Skip to main content

Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex Injury

  • Chapter
  • First Online:
Hand and Wrist Injuries in Baseball

Abstract

Injuries to the triangular fibrocartilage complex are a common source of ulnar-sided wrist pain in amateur and professional baseball players. Early diagnosis and intervention are essential to minimizing time away from play. The choice of treatment is dependent upon the nature of the tear as acute or chronic, as well as its anatomic location and the presence or absence of various associated injuries. Shared decision-making between the surgeon and the athlete with careful consideration of their short and long-term goals is equally important when deciding upon a treatment strategy. Overall, most players can expect a full recovery and return to sport following conservative and surgical treatment of TFCC tears.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or eBook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Chapter
USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
eBook
USD 89.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book
USD 119.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info
Hardcover Book
USD 169.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  1. Palmer AK, Werner FW. The triangular fibrocartilage complex of the wrist—Anatomy and function. J Hand Surg. 1981;6(2):153–62.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. Dailey SW, Palmer AK. The role of arthroscopy in the evaluation and treatment of triangular fibrocartilage complex injuries in athletes. Hand Clin. 2000;16(3):461–76.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. Papapetropoulos PA, Ruch DS. Repair of arthroscopic triangular fibrocartilage complex tears in athletes. Hand Clin. 2009;25(3):389–94.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. Rettig AC. Epidemiology of hand and wrist injuries in sports. Clin Sports Med. 1998;17(3):401–6.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. Pang EQ, Yao J. Ulnar-sided wrist pain in the athlete (TFCC/DRUJ/ECU). Curr Rev Musculoskelet Med. 2017;10(1):53–61.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  6. Geissler WB, Burkett JL. Ligamentous sports injuries of the hand and wrist. Sports Med Arthrosc Rev. 2014;22(1):39–44.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. McAdams TR, Swan J, Yao J. Arthroscopic treatment of triangular fibrocartilage wrist injuries in the athlete. Am J Sports Med. 2009;37(2):291–7.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. Robertson G, Ang KK, Maffulli N, Simpson CK, Rust PA. Return to sport following surgical management of triangular fibrocartilage tears: a systematic review. Br Med Bull. 2019;130(1):89–103.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. Avery DM, Rodner CM, Edgar CM. Sports-related wrist and hand injuries: a review. J Orthop Surg Res. 2016;11(1):99.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  10. Fares MY, Salhab HA, Khachfe HH, Kane L, Fares Y, Fares J, et al. Upper limb injuries in major league baseball. Phys Ther Sport. 2019;41:49–54.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. Harvey NM, Culp RW. Baseball commentary “Traumatic TFCC Tear”. Hand Clin. 2012;28(3):323–4.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  12. Baratz ME. Central TFCC Tears in Baseball Players. Hand Clin. 2012;28(3):339.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  13. Harley BJ, Pereria ML, Werner FW, Kinney DA, Sutton LG. Force variations in the distal radius and ulna: effect of ulnar variance and forearm motion. J Hand Surg Am. 2015;40(2):211–6.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  14. Palmer AK, Werner FW. Biomechanics of the distal radioulnar joint. Clin Orthop Relat R. 1984;187:26–35.

    Google Scholar 

  15. Palmer AK. Triangular fibrocartilage complex lesions: a classification. J Hand Surg Am. 1989;14(4):594–606.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  16. Ishii S, Palmer AK, Werner FW, Short WH, Fortino MD. An anatomic study of the ligamentous structure of the triangular fibrocartilage complex. J Hand Surg Am. 1998;23(6):977–85.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  17. Kleinman WB. Stability of the distal radioulna joint: biomechanics, pathophysiology, physical diagnosis, and restoration of function what we have learned in 25 years. J Hand Surg Am. 2007;32(7):1086–106.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  18. Atzei A, Luchetti R. Foveal TFCC tear classification and treatment. Hand Clin. 2011;27(3):263–72.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  19. Estrella EP, Hung L-K, Ho P-C, Tse WL. Arthroscopic repair of triangular fibrocartilage complex tears. Arthroscopy. 2007;23(7):729–737.e1.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  20. Tay S-C, Berger RA, Parker WL. Longitudinal split tears of the ulnotriquetral ligament. Hand Clin. 2010;26(4):495–501.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  21. Melone CP, Nathan R. Traumatic disruption of the triangular fibrocartilage complex. Clin Orthop Relat R. 1992;275:65–73.

    Google Scholar 

  22. Pathi RGT, Ferlic DC, Clayton ML, McClure DC. Arterial anatomy of the triangular fibrocartilage of the wrist and its surgical significance. J Hand Surg [Am]. 1986;11(2):258–63.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Bednar MS. The Microvasculature of the triangulra fibrocartilage complex: it’s clinical significance. J Hand Surg [Am]. 1991;16:1101–5.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  24. Werner FW, Glisson RR, Murphy DJ, Palmer AK. Force transmission through the distal radioulnar carpal joint: effect of ulnar lengthening and shortening. Handchir Mikrochir Plast Chir. 1986;18(5):304–8.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  25. Friedman SL, Palmer AK, Short WH, Levinsohn EM, Halperin LS. The change in ulnar variance with grip. J Hand Surg [Am]. 1993;18(4):713–6.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  26. Tomaino MM. The importance of the pronated grip x-ray view in evaluating ulnar variance. J Hand Surg [Am]. 2000;25(2):352–7.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  27. Palmer AK, Glisson RR, Werner FW. Relationship between ulnar variance and triangular fibrocartilage complex thickness. J Hand Surg [Am]. 1984;9(5):681–3.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  28. Adams BD. Partial excision of the triangular fibrocartilage complex articular disk: a biomechanical study. J Hand Surg [Am]. 1993;18(2):334–40.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  29. Ko JH, Wiedrich TA. Triangular fibrocartilage complex injuries in the elite athlete. Hand Clin. 2012;28(3):307–21.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  30. Ruch DS, Yang CC, Smith BP. Results of acute arthroscopically repaired triangular fibrocartilage complex injuries associated with intra-articular distal radius fractures. Arthroscopy. 2003;19(5):511–6.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  31. Corso SJ, Savoie FH, Geissler WB, Whipple TL, Jiminez W, Jenkins N. Arthroscopic repair of peripheral avulsions of the triangular fibrocartilage complex of the wrist: a multicenter study. Arthroscopy. 1997;13(1):78–84.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  32. Jarrett CD, Baratz ME. The management of ulnocarpal abutment and degenerative triangular fibrocartilage complex tears in the competitive athlete. Hand Clin. 2012;28(3):329–37.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  33. Tay SC, Tomita K, Berger RA. The “ulnar fovea sign” for defining ulnar wrist pain: an analysis of sensitivity and specificity. J Hand Surg Am. 2007;32(4):438–44.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  34. Nakamura R, Horii E, Imaeda T, Nakao E, Kato H, Watanabe K. The ulnocarpal stress test in the diagnosis of ulnar-sided wrist pain. J Hand Surg Br. 1997;22(6):719–23.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  35. Minami A, Kato H. Ulnar shortening for triangular fibrocartilage complex tears associated with ulnar positive variance. J Hand Surg Am. 1998;23(5):904–8.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  36. Schmauss D, Pöhlmann S, Lohmeyer JA, Germann G, Bickert B, Megerle K. Clinical tests and magnetic resonance imaging have limited diagnostic value for triangular fibrocartilaginous complex lesions. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2016;136(6):873–80.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  37. Halbrecht J, Levy IM, Gaudinez R. “Press test” for office diagnosis of triangular fibrocartilage complex tears of the wrist. Ann Plast Surg. 1995;35(1):41–5.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  38. Palmer AK, Glisson RR, Werner FW. Ulnar variance determination. J Hand Surg Am. 1982;7(4):376–9.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  39. Anderson ML, Skinner JA, Felmlee JP, Berger RA, Amrami KK. Diagnostic comparison of 1.5 tesla and 3.0 tesla preoperative MRI of the wrist in patients with ulnar-sided wrist pain. J Hand Surg Am. 2008;33(7):1153–9.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  40. Faber KJ, Iordache S, Grewal R. Magnetic resonance imaging for ulnar wrist pain. J Hand Surg Am. 2010;35(2):303–7.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  41. Lee YH, Choi YR, Kim S, Song H-T, Suh J-S. Intrinsic ligament and triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) tears of the wrist: comparison of isovolumetric 3D-THRIVE sequence MR arthrography and conventional MR image at 3 T. Magn Reson Imaging. 2013;31(2):221–6.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  42. Lee RKL, Ng AWH, Tong CSL, Griffith JF, Tse WL, Wong C, et al. Intrinsic ligament and triangular fibrocartilage complex tears of the wrist: comparison of MDCT arthrography, conventional 3-T MRI, and MR arthrography. Skelet Radiol. 2013;42(9):1277–85.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  43. Zanetti M, Bräm J, Hodler J. Triangular fibrocartilage and intercarpal ligaments of the wrist: Does MR arthrography improve standard MRI? J Magn Reson Imaging. 1997;7(3):590–4.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  44. Blazar PE, Chan PSH, Kneeland JB, Leatherwood D, Bozentka DJ, Kowalchick R. The effect of observer experience on magnetic resonance imaging interpretation and localization of triangular fibrocartilage complex lesions. J Hand Surg Am. 2001;26(4):742–8.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  45. Oneson SR, Timins ME, Scales LM, Erickson SJ, Chamoy L. MR imaging diagnosis of triangular fibrocartilage pathology with arthroscopic correlation. Am J Roentgenol. 1997;168(6):1513–8.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  46. Haims AH, Schweitzer ME, Morrison WB, Deely D, Lange R, Osterman AL, et al. Limitations of MR imaging in the diagnosis of peripheral tears of the triangular fibrocartilage of the wrist. Am J Roentgenol. 2002;178(2):419–22.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  47. Iordache SD, Rowan R, Garvin GJ, Osman S, Grewal R, Faber KJ. Prevalence of triangular fibrocartilage complex abnormalities on MRI scans of asymptomatic wrists. J Hand Surg Am. 2012;37(1):98–103.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  48. Bendre HH, Oflazoglu K, van Leeuwen WF, Rakhorst H, Ring D, Chen NC. The prevalence of triangular fibrocartilage complex signal abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging relative to clinical suspicion of pathology. J Hand Surg Am. 2018;43(9):819–826.e1.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  49. Whipple TL, Geissler WB. Arthroscopic management of wrist triangular fibrocartilage complex injuries in the athlete. Orthopedics. 1993;16(9):1061–7.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  50. Lee JK, Hwang J-Y, Lee SY, Kwon BC. What is the natural history of the triangular fibrocartilage complex tear without distal radioulnar joint instability? Clin Orthop Relat R. 2019;477(2):442–9.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  51. Park MJ, Jagadish A, Yao J. The rate of triangular fibrocartilage injuries requiring surgical intervention. Orthopedics. 2010;33(11):806.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  52. Bednar JM, Osterman AL. The role of arthroscopy in the treatment of traumatic triangular fibrocartilage injuries. Hand Clin. 1994;10(4):605–14.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  53. Minami A, Ishikawa J, Suenaga N, Kasashima T. Clinical results of treatment of triangular fibrocartilage complex tears by arthroscopic debridement. J Hand Surg Am. 1996;21(3):406–11.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  54. Roh YH, Hong SW, Gong HS, Baek GH. Prognostic factors of arthroscopic debridement for central triangular fibrocartilage complex tears in adults younger than 45 years: a retrospective case series analysis. Arthroscopy. 2018;34(11):2994–8.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  55. Arsalan-Werner A, Grüter L, Mehling IM, Moll W, Wölfle O, Sauerbier M. Results after arthroscopic treatment of central traumatic lesions of the triangular fibrocartilage complex. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2018;138(5):731–7.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  56. Hermansdorfer JD, Kleinman WB. Management of chronic peripheral tears of the triangular fibrocartilage complex. J Hand Surg Am. 1991;16(2):340–6.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  57. Atzei A, Luchetti R, Braidotti F. Arthroscopic foveal repair of the triangular fibrocartilage complex. J Wrist Surg. 2015;04(01):022–30.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  58. Trehan SK, Wall LB, Calfee RP, Shen TS, Dy CJ, Yannascoli SM, et al. Arthroscopic diagnosis of the triangular fibrocartilage complex foveal tear: a cadaver assessment. J Hand Surg Am. 2018;43(7):680.e1–5.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  59. Trumble TE, Gilbert M, Vedder N. Isolated tears of the triangular fibrocartilage: management by early arthroscopic repair. J Hand Surg Am. 1997;22(1):57–65.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  60. Wysocki RW, Richard MJ, Crowe MM, Leversedge FJ, Ruch DS. Arthroscopic treatment of peripheral triangular fibrocartilage complex tears with the deep fibers intact. J Hand Surg Am. 2012;37(3):509–16.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  61. de Araujo W, Poehling GG, Kuzma GR. New Tuohy needle technique for triangular fibrocartilage complex repair: preliminary studies. Arthroscopy. 1996;12(6):699–703.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  62. Yao J, Dantuluri P, Osterman AL. A novel technique of all-inside arthroscopic triangular fibrocartilage complex repair. Arthroscopy. 2007;23(12):1357.e1–4.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  63. Yao J, Lee AT. All-arthroscopic repair of Palmer 1B triangular fibrocartilage complex tears using the FasT-Fix device. J Hand Surg Am. 2011;36(5):836–42.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  64. Yao J. All-arthroscopic triangular fibrocartilage complex repair: safety and biomechanical comparison with a traditional outside-in technique in cadavers. J Hand Surg Am. 2009;34(4):671–6.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  65. Whitlock K, Ruch DS. Editorial commentary: ulnar variance is not the sole determinant of arthroscopic wrist triangular fibrocartilage complex repair outcome: considering the forest from the ulnar-positive tree. Arthroscopy. 2020;36(9):2423–4.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  66. Ruch DS, Papadonikolakis A. Arthroscopically assisted repair of peripheral triangular fibrocartilage complex tears: factors affecting outcome. Arthroscopy. 2005;21(9):1126–30.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  67. Papapetropoulos PA, Wartinbee DA, Richard MJ, Leversedge FJ, Ruch DS. Management of peripheral triangular fibrocartilage complex tears in the ulnar positive patient: arthroscopic repair versus ulnar shortening osteotomy. J Hand Surg Am. 2010;35(10):1607–13.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  68. Kwon BC, Lee JH, Lee SY. What is the effect of the ulnar plus variance on the outcomes of arthroscopic repair for the peripheral ulnar-side TFCC tear? Arthroscopy. 2020;36(9):2415–22.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  69. Wolf MB, Haas A, Dragu A, Leclère FM, Dreyhaupt J, Hahn P, et al. Arthroscopic repair of ulnar-sided triangular fibrocartilage complex (Palmer Type 1B) tears: a comparison between short- and midterm results. J Hand Surg Am. 2012;37(11):2325–30.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  70. Wolf MB, Kroeber MW, Reiter A, Thomas SB, Hahn P, Horch RE, et al. Ulnar shortening after TFCC suture repair of Palmer type 1B lesions. Arch Orthop Traum Surg. 2010;130(3):301–6.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  71. Seo J-B, Kim J-P, Yi H-S, Park K-H. The outcomes of arthroscopic repair versus debridement for chronic unstable triangular fibrocartilage complex tears in patients undergoing ulnar-shortening osteotomy. J Hand Surg Am. 2016;41(5):615–23.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  72. Adams BD, Berger RA. An anatomic reconstruction of the distal radioulnar ligaments for posttraumatic distal radioulnar joint instability. J Hand Surg Am. 2002;27(2):243–51.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  73. Moritomo H, Murase T, Arimitsu S, Oka K, Yoshikawa H, Sugamoto K. Change in the length of the ulnocarpal ligaments during radiocarpal motion: possible impact on triangular fibrocartilage complex foveal tears. J Hand Surg Am. 2008;33(8):1278–86.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  74. Sagerman SD, Short W. Arthroscopic repair of radial-sided triangular fibrocartilage complex tears. Arthroscopy. 1996;12(3):339–42.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  75. Osterman AL. Arthroscopic treatment of radial sided TFCC lesions. International Wrist Investigator’s Workshop, ASSH; 2014.

    Google Scholar 

  76. Osterman AL, Terrill RG. Arthroscopic treatment of TFCC lesions. Hand Clin. 1991;7(2):277–81.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  77. Nishiwaki M, Nakamura T, Nakao Y, Nagura T, Toyama Y. Ulnar shortening effect on distal radioulnar joint stability: a biomechanical study. J Hand Surg Am. 2005;30(4):719–26.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  78. Kitamura T, Moritomo H, Arimitsu S, Berglund LJ, Zhao KD, An K-N, et al. The biomechanical effect of the distal interosseous membrane on distal radioulnar joint stability: a preliminary anatomic study. J Hand Surg Am. 2011;36(10):1626–30.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  79. Iwasaki N, Ishikawa J, Kato H, Minami M, Minami A. Factors affecting results of ulnar shortening for ulnar impaction syndrome. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2007;465:215–9.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  80. Hulsizer D, Weiss A-PC, Akelman E. Ulna-shortening osteotomy after failed arthroscopic debridement of the triangular fibrocartilage complex. J Hand Surg Am. 1997;22(4):694–8.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  81. Baek GH, Chung MS, Lee YH, Gong HS, Lee S, Kim HH. Ulnar shortening osteotomy in idiopathic ulnar impaction syndrome. J Bone Jt Surg. 2005;87(12):2649–54.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  82. Moermans A, Degreef I, Smet LD. Ulnar shortening osteotomy for ulnar ideopathic impaction syndrome. Scand J Plast Reconstr Surg Hand Surg. 2009;41(6):310–4.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  83. Owens J, Compton J, Day M, Glass N, Lawler E. Nonunion rates among ulnar-shortening osteotomy for ulnar impaction syndrome: a systematic review. J Hand Surg Am. 2018;44(7):612.e1–612.e12.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  84. Oh W-T, Kang H-J, Chun Y-M, Koh I-H, An H-M-S, Choi Y-R. Arthroscopic wafer procedure versus ulnar shortening osteotomy as a surgical treatment for idiopathic ulnar impaction syndrome. Arthroscopy. 2018;34(2):421–30.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  85. McAdams TR, Hentz VR. Injury to the dorsal sensory branch of the ulnar nerve in the arthroscopic repair of ulnar-sided triangular fibrocartilage tears using an inside-out technique: a cadaver study. J Hand Surg Am. 2002;27(5):840–4.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  86. ADAMS BD. Anatomic reconstruction of the distal radioulnar ligaments for DRUJ instability. Tech Hand Up Extrem Surg. 2000;4(3):154–60.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  87. Bernstein MA, Nagle DJ, Martinez A, Stogin JM, Wiedrich TA. A comparison of combined arthroscopic triangular fibrocartilage complex debridement and arthroscopic wafer distal ulna resection versus arthroscopic triangular fibrocartilage complex debridement and ulnar shortening osteotomy for ulnocarpal abutment syndrome. Arthroscopy. 2004;20(4):392–401.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  88. Ahsan ZS, Song Y, Yao J. Outcomes of ulnar shortening osteotomy fixed with a dynamic compression system. J Hand Surg Am. 2013;38(8):1520–3.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  89. Pomerance J. Plate removal after ulnar-shortening osteotomy. J Hand Surg Am. 2005;30(5):949–53.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  90. Constantine KJ, Tomaino MM, Herndon JH, Sotereanos DG. Comparison of ulnar shortening osteotomy and the wafer resection procedure as treatment for ulnar impaction syndrome. J Hand Surg Am. 2000;25(1):55–60.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  91. Tomaino MM, Shah M. Treatment of ulnar impaction syndrome with the wafer procedure. Am J Orthop (Belle Mead NJ). 2001;30(2):129–33.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  92. Böhringer G, Schädel-Höpfner M, Petermann J, Gotzen L. A method for all-inside arthroscopic repair of Palmer 1B triangular fibrocartilage complex tears. Arthroscopy. 2002;18(2):211–3.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Keith G. Whitlock .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2022 Springer Nature Switzerland AG

About this chapter

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this chapter

Whitlock, K.G., Ruch, D.S. (2022). Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex Injury. In: Lourie, G.M. (eds) Hand and Wrist Injuries in Baseball. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-81659-9_12

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-81659-9_12

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Cham

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-030-81658-2

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-030-81659-9

  • eBook Packages: MedicineMedicine (R0)

Publish with us

Policies and ethics