Russia, and the Moscow region specifically, are very promising sources for innovative solutions and companies. Moscow has shown stable growth even during the financial crisis at an average pace of 10% per year. The region doubled its GDP in 10 years and managed to attract an impressive concentration of research institutes, universities, researchers, solid infrastructure, and a variety of other resources. The region has many highly educated citizens and boasts strong roots and tradition in science, making it very promising for high-tech industries. There are obviously local weaknesses, which are discussed in the chapter, but these weaknesses create the potential for innovative transformation in the future. The Russian Federation in general and Moscow specifically is very different from the rest of the world, and this makes it very appealing to study its approach to the innovation economy and derive new lessons.