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Trends 1–7

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Part of the Culture and Religion in International Relations book series (CRIR)

Abstract

In sum, despite all differences and sometimes mutually opposed phenomena and trends involving contemporary religion, there currently seems to be wide consensus that, in principle, there are “shifting boundaries” between religion, politics and society in most social and political systems on the globe—with all three terms meant in the broadest sense.

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Notes

  1. 1.

    Berkley Center for Religion, Peace and World Affairs at Georgetown University: God and Caesar in Flux? Shifting Boundaries Between Religion and Politics in Europe. Event, February 26, 2013, https://berkleycenter.georgetown.edu/events/god-and-caesar-in-flux-shifting-boundaries-between-religion-and-politics-in-europe (last accessed November 3, 2020).

  2. 2.

    Roland Benedikter and Ingrid Kofler: Globalization’s Current Transition Phase: The 5R’s, loc cit.

  3. 3.

    Dig Mandarin: Confucius Institutes Around the World—2020, February 15, 2020, https://www.digmandarin.com/confucius-institutes-around-the-world.html (last accessed November 3, 2020).

  4. 4.

    Andreas Fulda: Chinese Propaganda Has No Place on Campus. Universities Can’t Handle Confucius Institutes Responsibly. The State Should Step in. In: Foreign Policy, October 15, 2019, https://foreignpolicy.com/2019/10/15/confucius-institute-chinese-propaganda-campus-communist-party-censorship/ (last accessed October 26, 2020).

  5. 5.

    Greg Smith and Linda Woodhead: Religion and Brexit: Populism and the Church of England. In: Religion, State and Society, Volume 46, August 15, 2018, Issue 3, Religion and the Rise of Populism. Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group, pp. 206–223, to be found at: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/09637494.2018.1483861?forwardService=showFullText&tokenAccess=TXI4SYxnd5BartREYxvM&tokenDomain=eprints&doi=10.1080%2F09637494.2018.1483861&doi=10.1080%2F09637494.2018.1483861&journalCode=crss20& (last accessed October 26, 2020).

  6. 6.

    The Church of England: Bishops Issue Open Letter on Brexit, August 28, 2020, https://www.churchofengland.org/more/media-centre/news/bishops-issue-open-letter-brexit (last accessed October 26, 2020).

  7. 7.

    Claire Mitchell: Religion, Identity and Politics in Northern Ireland: Boundaries of Belonging and Belief. Ashgate Publishing Limited, Hants, England–Burlington, USA, 2006.

  8. 8.

    Lauren Frayer: Hindu Nationalism, The Growing Trend in India. In: NPR Public Radio, April 22, 2019, https://www.npr.org/2019/04/22/715875298/hindu-nationalism-the-growing-trend-in-india?t=1581428963676&t=1603700378062 (last accessed October 26, 2020).

  9. 9.

    Amy Kazmin: How Hindu Nationalism Went Mainstream in Modi’s India. As the Country Goes to the Polls, It Faces a Profound Question: Is It a Multifaith Society or a Hindu-First Nation? In: Financial Times, May 9, 2019, https://www.ft.com/content/4b68c89c-711c-11e9-bf5c-6eeb837566c5 (last accessed October 26, 2020).

  10. 10.

    World Watch Monitor: India’s Anti-conversion Law in Five States, but Proposed to Go ‘National’, n.d., https://www.worldwatchmonitor.org/indias-anti-conversion-law-in-five-states-but-proposed-to-go-national/.

  11. 11.

    The Library of Congress: State Anti-conversion Laws in India, n.d., https://www.loc.gov/law/help/anti-conversion-laws/india.php.

  12. 12.

    Javed Iqbal Wani and L. David Lal: UP’s Anti-conversion Laws Are a Political Weapon to Further Communalism. In: Indian Express, December 7, 2020, https://indianexpress.com/article/opinion/columns/uttar-pradesh-anti-conversion-laws-are-a-political-weapon-to-further-communalism-7095578/.

  13. 13.

    Geeta Pandey: ‘Love Jihad’: What a Reported Miscarriage Says About India’s Anti-conversion Law. In: BBC India, December 17, 2020, https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-india-55314832.

  14. 14.

    Samira Shackle: What Is Hindu Nationalism? A Short Guide to the Ideology of India’s New Prime Minister, Narendra Modi. In: New Humanist, May 27, 2014, https://newhumanist.org.uk/articles/4663/what-is-hindu-nationalism (last accessed October 26, 2020).

  15. 15.

    Kanchan Chandra: The Roots of Hindu Nationalism’s Triumph in India: What the BJP Learned from the Congress Party. In: Foreign Affairs, September 11, 2019, https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/india/2019-09-11/roots-hindu-nationalisms-triumph-india (last accessed October 26, 2020).

  16. 16.

    Eliza Griswold: The Violent Toll of Hindu Nationalism in India. A Populist Prime Minister Has Legitimized India’s More Militant Groups, and Targeted Attacks Against Religious Minorities Are on the Rise. In: The New Yorker, March 5, 2019, https://www.newyorker.com/news/on-religion/the-violent-toll-of-hindu-nationalism-in-india (last accessed October 26, 2020).

  17. 17.

    India’s Muslims Are Fighting for Their Religion. Should They Display It, Too? As Secular Indians Protest a Controversial New Citizenship Law, Some Debate Whether They Should Demonstrate as Muslims First or as Indians Who Happen to Be Muslim. In: Foreign Policy, January 24, 2020, https://foreignpolicy.com/2020/01/24/india-muslims-religion-kashmir/ (last accessed October 26, 2020).

  18. 18.

    Dexter Filkins: Blood and Soil in Narendra Modi’s India: The Prime Minister’s Hindu-Nationalist Government Has Cast Two Hundred Million Muslims as Internal Enemies. In: The New Yorker, December 2, 2019, https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2019/12/09/blood-and-soil-in-narendra-modis-india (last accessed October 26, 2020).

  19. 19.

    BBC: Shinto and Nationalism, September 17, 2009, https://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/shinto/history/nationalism_1.shtml (last accessed October 26, 2020).

  20. 20.

    Elliot Silverberg and Andrew Injoo Park: East Asia’s Alliances Are Falling Apart. 2019 Strained Old Ties to the Breaking Point. In: Foreign Policy, January 3, 2020, https://foreignpolicy.com/2020/01/03/china-japan-korea-trump-comfort-women-east-asia-alliances-falling-apart/ (last accessed October 26, 2020).

  21. 21.

    Tom O’Connor: If North Korea and Japan Went to War, More South Koreans Would Back Kim Jong Un, Poll Shows. In: Newsweek, June 11, 2019, https://www.newsweek.com/north-korea-japan-war-south-kim-1470235 (last accessed October 26, 2020).

  22. 22.

    Jenny White: Spindle Autocracy in the New Turkey. In: The Brown Journal of World Affairs, Volume XXIV, Fall/Winter 2017, Issue I, http://bjwa.brown.edu/24-1/spindle-autocracy-in-the-new-turkey/ (last accessed October 26, 2020).

  23. 23.

    Robert Sata and Ireneusz Pawel Karolewski: Caesarean Politics in Hungary and Poland. In: East European Politics, Volume 36, 2020, Issue 2: The (Not so) Surprising Longevity of Identity Politics: Contemporary Challenges of the State-Society Compact in Central Eastern Europe. Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group, pp. 206–225, December 19, 2019, to be found at: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/21599165.2019.1703694 (last accessed November 4, 2020).

  24. 24.

    Ibid.

  25. 25.

    Euronews: Hagia Sophia: Turkey Converts Istanbul’s Iconic Landmark Back into a Mosque, July 10, 2020, https://www.euronews.com/2020/07/10/turkey-can-convert-istanbul-s-iconic-hagia-sophia-museum-back-into-a-mosque-top-court-rule (last accessed October 26, 2020) Cf, https://www.politico.com/news/2020/07/10/turkey-erdogan-hagia-sophia-mosque-356173.

  26. 26.

    Louis Fishman: Erdogan Turns Hagia Sophia into a Mosque: Islamists Rejoice, Trump Is Silent and Turkey’s Opposition Won’t Be Distracted. In: Haaretz, July 12, 2020, https://www.haaretz.com/middle-east-news/.premium-erdogan-turns-hagia-sophia-into-a-mosque-a-troubling-triumph-for-turkey-s-president-1.8988096 (last accessed October 26, 2020).

  27. 27.

    Angeliki Koutantou: Condemnation from Abroad as Erdogan Converts Hagia Sophia into Mosque. In: The Sydney Morning Herald, July 11, 2020, https://www.smh.com.au/world/middle-east/condemnation-from-abroad-as-erdogan-converts-hagia-sophia-into-mosque-20200711-p55b5c.html (last accessed October 26, 2020).

  28. 28.

    BBC News: Hagia Sophia: Pope ‘Pained’ as Istanbul Museum Reverts to Mosque, July 12, 2020, https://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-53371341 (last accessed October 26, 2020).

  29. 29.

    Agence France-Presse (AFP) in Vatican City: Pope Francis ‘Very Distressed’ over Hagia Sophia Mosque Move. Pontiff Says His ‘Thoughts Go to Istanbul’ After Decision to Convert Byzantine-Era Monument. In: The Guardian, July 12, 2020, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/jul/12/pope-francis-very-distressed-over-hagia-sophia-mosque-move (last accessed October 26, 2020).

  30. 30.

    Südtirol News: Umwandlung der Hagia Sophia wird scharf kritisiert. Athen: Entscheidung über Hagia Sophia historischer Fehler [Transformation of Hagia Sophia Is Sharply Criticized. Athens: Decision on Hagia Sophia Is Historical Mistake], July 11, 2020, https://www.suedtirolnews.it/politik/athen-entscheidung-ueber-hagia-sophia-historischer-fehler (last accessed October 26, 2020).

  31. 31.

    Ibid.

  32. 32.

    Bild Zeitung: Propaganda-Show bei Moschee-Einweihung. Erdogan liest in Hagia Sophia aus dem Koran [Propaganda Show at Mosque Inauguration. Erdogan Reads from the Koran in Hagia Sophia], July 24, 2020, https://www.bild.de/politik/ausland/politik-ausland/istanbul-tuerken-stuermen-die-hagia-sophia-72042882.bild.html (last accessed October 26, 2020).

  33. 33.

    Ibid.

  34. 34.

    Ibid.

  35. 35.

    Associated Press (AP): Istanbul: Turkey Is Converting Another Former Byzantine Church into a Mosque. In: Euronews, August 22, 2020, https://www.euronews.com/2020/08/21/istanbul-turkey-is-converting-another-former-byzantine-church-into-a-mosque (last accessed October 26, 2020) and Reuters: After Hagia Sophia, Turkey’s Historic Chora Church Also Switched to Mosque, August 21, 2020, https://www.reuters.com/article/us-turkey-religion-chora/after-hagia-sophia-turkeys-historic-chora-church-also-switched-to-mosque-idUSKBN25H1AZ (last accessed October 26, 2020). Cf. Deutsche Welle (DW): Erdogan wandelt weitere Museumskirche in Moschee um [Erdogan Converts Another Museum-Church into a Mosque], August 21, 2020, https://www.dw.com/de/erdogan-wandelt-weitere-museumskirche-in-moschee-um/a-54651120 (last accessed November 3, 2020).

  36. 36.

    Deutsche Presse Agentur: Ruf nach Abbruch der EU-Beitrittsverhandlungen [Call for Breaking Off EU Accession Negotiations]. In: Schwäbische Zeitung, October 23, 2019, https://www.schwaebische.de/ueberregional/politik_artikel,-ruf-nach-abbruch-der-eu-beitrittsverhandlungen-_arid,10651256.html (last accessed October 26, 2020). Cf. Marc Oliver Rühle: CSU-Mann fordert wegen Moschee-Umbau der Hagia Sophia „EU-Beitrittsverhandlungen mit Türkei beenden“ [CSU-Representative Demands ‘End EU Accession Negotiations with Turkey’ Because of the Conversion of Hagia Sophia into a Mosque], July 11, 2020, https://www.bild.de/politik/ausland/politik-ausland/moschee-umbau-der-hagia-sophia-eu-beitrittsverhandlungen-mit-tuerkei-beenden-71826868.bild.html (last accessed November 3, 2020).

  37. 37.

    Cf. for example Roland Benedikter: Freemasonry in Turkey’s Modern History of Ideas: A Factor of Liberalization and Individualization? In: DOMES: Digest of Middle East Studies, Volume 29, Spring 2020, Issue 1, Published on behalf of the Policy Studies Organization, pp. 127–144, to be found at: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/dome.12203 (last accessed November 3, 2020).

  38. 38.

    Marc Champion and Constantine Courcoulas: Erdogan Asserts Rebirth of an Islamic Turkey at Hagia Sophia. In: Bloomberg, July 11, 2020, https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2020-07-11/erdogan-asserts-rebirth-of-an-islamic-turkey-at-hagia-sophia (last accessed October 26, 2020).

  39. 39.

    Jürgen Liminski: Präsident Erdogan spielt russisches Roulette [President Erdogan Is Playing Russian Roulette]. In: Dolomiten, July 15, 2020, p. 3.

  40. 40.

    Joanna York: President Macron Vows: ‘We Will Continue’ for Samuel Paty. In: The Connexion, October 22, 2020, https://www.connexionfrance.com/French-news/President-Macron-vows-We-will-continue-for-Samuel-Paty (last accessed December 16, 2020).

  41. 41.

    The Connexion: Macron: France Will Defend Freedom of Expression. “I Am Not Going to Change Our Laws Because They Shock Elsewhere” Macron Says in a Wide-Ranging Interview, November 16, 2020, https://www.connexionfrance.com/French-news/Macron-France-will-defend-freedom-of-expression (last accessed December 16, 2020). Cf. Al Jazeera: Emmanuel Macron: Free Speech Is Much Broader Than Mere Cartoons. The French President Discusses Tensions Between His Government and the Muslim World Over Cartoons of Prophet Muhammad, November 2, 2020, https://www.aljazeera.com/program/talk-to-al-jazeera/2020/11/2/emmanuel-macron-free-speech-is-much-broader-than-mere-cartoons (last accessed December 16, 2020).

  42. 42.

    Uta Steinwehr: Chronologie islamistischer Angriffe in Frankreich seit 2015 [Chronology of Islamist Attacks in France Since 2015]. In: Deutsche Welle (DW), October 31, 2020, https://www.dw.com/de/chronologie-islamistischer-angriffe-in-frankreich-seit-2015/a-55452099 (last accessed December 16, 2020).

  43. 43.

    Adam Nossiter: France, Waging a Crackdown, Honors a Teacher and Depicts a Plot in Beheading. Two teenagers were paid about $350 to identify a teacher later decapitated outside his school. As the nation mourns, officials move against what they see as militant Islam. In: The New York Times, October 27, 2020, https://www.nytimes.com/2020/10/21/world/europe/france-teacher-beheading.html (last accessed December 16, 2020). Cf. Deutsche Welle (DW): France shutters mosque in Paris after teacher’s beheading. The mosque had shared an online video condemning the teacher for showing his students cartoons of the Prophet Muhammad. French authorities plan to shut the place of worship for six months, October 20, 2020, https://www.dw.com/en/france-shutters-mosque-in-paris-after-teachers-beheading/a-55333771 (last accessed December 16, 2020).

  44. 44.

    BBC News World/Europe: France Attack: Three Killed in ‘Islamist Terrorist’ Stabbings, October 29, 2020, https://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-54729957 (last accessed December 16, 2020).

  45. 45.

    Joanna York: President Macron Vows: ‘We Will Continue’ for Samuel Paty, loc cit.

  46. 46.

    BBC News World/Europe: Macron Calls Paris Beheading ‘Islamist Terrorist Attack’, October 17, 2020, https://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-54579403 (last accessed December 16, 2020).

  47. 47.

    Michel Duclos: How to Respond to Recep Tayipp Erdogan? In: Institut Montaigne, November 3, 2020, https://www.institutmontaigne.org/en/blog/how-respond-recep-tayipp-erdogan (last accessed December 16, 2020).

  48. 48.

    BBC News World/Europe: France Launches Checks on Dozens of Mosques, December 3, 2020, https://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-55173833 (last accessed December 16, 2020).

  49. 49.

    Andrew Roth: Hundreds Attend Funeral of Samuel Paty’s Attacker in Chechnya. Body of Abdullakh Anzorov, Who Decapitated French Teacher, Was Repatriated Last Week. In: The Guardian, December 7, 2020, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/dec/08/hundreds-attend-funeral-of-samuel-patys-attacker-in-chechnya (last accessed December 16, 2020).

  50. 50.

    Will Stuart and Jon Rogers: Final Insult. Terrorist Who Beheaded French Teacher Samuel Paty Given ‘Hero’s Funeral’ in Chechnya and Hailed as ‘Lion of Islam’. In: The Sun, December 7, 2020, https://www.thesun.co.uk/news/13403492/funeral-terrorist-chechnya-abdullakh-anzorov-samuel-paty/ (last accessed December 16, 2020).

  51. 51.

    Greg Barton and Fethi Mansouri: For French Muslims, Every Terror Attack Brings Questions About Their Loyalty to the Republic. In: The Conversation, October 30, 2020, https://theconversation.com/for-french-muslims-every-terror-attack-brings-questions-about-their-loyalty-to-the-republic-149151 (last accessed December 17, 2020).

  52. 52.

    Michel Duclos: How to Respond to Recep Tayipp Erdogan? loc cit.

  53. 53.

    Andrew Rettman: Erdogan: German ‘Nazis’ Also Back ‘Terrorists’. In: EUobserver, 14, March 2017, https://euobserver.com/foreign/137230 (last accessed December 16, 2020).

  54. 54.

    Federal Chancellery of the Republic of Austria: Austrian Federal Chancellor Sebastian Kurz’ Speech on the Terror Attack on November 2, 2020, https://www.bundeskanzleramt.gv.at/en/federal-chancellery/federal-chancellor-sebastian-kurz/speeches-of-the-federal-chancellor/austrian-federal-chancellor-sebastian-kurz-speech-on-the-terror-attack-on-2-november-2020.html (last accessed December 16, 2020).

  55. 55.

    Merlin Sugue: Erdoğan Takes Legal Action Against Charlie Hebdo Over Caricature. The Move Will Likely Add to Escalating Tensions Between Turkey and France. In: Politico, October 28, 2020, https://www.politico.eu/article/erdogan-takes-legal-action-against-charlie-hebdo/ (last accessed December 16, 2020).

  56. 56.

    Rachel Harris: Erdogan’s Attempts for Control of the Greek Press and the Eastern Mediterranean. In: Harvard International Review (HIR), December 14, 2020, https://hir.harvard.edu/erdogans-attempts-for-control-of-the-greek-press/ (last accessed December 16, 2020).

  57. 57.

    Loïc Tregoures: Kosovo, the Global Far Right, and the Threat to Liberalism. In: European Council on Foreign Relations (ECFR), July 11, 2019, https://ecfr.eu/article/commentary_kosovo_the_global_far_right_and_the_threat_to_liberalism/ (last accessed November 20, 2020).

  58. 58.

    Bild Zeitung: Nach drei Attacken am Donnerstag gilt in Frankreich höchste Alarmstufe. Macron schickt 7000 Soldaten in Kampf gegen den Terror [France Is on High Alert After Three Attacks on Thursday. Macron Sends 7000 Soldiers in the Fight Against Terror], October 29, 2020, https://www.bild.de/news/2020/news/frankreich-verhaengt-hoechste-terror-warnstufe-73650690.bild.html (last accessed December 16, 2020).

  59. 59.

    BBC News World/Europe: France Attack: Three Killed in ‘Islamist Terrorist’ Stabbings, loc cit.

  60. 60.

    Aya Batrawy: Muslims Call for French Goods Boycott to Protest Caricatures. In: The Associated Press (AP), October 26, 2020, https://apnews.com/article/turkey-pakistan-dubai-boycotts-saudi-arabia-3151b17cadd7723106ef85508a5f37ad (last accessed December 16, 2020).

  61. 61.

    Ibid.

  62. 62.

    Julian Röpcke: Muslime dürfen „Millionen Franzosen töten“. Malaysias Ex-Regierungschef hetzt weiter [Muslims Are Allowed to “Kill Millions of French People”. Malaysia’s Ex-head of Government Continues to Agitate]. In: Bild Zeitung, October 30, 2020, https://www.bild.de/politik/ausland/politik-ausland/malaysias-ex-regierungschef-muslime-duerfen-millionen-franzosen-toeten-73670044.bild.html (last accessed December 16, 2020).

  63. 63.

    Bild Zeitung: Nach drei Attacken am Donnerstag gilt in Frankreich höchste Alarmstufe. Macron schickt 7000 Soldaten in Kampf gegen den Terror [France Is on High Alert After Three Attacks on Thursday. Macron Sends 7000 Soldiers in the Fight Against Terror], loc cit.

  64. 64.

    Bild Zeitung: Gegen Mohammed-Karikaturen. Sie riefen „Allahu Akbar“! Hass-Demo in Berlin-Neukölln [Against Mohammed Cartoons. They Shouted “Allahu Akbar”! Hate Demonstration in Berlin-Neukölln], October 30, 2020, https://www.bild.de/regional/berlin/berlin-aktuell/sie-riefen-allahu-akbar-hass-demo-in-berlin-neukoelln-73670544.bild.html (last accessed December 16, 2020).

  65. 65.

    Thomas L. Friedman: Thank You for Being Late: An Optimist’s Guide to Thriving in the Age of Accelerations. Farrar, Straus and Giroux, New York, 2016.

  66. 66.

    Roland Benedikter: Suicide Terrorism: A Trope of Our Time. In: Challenge. The Magazine of Economic Affairs, edited by Jeffrey Madrick, Nobel Laureates Kenneth J. Arrow, Robert M. Solow, Joseph E. Stiglitz, Paul R. Krugman et al., Volume 63, September 2019, Issue 5–6, Taylor and Francis/Routledge, New York and London, pp. 425–457. Published online first: August 8, 2019, pp. 1–32, https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/05775132.2019.1638093 (last accessed December 16, 2020). Cf. Roland Benedikter: Suicide Terrorism: The Actuality of an Uncomfortable Topic. What Are the Next Steps for a Better Understanding of What We Need? In: Global Change, Peace and Security, edited by The School of Law, La Trobe University Melbourne, Volume 32, 2020, Issue 2, Routledge/Wiley & Sons, pp. 219–228. Online first publication: July 31, 2019, https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/14781158.2019.1644614 (last accessed December 16, 2020).

  67. 67.

    Karim Fathi: Die multi-resiliente Gesellschaft: Orientierungspunkte für die Corona-Krise und darüber hinaus [The Multi-Resilient Society: Responding to the Corona Pandemic and Other Crises]. In: Forschungsjournal Soziale Bewegungen, Band 33: Heft 1, De Gruyter Oldenbourg, March 20, 2011, to be found at: https://www.degruyter.com/view/journals/fjsb/33/1/article-p22.xml (last accessed December 17, 2020).

  68. 68.

    Bild Zeitung: ISIS-Anhänger Kujtim Fejzula (20). Wie der Wien-Terrorist die Behörden narrte. Innenminister Nehammer: „Er erweckte den Eindruck, sich in die Gesellschaft zu integrieren. Doch er hat das Gegenteil getan“ - ISIS reklamiert Anschlag für sich [ISIS supporter Kujtim Fejzula (20). How the Vienna Terrorist Fooled the Authorities. Minister of the Interior Nehammer: “He Gave the Impression of Integrating into Society. But He Did the Opposite”—ISIS Claims Attack for Itself], November 3, 2020, https://www.bild.de/bild-plus/news/ausland/news-ausland/kujtim-fejzula-20-jahre-isis-anhaenger-moerder-das-wissen-wir-ueber-den-wien-att-73737060,view=conversionToLogin.bild.html (last accessed December 16, 2020).

  69. 69.

    Lara Hagen: Was wir über die Opfer des Terroranschlags von Wien wissen. Eine deutsche Studentin, ein junger Hobbyfußballer, eine 44-jährige Angestellte und ein 39-jähriger Passant überlebten den Montagabend nicht [What We Know About the Victims of the Terrorist Attack in Vienna. A German Student, a Young Amateur Football Player, a 44-Year-Old Employee and a 39-Year-Old Passer-by Did Not Survive Monday Night’s Attack]. In: Der Standard, November 4, 2020, https://www.derstandard.at/story/2000121432758/was-wir-ueber-die-opfer-des-terroranschlags-von-wien-wissen (last accessed December 16, 2020).

  70. 70.

    Ulf Poschardt: Hören wir auf, uns etwas vorzumachen [Let’s Stop Fooling Ourselves]. In: Die Welt, November 3, 2020, https://www.welt.de/debatte/plus219232422/Islamistischer-Terror-in-Wien-Hoeren-wir-auf-uns-etwas-vorzumachen.html (last accessed December 16, 2020).

  71. 71.

    BBC News World/Europe: France’s Macron Asks Muslim Leaders to Back ‘Republican Values’ Charter, November 19, 2020, https://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-55001167 (last accessed December 16, 2020).

  72. 72.

    Deutsche Welle (DW): Kanzler Kurz: Eindeutig islamistischer Anschlag. Der Anschlag in Wien war nach Worten von Österreichs Bundeskanzler Sebastian Kurz eindeutig islamistisch motiviert. Mehrere Menschen wurden bei dem Angriff getötet oder verletzt [Chancellor Kurz: Clearly an Islamist Attack. According to Austria’s Federal Chancellor Sebastian Kurz, the Attack in Vienna Was Clearly Islamist Motivated. Several People Were Killed or Injured in the Attack], November 2, 2020, https://www.dw.com/de/kanzler-kurz-eindeutig-islamistischer-anschlag/a-55478923 (last accessed December 16, 2020).

  73. 73.

    Austrian Press Agency (APA): Viel Bargeld bei Imamen [Lots of Hard Cash Found with Imams], November 14, 2020.

  74. 74.

    Austrian Press Agency (APA): Grüne verteidigen neues Anti-Terror-Paket [Greens Defend New Anti-terror Package], November 14, 2020.

  75. 75.

    Austrian Press Agency (APA): Michel will „EU-Institut für Imame“ [Michel Wants “EU Institute for Imams”], November 9, 2020. Cf. European Council: Remarks by President Charles Michel After His Meeting with the Chancellor of Austria Sebastian Kurz in Vienna, November 9, 2020, https://www.consilium.europa.eu/en/press/press-releases/2020/11/09/intervention-du-president-charles-michel-apres-sa-rencontre-avec-le-chancelier-autrichien-sebastian-kurz-a-vienne/# (last accessed December 17, 2020).

  76. 76.

    Austrian Press Agency (APA): Kampf gegen Terror: Gipfeltreffen [Fight Against Terror: Summit], November 11, 2020.

  77. 77.

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    Cf. the original letter in: Bild Zeitung: Wegen Erdogan-Kult. Kritiker tritt aus Islamkonferenz aus [Because of Erdogan Cult. Critic Resigns from Islam Conference], November 11, 2020, https://www.bild.de/politik/inland/politik-inland/kritiker-tritt-aus-islamkonferenz-aus-wegen-erdogan-kult-in-deutschland-73869432.bild.html (last accessed December 17, 2020).

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    Daily Sabah: Anti-Muslim Attacks in France Soar 54% in 2019. In: Daily Sabah, January 28, 2020, https://www.dailysabah.com/europe/2020/01/28/anti-muslim-attacks-in-france-soar-54-in-2019 (last accessed December 17, 2020).

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    Daily Sabah: 188 Anti-Muslim Attacks Recorded in Germany in 3 Months, Interior Ministry Says. In: Daily Sabah, October 9, 2020, https://www.dailysabah.com/world/europe/188-anti-muslim-attacks-recorded-in-germany-in-3-months-interior-ministry-says (last accessed December 17, 2020).

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    Rai News: Hezbollah: “Pronti a discutere patto politico”. Libano, il presidente Aoun chiede di proclamare il Paese come Stato laico [Hezbollah: “Ready to Discuss Political Pact”. Lebanon, President Aoun Calls for the Country to be Proclaimed a Secular State], August 30, 2020, https://www.rainews.it/dl/rainews/articoli/libano-presidente-aoun-stato-laico-29cc2e48-a63b-45a1-b852-c264214f03bb.html (last accessed October 26, 2020).

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    RAI Televideo: Aoun: Proclamare Libano come stato laico, agosto 30, 2020.

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    Vincenzo Nigro: Libano, l’ambasciatore Adib nominato premier. Seconda visita di Macron a Beirut [Lebanon, Ambassador Adib Appointed Premier. Macron’s Second Visit to Beirut]. In: La Repubblica, August 31, 2020, https://www.repubblica.it/esteri/2020/08/31/news/libano_l_ambasciatore_adib_proposto_come_nuovo_premier_seconda_visita_di_macron-265886864/ (last accessed October 26, 2020).

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    Jason Horowitz and Elisabetta Povoledo: Two Popes, and One Big Furor After Benedict Weighs in on Priestly Celibacy. In: The New York Times, February 12, 2020, https://www.nytimes.com/2020/01/14/world/europe/pope-francis-celibacy-book.html (last accessed October 26, 2020).

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    Bob Fredericks and Nolan Hicks: Trump Promotes Religious Freedom in UN speech. In: New York Post, September 23, 2019, https://nypost.com/2019/09/23/trump-promotes-religious-freedom-in-un-speech/ (last accessed October 26, 2020).

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    Marisa Schultz: A Look at Trump’s Visit to the United Nations General Assembly. In: New York Post, September 22, 2019, https://nypost.com/2019/09/22/a-look-at-trumps-visit-to-the-united-nations-general-assembly/ (last accessed October 26, 2020).

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    Bob Fredericks and Nolan Hicks: Trump Promotes Religious Freedom in UN Speech, loc cit.

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    Jordan Fabian: Trump Decries Impeachment Charges at Prayer Breakfast. In: The Guam Daily Post, February 10, 2020, https://www.postguam.com/the_globe/nation/trump-decries-impeachment-charges-at-prayer-breakfast/article_a0684acc-4955-11ea-86ad-237e71a27dea.html (last accessed October 26, 2020).

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    Martin Bashir: George Floyd Death: Trump’s Church Visit Shocks Religious Leaders. In: BBC News World/US & Canada, June 2, 2020, https://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-52890650 (last accessed October 26, 2020). Cf. Paul LeBlanc: Retired Marine Gen. John Allen: Trump’s Threats of Military Force May be ‘the Beginning of the End of the American Experiment’. In: CNN, June 4, 2020, https://www.cnn.com/2020/06/04/politics/john-allen-trump-protests-george-floyd/index.html (last accessed November 3, 2020).

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    Rebecca Shabad, Geoff Bennett, Monica Alba, and Shannon Pettypiece: ‘The Bible Is Not a Prop’: Religious Leaders, Lawmakers Outraged Over Trump Church Visit. The Widely Criticized Photo op Was the President’s Idea Because He “Wanted the Visual”, Sources Told NBC News. In: NBC News, June 2, 2020, https://www.nbcnews.com/politics/politics-news/religious-leaders-lawmakers-outraged-over-trump-church-visit-n1221876 (last accessed October 26, 2020). Cf. ABC News: Donald Trump Criticised by Religious Leaders After Protesters Forcefully Removed for President’s Photo Opportunity, June 2, 2020, https://www.abc.net.au/news/2020-06-02/george-floyd-protesters-tear-gassed-trump-photo-opportunity/12311628 (last accessed November 3, 2020).

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    David Stell (Severinus): Public and Private Religion. In: The Roman Military Research Society, 2013, http://www.romanarmy.net/relpandp.shtml (last accessed October 26, 2020).

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    Alison Brysk: Global Dynamics of Authoritarian Populism. In: Global-e. A Global Studies Journal, edited by the 21st Century Global Dynamics Initiative (GDI), University of California at Santa Barbara, Volume 13, February 18, 2020, Issue 9, Series Global Dynamics of Authoritarianism, https://www.21global.ucsb.edu/global-e/february-2020/global-dynamics-authoritarian-populism (last accessed October 26, 2020).

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    Fox News: Tucker: The Left’s Extreme Reaction to Ginsburg’s Death. In: YouTube, September 22, 2020, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VQGDwGQ8GUg&feature=youtu.be.

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    C-SPAN: President Trump: “I Am the Chosen One”. In: YouTube, August 21, 2019, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lzlxrPC_E_U.

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    Maggie Haberman and Katie Thomas: Trump Calls His Illness a ‘Blessing From God’. In: The New York Times, October 7, 2020, https://www.nytimes.com/2020/10/07/us/politics/trump-coronavirus-blessing.html.

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    Nathan Pippenger: There Are Two Ways of Thinking About the “Crisis of Democracy” Debate. The Basic Difference in Perspectives at the Heart of This Discussion. In: Democracy: A Journal of Ideas, March 23, 2018, https://democracyjournal.org/alcove/there-are-two-ways-of-thinking-about-the-crisis-of-democracy-debate/ (last accessed October 26, 2020).

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    Cf. Anne Mette Kjaer: State Capture. In: Mark Bevir (ed.): The Sage Encyclopedia of Governance, Thousand Oaks, CA, 2007.

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    Tiroler Tageszeitung: Putin schließt gleichgeschlechtliche Ehen in Russland aus. Solange er Präsident sei, dürften schwule und lesbische Paare nicht heiraten, sagte Wladimir Putin bei der Sitzung einer Arbeitsgruppe zu Verfassungsänderungen [Putin Excludes Same-Sex Marriages in Russia. At a Meeting of a Working Group on Constitutional Amendments Vladimir Putin Said That as long as He Is President, Gay and Lesbian Couples Cannot Marry], February 14, 2020, https://www.tt.com/artikel/30717492/putin-schliesst-gleichgeschlechtliche-ehen-in-russland-aus (last accessed October 26, 2020).

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    Hürriyet Daily News: Erdoğan Warns of ‘Crusader-Crescent War’ After Austria’s Shutting of Mosques, June 10, 2018, https://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/erdogan-warns-of-crusader-crescent-war-after-austrias-shutting-of-mosques-133058 (last accessed October 26, 2020).

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    Ahval News: Erdoğan’s AKP Using Religion as Critical Instrument in Foreign Policy—Analyst, January 12, 2019, https://ahvalnews.com/akp/erdogans-akp-using-religion-critical-instrument-foreign-policy-analyst (last accessed October 27, 2020).

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    Gonul Tol: Turkey’s Bid for Religious Leadership. How the AKP Uses Islamic Soft Power. In: Foreign Affairs, January 10, 2019, https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/turkey/2019-01-10/turkeys-bid-religious-leadership (last accessed October 27, 2020).

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    Merkur.de: Islamisch-konservativer Kurs. Türkei verbietet Weihnachten an deutscher Auslandsschule [Islamic-Conservative Course. Turkey Bans Christmas at German Schools Abroad], April 4, 2018, https://www.merkur.de/politik/tuerkische-behoerden-verbieten-weihnachten-an-deutscher-schule-zr-7131076.html (last accessed October 27, 2020).

  160. 160.

    Ibid.

  161. 161.

    Ibid.

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    Birgün Daily: ‘Those Claiming World Be Round Are All Freemasons’, Writes Executive of Turkey’s AKP, September 3, 2017, https://www.birgun.net/haber-detay/those-claiming-world-to-be-round-are-all-freemasons-writes-executive-of-turkey-s-akp-177610.html (last accessed November 4, 2020). Cf. Stockholm Center for Freedom (SCF): AKP Member Claims Earth Is Flat, Anyone Saying It’s Round Is a ‘Freemason’, September 2, 2017, https://stockholmcf.org/akp-member-claims-earth-is-flat-anyone-saying-its-round-is-a-freemason/ (last accessed November 4, 2020).

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    Cf. Roland Benedikter: Freemasonry in Turkey’s Modern History of Ideas: A Factor of Liberalization and Individualization? In: DOMES: Digest of Middle East Studies, edited by Prof. Dr. A. Kadir Yildirim, Baker Institute for Public Policy, Rice University, Volume 29, Spring 2020, Issue 1, Wiley and Sons, to be found at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/dome.12203.

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    The Middle East Media Research Institute (MEMRI): Erdoğan’s Chief Advisor and Former General Tanrıverdi Presents Vision—Reflected in Turkey’s Policy—Of a United Islamic Superpower Based on Shari’a Comprising 61 Countries and with Istanbul as Capital. Special Dispatch No. 8493, January 14, 2020, https://www.memri.org/reports/erdo%C4%9Fans-chief-advisor-and-former-general-tanr%C4%B1verdi-presents-vision-%E2%80%93-reflected-turkeys (last accessed October 27, 2020).

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Benedikter, R. (2022). Trends 1–7. In: Religion in the Age of Re-Globalization. Culture and Religion in International Relations. Palgrave Macmillan, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-80857-0_10

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