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Towards Blooms Taxonomy Classification Without Labels

Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNAI,volume 12748)

Abstract

In this work, we explore weakly supervised machine learning for classifying questions into distinct Bloom’s Taxonomy levels. Bloom’s levels provide important information that guides teachers and adaptive learning algorithms in selecting appropriate questions for their students. However, manually providing Bloom labels is expensive and labor-intensive, which motivates a machine learning approach. Current automated Bloom’s level classification methods employ supervised learning that relies on large labeled datasets that are difficult and costly to construct. In this paper, we propose a weakly supervised learning method that performs binary Bloom’s level labeling without any a priori known Bloom’s taxonomy labels. The key idea behind BLACBOARD (for Bloom’s Level clAssifiCation Based On weAkly supeRviseD learning) is to appropriately incorporate human domain knowledge into the modeling process to produce a weakly labeled dataset on which discriminative models can then be trained. We compare BLACBOARD to fully supervised learning methods and show that it achieves little to no performance compromise while using entirely unlabeled data.

Keywords

  • Bloom’s level classification
  • Weakly supervised learning

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Notes

  1. 1.

    A demonstration and associated code of BLACBOARD are available at https://github.com/manningkyle304/edu-research-demo.

  2. 2.

    https://openstax.org.

  3. 3.

    We also experimented with other featurization methods, but the results were similar to TF-IDF. We thus use TF-IDF for all experiments in this paper.

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Acknowledgements

This work was supported by NSF grants 1842378 and 1937134 and by ONR grant N0014-20-1-2534. We thank Prof. Colleen Countryman (Ithaca College), Prof. Lauren Rast (The University of Alabama at Birmingham), Joyce Spangler (Six Red Marbles), and Andrew Giannakakis (OpenStax) for helpful discussions on the Labeling Functions. Thanks to Fred Sala for insights on WSL. Thanks to anonymous reviewers and CJ Barberan for suggestions on the manuscript.

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Wang, Z., Manning, K., Mallick, D.B., Baraniuk, R.G. (2021). Towards Blooms Taxonomy Classification Without Labels. In: Roll, I., McNamara, D., Sosnovsky, S., Luckin, R., Dimitrova, V. (eds) Artificial Intelligence in Education. AIED 2021. Lecture Notes in Computer Science(), vol 12748. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-78292-4_35

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-78292-4_35

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