1 Acute

1.1 Prepubertal

Fig. 6.1
figure 1

FGM/C type IIIb in a 16-month old girl from Mali (a, b), admitted with acute retention of urine and acute renal failure, Mali. (Courtesy of Moustapha Touré)

1.2 Postpubertal

Fig. 6.2
figure 2

Hematocolpos and hematometra after FGM/C type III in a girl, from Mali (ac). (Courtesy of Moustapha Touré)

2 Long Term

2.1 Prepubertal

Fig. 6.3
figure 3figure 3

Epidermal cysts in prepubertal girls from Mali. (ae Courtesy of Moustapha Touré, f Courtesy of Aïda Sy). (g) 5-years old, cut at 11-months, from Guinea (Courtesy of Anneke Vercoutere)

2.2 Postpubertal

Fig. 6.4
figure 4

Epidermal cyst in an adult woman from Somalia (a, b). (Courtesy of Juliet Albert)

3 Acute and Long Term

Fig. 6.5
figure 5

Abscess in a prepubertal girl shortly after FGM/C in Mali (a) (Courtesy of Moustapha Touré). (b) Third episode of clitoral abscess, 15-year-old girl who was cut at the age of 9 (FGM/C type IIb) (Courtesy of Anneke Vercoutere)

Fig. 6.6
figure 6

FGM/C type IIIa in a postpubertal girl of 15-years old from Somalia, presenting with a vulvar abscess of 6 cm. (Courtesy of Martin Caillet)

Fig. 6.7
figure 7

16-year-old girl from Mali, with a history of FGM/C type III at the age of 12, married at 15, pregnant at 16. Labour dystocia for 3 days in her rural village. Brought to the hospital with a cart and a pirogue. Received with a dead foetus, vesico-vaginal and recto-vaginal fistulas, and a puerperal psychosis. She remained hospitalized for three months and underwent three surgeries. (Courtesy of Moustapha Touré [13])

4 Surgical Treatments of Complications of FGM/C

Fig. 6.8
figure 8figure 8figure 8

Vulvar cystectomy in prepubertal girls, from Mali (a1a4, b1b2, c1c3). (Courtesy of Moustapha Touré)

Fig. 6.9
figure 9figure 9

Cystectomy of a clitoral cyst followed by defibulation in a 16-year-old girl from Eritrea (ae). She had undergone FGM/C type IIIa with excision of the clitoris as a newborn. She was asymptomatic and was followed-up for 2 years until she asked for a cyst removal at around 16, due to its size. (Courtesy of Jasmine Abdulcadir)

Fig. 6.10
figure 10

Cystectomy of a small clitoral painful cyst, FGM/C type IIIa, 18-years old, from Somalia (ac). (Courtesy of Jasmine Abdulcadir)

5 Defibulation

5.1 Prepubertal

Fig. 6.11
figure 11

Defibulation in an 11-year-old girl, from Somalia presenting with FGM/C type IIIa with excision of the clitoris (ac). (Courtesy of Martin Caillet)

5.2 Postpubertal

Fig. 6.12
figure 12

Anterior and posterior defibulation, 12-years old, from Ethiopia with FGM/C type IIIa with excision of the clitoris (ae). (Courtesy of Amelia Valladolid)

Fig. 6.13
figure 13

Defibulation in an adult woman, from Mali, with FGM/C type IIIa (ac). (Courtesy of Moustapha Touré)

Fig. 6.14
figure 14

Defibulation in an 18-year-old woman, from Eritrea at 24 weeks of pregnancy (a and b). (Courtesy of Jasmine Abdulcadir)

Fig. 6.15
figure 15

Defibulation in a 16-year-old girl from Eritrea with FGM/C type IIIa without cutting of the clitoris (ac). She had been cut before her first birthday and before migration. (Courtesy of Jasmine Abdulcadir)

Fig. 6.16
figure 16

Defibulation in a 23-year-old woman, from Eritrea, with FGM/C type IIIa–b (apposition of both inner and outer labia without cutting of the clitoris) (ad). (Courtesy of Juliet Albert)

Fig. 6.17
figure 17

FGM/C type IIIa with cutting and apposition of the inner labia, and cutting of the clitoral hood in a 28-year-old woman, from Somalia. She had undergone FGM/C before puberty. After defibulation, the intact glans of the clitoris is exposed. (Courtesy of Jasmine Abdulcadir [8])

Fig. 6.18
figure 18figure 18

FGM/C type IIIa-b with apposition of the inner and outer labia in a 23-year-old woman, from Eritrea (a). Defibulation (be). After defibulation, the intact prepuce and glans of the clitoris are exposed. Defibulation of outer (b) and inner (c) labia. Day 7 of defibulation (de). (Courtesy of Jasmine Abdulcadir)

Fig. 6.19
figure 19

FGM/C type IV in a 35-year-old woman from the African Great Lakes region (she has not consented to share the exact geographical origin in addition to this information) (a). She referred stretching of the inner labia between the age of 12 and 15. She consulted to ask for the excision of the excedentary part of the inner labium as symptomatic during sex and daily life (recurrent fissures, pain due to tissue pulling and superficial dyspareunia). (b) Excision of the excendentary tissue of the left inner labium under local anesthesia. Courtesy of Jasmine Abdulcadir