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The Effects of Sustainability-Driven Policies on Transport CO2 Production: High-Speed Rail Transportation as an Alternative to Passenger Air Transport

Part of the Lecture Notes in Mobility book series (LNMOB)

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to evaluate to which extent the rail transport mode can improve the environmental situation in Europe if it were to be at the centre of sustainability-driven policies. In particular, it aims at estimating a relative picture of the CO2 emissions generated by short-distance air passenger transportation in Europe, which could have been transferred to high-speed rail and produce less CO2. This study follows a three-step methodology. Firstly, it calculates the number of passengers travelling on each route between cities and estimates the total CO2 emissions. Subsequently, it leverages the current literature on CO2 consumption from railway passenger transport. Lastly, it estimates the possible scenarios in terms of CO2 emissions that would have followed adequate sustainability-driven policies. The study found that short-range aviation in EU28 produced 9.2 million tons of CO2 in 2017, which represents about 5% of total aviation emission, about 1% of total transport emission and about 0.2% of total CO2emission. Furthermore, the CO2 production on the 175 routes analysed increased until 2019, while precise policies could have allowed saving 582 MT CO2. The effects of the COVID-19 outbreak on the European transport sector increases the relevance of this study. To avert the “return to normality” vis a vis Greenhouse Gases (hereinafter “GHG”) emissions from the sector, it will be necessary to introduce structural changes. As Austrian Airlines or KLM bailouts show, environmental concerns might finally influence the decision-making process on public transportation. In the context of a green recovery, this study not only lays the foundation for further contributions addressing the CO2 production from EU-wide sectors but also underlines the role the railway can play in environmentally friendly transportation.

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Notes

  1. 1.

    https://www.atmosfair.de/wp-content/uploads/atmosfair-flight-emissions-calculator-englisch-1.pdf.

  2. 2.

    .https://ec.europa.eu/transport/sites/transport/files/2016_eu_air_transport_industry_analyses_report.pdf.

  3. 3.

    https://www.atmosfair.de/wp-content/uploads/atmosfair-flight-emissions-calculator-englisch-1.pdf.

  4. 4.

    https://centreforaviation.com/analysis/reports/aircraft-fleets-western-v-easterncentral-europe-airbus-leads-orders-410122.

  5. 5.

    https://www.hindawi.com/journals/jat/2018/6205714/abs/.

  6. 6.

    https://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/data/data-viewers/greenhouse-gases-viewer.

  7. 7.

    https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/pdfscache/1180.pdf.

  8. 8.

    https://www.easa.europa.eu/eaer/topics/overview-aviation-sector/emissions.

  9. 9.

    https://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/indicators/greenhouse-gas-emission-trends-6/assessment-2.

  10. 10.

    https://ec.europa.eu/clima/policies/ets/registry_en#tab-0-1.

  11. 11.

    https://newsroom.lufthansagroup.com/english/newsroom/lufthansa-group-airlines-to-offer-many-new-destinations-worldwide-in-winter-2017-18/s/7ded97ba-a414-4e04-8c8a-a9fa906b63d4.

  12. 12.

    https://corporate.ryanair.com/network/?market=it.

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Authors and Affiliations

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Correspondence to Alessio Tardivo .

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Annex

Annex

France: national short-distance routes

Route Distance in a straight line
(km)
Distance on rail network
(km)
Passengers 2017 Passengers 2016 Passengers 2015 Passengers 2014 Passengers 2013 Passengers 2012 CO2 produced in 2017
(Kg)
Paris−Marseille 660 746 1.675.607 1.647.533 1.587.239 1.536.832 1.625.083 1.653.360 242.329.343
Paris−Lyon 392 427 696.547 666.803 646.480 627.489 601.033 595.637 63.158.506
Paris−Bordeaux 498 558 1.520.990 1.641.466 1.598.309 1.544.990 1.603.251 1.534.959 184.747.443
Toulouse−Lyon 359 561 406.982 379.790 372.006 360.098 372.010 393.205 34.593.470
Toulouse−Nice 468 647 151.511 156.932 149.677 140.040 149.227 142.111 17.120.799
Bordeaux−Marseille 505 671 296.067 258.398 214.120 244.975 216.938 277.605 35.231.973
Bordeaux−Lille 700 784 150.241 151.191 139.417 136.357 151.532 83.549 24.940.006
Lille−Lyon 557 639 76.463 71.431 69.437 70.172 80.255 84.146 10.169.579
Lille−Nantes 507 633 75.874 49.205 48.073 48.501 55.278 43.220 9.256.689

Germany: national short-distance routes

Route Distance in a straight line
(km)
Distance on rail network
(km)
Passengers 2017 Passengers 2016 Passengers 2015 Passengers 2014 Passengers 2013 Passengers 2012 CO2 produced in 2017
(Kg)
Berlin—Frankfurt 420 512 1.956.290 1.935.596 1.907.300 1.792.971 1.850.787 1.815.438 191.716.371
Berlin—Cologne 475 580 1.661.630 1.871.736 1.458.740 1.322.289 1.288.102 1.381.906 174.845.621
Berlin—Dusseldorf 475 540 1.144.435 1.146.999 1.115.068 1.115.126 1.083.065 1.012.837 122.454.545
Berlin—Munich 500 732 2.061.817 2.032.997 1.975.195 1.871.623 1.833.360 1.923.488 226.175.162
Berlin—Nuremberg 375 534 212.288 229.846 228.075 248.152 248.073 302.320 17.195.288
Berlin—Stuttgart 510 699 1.037.259 986.828 961.166 1.000.407 933.613 808.545 122.396.562
Hamburg—Frankfurt 392 513 1.395.166 1.371.938 1.360.826 1.345.147 1.367.068 1.394.538 128.355.226
Hamburg—Cologne 356 439 486.021 438.330 392.791 400.809 382.832 419.119 37.909.638
Hamburg—Dusseldorf 338 422 607.220 607.249 560.614 606.191 598.510 621.865 43.112.620
Hamburg—Nuremberg 461 623 175.525 231.428 226.248 226.621 244.731 277.231 18.781.122
Hamburg—Stuttgart 533 705 689.911 720.864 718.690 740.429 707.934 710.551 86.928.786
Frankfurt—Dresden 370 493 344.396 328.775 317.276 329.897 321.610 341.149 29.273.660
Frankfurt—Munich 304 426 1.178.390 1.129.027 1.148.611 1.107.868 1.113.259 1.084.311 70.703.400
Frankfurt—Leipzig 293 375 306.124 271.832 263.657 247.182 211.703 207.099 18.367.440
Frankfurt—Hannover 262 337 375.187 349.458 346.818 361.589 350.180 349.527 20.260.098
Frankfurt—Bremen 330 459 341.196 330.319 323.550 333.720 309.052 319.651 23.883.685
Cologne—Dresden 474 679 144.042 126.722 128.823 136.992 157.723 163.760 14.404.200
Cologne—Munich 456 641 989.158 955.343 971.682 1.005.352 973.743 1.084.043 97.926.593
Cologne—Leipzig 380 560 92.856 83.098 83.687 84.605 95.039 102.790 7.057.056
Munich—Dresden 360 687 234.106 224.564 238.994 241.234 247.704 227.409 16.855.596
Munich—Duesseldorf 486 649 1.554.584 1.566.252 1.557.412 1.530.577 1.560.861 1.557.746 172.558.824
Munich—Leipzig 360 567 166.597 161.116 158.689 164.548 168.233 164.787 11.994.948
Munich—Hannover 488 647 545.365 519.145 517.341 508.449 523.545 600.159 59.990.095
Munich—Bremen 583 769 375.354 348.709 337.134 338.563 362.171 358.065 48.045.248
Munich—Dortmund 477 722 183.150 169.861 166.346 168.462 174.842 166.493 18.498.150
Dusseldorf—Dresden 486 716 200.761 233.936 224.068 214.963 210.108 249.954 22.284.471
Dusseldorf—Nuremberg 363 451 233.419 223.557 202.167 219.736 264.927 294.059 18.440.101
Dusseldorf—Leipzig 389 597 113.915 96.585 95.907 90.439 103.218 107.076 9.454.945
Dusseldorf—Stuttgart 322 408 121.437 158.450 154.985 149.681 189.576 214.141 8.622.027
Stuttgart—Hannover 400 522 182.972 203.222 201.134 202.169 219.685 236.601 17.199.321
Stuttgart—Leipzig 365 532 88.944 78.931 75.351 81.104 91.564 83.692 7.204.424
Stuttgart—Bremen 478 616 164.174 156.535 159.092 150.556 155.076 118.353 18.223.314
Stuttgart—Dresden 412 678 102.073 98.670 97.136 97.221 108.725 118.553 9.288.643
Frankfurt—Nuremberg 185 228 273.862 264.188 265.900 264.630 210.922 206.340 10.132.894
Frankfurt—Dusseldorf 185 223 425.068 376.701 386.257 396.664 374.904 383.904 15.727.516
Frankfurt—Stuttgart 152 185 375.818 349.253 342.845 316.972 256.464 238.582 11.650.343
Munich—Nuremberg 150 198 136.984 134.984 134.810 121.407 121.921 122.063 3.835.538
Munich—Stuttgart 190 239 184.724 179.809 171.522 154.579 183.009 182.294 6.834.788

Greece: national short-distance routes

Route Distance in a straight line
(km)
Distance on rail network
(km)
Passengers 2017 Passengers 2016 Passengers 2015 Passengers 2014 Passengers 2013 Passengers 2012 CO2 produced in 2017
(Kg)
Athens—Thessaloniki 302 501 1.607.930 1.810.271 1.642.959 1.286.429 890.823 976.667 101.299.590

Italy: national short-distance routes

Route Distance in a straight line
(km)
Distance on rail network
(km)
Passengers 2017 Passengers 2016 Passengers 2015 Passengers 2014 Passengers 2013 Passengers 2012 CO2 produced in 2017
(Kg)
Rome—Milan 475 563 1.298.769 1.519.296 1.728.454 1.867.949 2.176.579 2.328.471 140.116.030
Milan—Naples 657 777 1.181.186 877.902 1.036.253 1.080.744 1.139.585 1.333.868 177.219.784
Rome—Turin 523 710 552.145 638.287 669.837 402.491 663.540 881.145 66.809.485
Rome—Naples 188 214 297.844 328.805 303.773 292.241 280.083 283.027 11.318.053
Rome—Genoa 400 709 346.399 377.302 438.227 268.578 402.430 451.464 30.829.467
Rome—Florence 230 257 246.872 227.474 214.799 196.722 223.567 231.382 11.849.856

Poland: national short-distance routes

Route Distance in a straight line
(km)
Distance on rail network
(km)
Passengers 2017 Passengers 2016 Passengers 2015 Passengers 2014 Passengers 2013 Passengers 2012 CO2 produced in 2017
(Kg)
Warsaw—Krakow 251 295 351.701 321.018 300.984 275.411 246.385 278.692 17.233.349
WarsawvWroclaw 300 404 527.684 321.395 232.249 256.077 249.317 359.468 33.771.776
Warsaw—Poznan 275 325 165.556 122.490 92.392 100.427 77.999 110.988 9.436.692
Katowice—Warsaw 260 294 101.861 83.008 76.692 83.646 53.875 79.373 4.889.352
Gdansk—Krakow 485 617 102.437 89.501 40.917 64.153 53.605 76.892 11.063.196
Gdansk—Warsaw 283 322 523.500 312.062 242.069 277.237 276.259 407.019 34.027.532

Portugal: national short-distance routes

Route Distance in a straight line
(km)
Distance on rail network
(km)
Passengers 2017 Passengers 2016 Passengers 2015 Passengers 2014 Passengers 2013 Passengers 2012 CO2 produced in 2017
(Kg)
Lisbon—Porto 273 337 1.084.907 1.031.420 669.207 451.418 401.071 389.137 60.754.792

Spain: national short-distance routes

Route Distance in a straight line
(km)
Distance on rail network
(km)
Passengers 2017 Passengers 2016 Passengers 2015 Passengers 2014 Passengers 2013 Passengers 2012 CO2 produced in 2017
(Kg)
Madrid—Barcelona 504 602 2.341.255 2.328.056 2.251.699 2.204.737 2.213.182 2.550.462 257.538.050
Madrid—Valencia 302 390 342.007 311.192 300.372 262.715 254.557 264.416 19.152.392
Madrid—Seville 387 472 301.028 284.390 264.203 244.866 238.928 351.566 26.189.436
Madrid—Malaga 415 539 319.069 318.579 318.343 330.809 278.051 401.834 31.268.762

Sweden: national short-distance routes

Route Distance in a straight line
(km)
Distance on rail network
(km)
Passengers 2017 Passengers 2016 Passengers 2015 Passengers 2014 Passengers 2013 Passengers 2012 CO2 produced in 2017
(Kg)
Goteborg—Stockholm 396 457 1.342.789 1.332.425 1.356.789 1.360.005 1.309.350 1.270.131 115.117.133

United Kingdom: national short-distance routes

Route Distance in a straight line
(km)
Distance on rail network
(km)
Passengers 2017 Passengers 2016 Passengers 2015 Passengers 2014 Passengers 2013 Passengers 2012 CO2 produced in 2017
(Kg)
London—Leeds 271 313 161.553 159.972 148.106 131.738 118.368 : 8.239.203
London—Glasgow 550 650 2.523.565 2.607.611 2.510.159 2.270.005 2.245.095 2.214.407 314.890.145
London—Manchester 260 320 663.022 692.631 774.266 876.694 797.233 1.014.816 31.162.011
Birmingham—Glasgow 405 466 221.689 226.364 227.171 230.354 204.348 209.183 19.508.588

European Union: international short-distance routes

Route Distance in a straight line
(km)
Distance on rail network
(km)
Passengers 2017 Passengers 2016 Passengers 2015 Passengers 2014 Passengers 2013 Passengers 2012 CO2 produced in 2017
(Kg)
Berlin—Vienna 522 793 861.549 799.171 779.209 786.821 737.622 733.861 105.648.491
Berlin—Brussels 650 803 621.887 702.091 509.558 438.072 420.897 411.814 87.734.121
Berlin—Amsterdam 577 639 898.328 871.104 788.082 722.859 664.718 597.733 117.048.584
Berlin—Krakow 530 687 107.356 112.611 125.071 127.230 131.155 60.023 13.097.432
Berlin—Warsaw 515 582 108.086 111.309 119.051 125.214 113.879 : 13.078.346
Berlin—Rotterdam 615 672 50.162 60.006 45.424 : : : 6.671.546
Berlin–Prague 280 393 87.517 : : : : : 87.517
Hamburg—Amsterdam 366 487 456.955 499.678 466.508 392.010 370.496 383.474 37.927.224
Hamburg—Brussels 487 662 281.535 177.984 152.531 152.063 140.189 142.414 30.968.795
Hamburg—Prague 490 679 110.445 : : : : : 12.480.285
Hamburg—Copenhagen 288 509 179.783 182.586 203.819 224.341 164.867 146.944 10.247.631
Frankfurt—Vienna 597 773 1.180.077 1.164.447 1.177.776 1.349.957 1.310.658 1.193.168 166.390.787
Frankfurt—Brussels 316 409 548.283 465.754 517.106 472.273 458.586 449.965 33.445.233
Frankfurt—Prague 410 706 519.591 513.934 551.300 506.908 498.017 484.873 47.282.781
Frankfurt—Amsterdam 363 442 841.591 816.077 799.336 752.964 725.609 716.479 66.485.689
Frankfurt—Lyon 560 717 321.089 295.168 293.225 296.434 269.111 267.986 39.814.974
Cologne—London 497 640 594.321 630.692 662.696 483.048 472.746 482.740 65.859.258
Frankfurt—Paris 477 583 944.070 906.179 964.443 1.053.915 1.041.456 1.114.330 97.239.159
Frankfurt—Milan 517 668 824.949 766.169 766.448 745.606 721.675 692.098 94.832.521
Frankfurt—Poznan 627 770 90.610 83.795 76.820 70.880 37.312 52.576 13.138.378
Frankfurt—London 636 793 1.864.255 1.948.862 2.004.808 1.970.538 1.929.011 1.903.271 270.390.653
Munich—Vienna 355 460 547.029 487.231 555.875 542.825 562.934 563.954 41.574.166
Munich—Prague 300 435 208.823 206.119 210.289 198.640 231.447 208.319 10.858.796
Munich—Budapest 561 717 343.143 330.084 323.050 321.154 321.670 316.537 44.951.733
Munich—Milan 348 587 490.865 422.178 449.664 328.091 335.460 382.039 40.699.460
Munich—Turin 453 734 180.986 165.822 167.375 150.007 158.812 129.568 19.546.488
Munich—Florence 486 645 189.128 170.895 176.012 183.717 159.752 148.268 23.073.616
Munich—Genoa 460 733 92.441 90.247 94.869 57.061 94.390 86.788 10.445.777
Munich—Zagreb 423 579 191.842 181.833 181.593 180.355 181.528 174.846 19.184.150
Duesseldorf—Paris 410 576 466.309 445.904 436.439 479.986 475.470 491.932 40.568.883
Duesseldorf—Amsterdam 180 219 234.348 226.624 205.169 184.800 171.676 182.285 8.202.180
Duesseldorf—London 478 630 895.321 754.168 691.468 655.562 645.832 621.847 101.719.803
Nuremberg—Vienna 411 508 77.401 67.332 66.770 66.010 76.761 96.040 7.585.298
Nuremberg—Budapest 625 772 119.181 : : : : : 16.446.909
Nuremberg—Milan 465 785 102.908 : : : : : 9.673.305
Nuremberg—Amsterdam 541 670 188.110 191.908 186.317 168.381 160.861 159.534 23.325.640
Hannover—Amsterdam 327 382 178.804 177.510 170.371 168.236 166.610 162.048 12.516.280
Stuttgart—Vienna 533 699 427.883 367.782 344.447 338.863 338.549 342.851 53.485.375
Stuttgart—Brussels 416 597 99.357 76.923 77.337 : : : 9.339.511
Stuttgart—Milan 368 619 155.424 139.455 130.075 81.343 88.323 89.912 11.345.952
Stuttgart—Paris 500 602 182.358 178.710 186.075 184.014 199.562 228.251 20.424.040
Stuttgart—Amsterdam 500 627 325.281 312.612 284.093 228.398 210.300 206.128 38.057.819
Dortmund—London 525 720 213.763 207.802 217.228 236.209 160.585 162.044 23.844.358
Dortmund—Wroclaw 666 788 31.843 31.704 30.516 29.754 29.316 27.658 4.489.863
Bremen—Amsterdam 274 372 164.296 155.210 152.309 141.149 143.921 138.104 9.036.280
London—Paris 343 460 2.181.247 2.245.164 2.194.613 2.042.799 1.831.887 1.751.282 157.571.551
London—Amsterdam 357 597 4.488.263 4.141.696 3.847.757 3.442.148 3.229.507 3.117.265 336.498.375
London—Rotterdam 320 529 178.052 219.274 219.991 272.696 235.109 112.983 10.327.016
Birmingham—Paris 502 640 398.933 380.981 388.357 388.862 365.691 358.896 44.281.563
Birmingham—Amsterdam 460 697 676.693 633.081 565.453 508.644 460.633 445.610 67.669.300
Leeds—Paris 612 783 49.051 46.604 49.110 61.148 63.306 64.103 6.425.681
Manchester—Paris 605 780 630.886 568.366 478.819 507.100 503.387 470.466 82.646.066
Sheffield—Paris 570 726 41.697 48.431 : : : : 5.003.640
Vienna—Warsaw 557 664 222.350 205.889 205.113 208.178 207.535 207.423 28.016.037
Vienna—Budapest 215 264 103.411 100.208 104.901 107.372 104.075 106.144 4.239.851
Vienna—Zagreb 268 481 164.100 160.326 163.421 163.748 158.326 163.022 8.533.200
Brussels—Paris 261 315 199.065 203.444 205.727 170.833 156.712 132.912 9.754.161
Brussels—Lyon 560 742 245.347 216.856 239.002 240.540 221.730 226.416 32.140.392
Brussels—Amsterdam 180 219 259.780 219.141 243.416 241.883 223.166 213.768 12.729.220
Brussels—Birmingham 466 488 152.911 133.353 144.297 120.092 107.179 105.405 16.208.566
Brussels—Manchester 535 698 397.564 376.620 385.279 332.714 287.574 262.263 48.321.378
Brussels—London 318 378 651.306 572.195 722.546 673.362 568.996 547.948 48.196.607
Antwerp—London 316 433 50.229 54.422 58.319 54.043 70.810 71.962 3.114.198
Copenhagen—Goteborg 226 339 289.570 331.470 298.020 336.134 306.589 327.313 11.872.350
Budapest—Prague 440 609 109.502 78.296 : : : 75.708 12.264.224
Riga—Warsaw 958 676 115.588 95.197 86.196 80.683 65.635 66.016 15.373.138
Riga—Vilnius 265 347 162.870 165.797 165.048 175.214 181.108 178.129 8.794.953
Warsaw – Vilnius 390 568 167.559 121.675 101.614 100.675 94.416 72.707 15.247.869
Barcelona—Lyon 530 680 294.658 308.922 302.408 282.955 294.310 212.719 36.832.250
Barcelona—Marseille 335 580 78.118 78.985 : : : : 5.833.050
Barcelona—Bordeaux 443 678 162.115 120.481 77.669 68.707 61.595 67.767 17.670.480
Amsterdam—Paris 428 522 1.422.740 1.324.720 1.154.023 1.158.098 1.127.698 1.141.903 125.997.340
Paris—Turin 580 731 171.647 174.458 181.807 178.319 178.723 189.469 22.314.045
Warsaw—Prague 517 747 212.637 196.005 179.672 162.341 153.787 160.386 26.366.988

France: national medium-distance routes

Route Distance in a straight line
(km)
Distance on rail network
(km)
Distance on road network
(km)
Passengers 2017 Passengers 2016 Passengers 2015 Passengers 2014 Passengers 2013 Passengers 2012 CO2 produced in 2017
(Kg)
Paris−Toulouse 586 816 680 3.254.630 3.258.878 3.214.776 3.169.217 3.192.829 3.154.149 450.067.524
Bordeaux—Lyon 437 985 556 532.009 508.416 474.885 459.698 450.582 451.107 59.052.999

Germany: national medium-distance routes

Route Distance in a straight line
(km)
Distance on rail network
(km)
Distance on road network
(km)
Passengers 2017 Passengers 2016 Passengers 2015 Passengers 2014 Passengers 2013 Passengers 2012 CO2 produced in 2017
(Kg)
Munich—Hamburg 610 825 775 1.739.043 1.805.203 1.811.381 1.762.070 1.721.782 1.721.358 269.551.665

Italy: national medium-distance routes

Route Distance in a straight line
(km)
Distance on rail network
(km)
Distance on road network
(km)
Passengers 2017 Passengers 2016 Passengers 2015 Passengers 2014 Passengers 2013 Passengers 2012 CO2 produced in 2017
(Kg)
Naples—Genoa 590 923 700 79.120 48.233 55.321 28.979 58.654 78.390 10.681.200

Spain: national medium-distance routes

Route Distance in a straight line
(km)
Distance on rail network
(km)
Distance on road network
(km)
Passengers 2017 Passengers 2016 Passengers 2015 Passengers 2014 Passengers 2013 Passengers 2012 CO2 produced in 2017
(Kg)
Valencia—Seville 539 862 654 182.431 113.126 125.082 100.509 151.100 200.946 21.891.720

European Union: international medium-distance routes

Route Distance in a straight line
(km)
Distance on rail network
(km)
Distance on road network
(km)
Passengers 2017 Passengers 2016 Passengers 2015 Passengers 2014 Passengers 2013 Passengers 2012 CO2 produced in 2017
(Kg)
Bremen—Paris 650 1042 787 71.977 81.496 94.566 111.216 93.261 86.607 10.220.734
Hannover—Paris 650 832 773 162.607 155.232 154.388 152.446 160.392 155.251 23.252.801
Dresden—Amsterdam 626 935 734 40.541 26.969      5.473.035
Leipzig—Vienna 586 906 582 55.397 50.189 53.549 55.844 53.747 50.139 6.093.670
Nurnberg—Paris 637 808 759 169.229 157.601 161.757 159.913 147.525 146.125 23.861.219
Duesseldorf—Birmingham 611 1054 783 270.567 241.274 219.054 198.654 184.347 175.607 36.797.044
Berlin—Copenhagen 365 803 750 629.851 679.784 634.634 632.246 579.484 525.643 46.356.508
Cologne—Copenhagen 645 948 750 110.729 110.874 : : : : 15.280.602
Frankfurt—Turin 565 819 738 192.261 186.392 206.678 168.617 202.560 189.370 23.648.103
Frankfurt—Wroclaw 600 844 725 148.028 138.459 140.732 108.570 105.793 100.426 20.427.795
Munich—Brussels 602 835 780 403.195 349.794 347.172 351.434 363.450 365.824 54.431.325
Munich—Lyon 570 902 731 186.797 188.556 190.066 202.512 222.971 211.898 25.030.731
Munich—Wroclaw 512 1005 720 137.124 138.119 126.466 126.359 128.033 122.759 15.220.764
Duesseldorf—Prague 554 942 724 234.022 192.126 166.656 178.444 164.417 154.948 29.252.750
Duesseldorf—Copenhagen 625 931 728 312.164 378.972 380.323 379.853 386.314 326.087 44.327.217
Duesseldorf—Lyon 620 1317 759 78.996 : : 76.649 131.316 137.295 11.296.428
Hamburg—Gdansk 572 767 858 68.010 43.745 : : : : 8.705.280
Zagreb—Stuttgart 610 818 780 55.176 54.103 50.675 50.082 50.270 51.362 10.593.792
Sofia—Athens 526 850 790 201.971 146.979 95.600 96.364 89.203 96.117 24.640.401
Budapest to Warsaw 550 867 781 238.254 212.363 196.648 172.417 181.743 115.697 30.496.448
Madrid—Lisbon 503 1324 629 1.427.516 1.296.808 1.173.975 1.027.638 974.675 1.109.369 166.970.934
Madrid—Toulouse 552 702 1022 366.401 201.864 154.094 160.710 187.944 206.766 47.265.793
Madrid—Bordeaux 554 686 849 103.995 : : 46.408 43.146 95.782 13.311.360
Madrid—Porto 422 562 856 615.261 533.548 484.125 395.307 362.452 398.131 63.987.196
Malaga- Lisbon 470 1863 650 88.069 : : : : : 8.962.026
Seville—Lisbon 312 1790 433 95.730 : : : : : 6.318.906

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Tardivo, A., Carrillo Zanuy, A. (2022). The Effects of Sustainability-Driven Policies on Transport CO2 Production: High-Speed Rail Transportation as an Alternative to Passenger Air Transport. In: Marinov, M., Piip, J. (eds) Sustainable Rail Transport 4. Lecture Notes in Mobility. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-82095-4_11

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