14,588 22.2 15,039,971
2002 387,335,092.3 178,733,698 133,548,963 1406.81 3737.21 14,648 24.6 15,105,645
2003 465,171,504 202,741,236 147,758,936 1579.71 3845.38 14,648 30.8 15,232,325
2004 548,021,108.2 215,632,145 163,553,021 1874.88 5120.73 15,081 43.2 15,385,916
2005 650,659,630.6 222,789,654 171,990,025 2087.32 7521.29 15,021 57.1 15,541,457
2006 855,145,118.7 246,947,258 191,233,654 2676.89 8811.08 15,082 81 15,690,861
2007 881,794,195.3 260,663,214 200,814,578 3424.83 11868.08 15,082 104.9 15,841,355
2008 1,086,279,683 268,963,388 214,988,749 4292.41 11218.93 15082.4 133.4 16,001,176
2009 1,000,791,557 248,357,000 197,486,015 4103.67 10081.74 15079.1 115.3 16,184,163
2010 1,186,807,388 267,789,362 213,235,987 4118.96 11368.54 15016.1 148.05 16,398,976
2011 1,392,612,137 279,073,858 223,633,987 4337.73 10972.94 14892.4 200.38 16,647,380
2012 1,608,707,124 294,889,974 235,918,325 5430.91 14,344.55 15332.9 215.9 16,921,179
2013 1,708,443,272 293,719,654 231,336,524 5970.58 14083.54 15341.1 243.78 17,207,257
2014 1,694,195,251 390,741,222 280,653,322 7002.48 13845.94 15341 227.44 17,487,779
2015 1,483,113,456 341,371,852 267,362,889 6177.43 10897.74 15341 184.36 17,749,648
2016 1,576,517,150 338,928,000 238,972,269 6084.52 9846.95 16103.8 137.28 17,987,736
2017 1,661,213,720 387,236,788 266,611,993 6504.88 10082.66 16614.3 162.89 18,204,499
2018 1,728,443,271 397,884,841 283,345,254 7304.34 11978.27 16634.8 181.2 18,354,845

Appendix 2

Data for Regression and Correlation Analysis. Retrieved from Statistical Agency (2018) and World Bank (2019)

Year KZ income from roads mln. USD Transportation of goods by road (mln tons) Road freight turnover (bln ton-km) Export (mln US dollars) Import (mln US dollars) Road transport lines length (km) GDP of KZ(bln.USD) Population of KZ mln
2000 14.53 982.0 31 939.3 1909.4 85,867 18.3 15,057,363
2001 21.37 1076.9 33 1123.0 2803.4 88,045 22.2 15,039,971
2002 24.66 1219.3 37.6 1406.8 3737.2 88,388 24.6 15,105,645
2003 23.99 1318.2 40.2 1579.7 3845.4 88,992 30.8 15,232,325
2004 36.36 1444.8 43.9 1874.9 5120.7 90,018 43.2 15,385,916
2005 39.54 1511.1 47.1 2087.3 7521.3 90,845 57.1 15,541,457
2006 36.59 1582.6 53.8 2676.9 8811.1 91,563 81 15,690,861
2007 39.15 1667.4 61.5 3424.8 11868.1 93,140 104.9 15,841,355
2008 45.12 1721.0 63.48 4292.4 11218.9 93,612 133.4 16,001,176
2009 55.14 1687.5 66.25 4103.7 10081.7 96,846 115.3 16,184,163
2010 52.18 1971.8 80.3 4119.0 11368.5 96,018 148.05 16,398,976
2011 53.31 2475.5 121.1 4337.7 10972.9 97,155 200.38 16,647,380
2012 44.66 2718.4 132.3 5430.9 14344.5 97,418 215.9 16,921,179
2013 46.53 2,983.4 145.3 5,970.6 14,083.5 96,873 243.78 17,207,257
2014 44.11 3,129.1 155.66 7,002.5 13,845.9 96,421 227.44 17,487,779
2015 66.78 3,174.0 161.824 6,177.4 10,897.7 96,529 184.36 17,749,648
2016 57.61 3,180.7 163.262 6,084.5 9,846.9 96,353 137.28 17,987,736
2017 65.08 3,322.3 166.1461 6,504.9 10,082.6 95,409.6 162.89 18,204,499
2018 77.76 3,432.3 185.1973 7,304.3 11,978.3 96,245.72 181.2 18,272,430

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Islam, D.M.Z., Bissenbayeva, A., Zunder, T.H. (2022). The Potential of Kazakh Rail Transport Mode as a Competitive Transit Route Between Europe and China. In: Marinov, M., Piip, J. (eds) Sustainable Rail Transport 4. Lecture Notes in Mobility. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-82095-4_8

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-82095-4_8

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