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Living in Fear and Insecurity: Growing Risks in Mexican Migration Environments

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Abstract

Living and working conditions in Mexican migration environments in the United States and Mexico have become increasingly insecure for migrants and their families and communities since the mid-1990s. The enactment of national, state, and local policies in the United States to restrict unauthorized migrants and the emergence of organized criminal violence in Mexico have contributed to this development. After large-scale unauthorized immigration from Mexico surged in the 1970s, the biggest threats Mexican migrants faced until the mid-1990s were mainly apprehensions for illegal entry followed by “voluntary departures” back to the Mexican side of the border or an occasional workplace raid, which interrupted a migrant’s employment for several days. Large-scale Border Patrol operations between the mid-1940s and 1954 repatriated large numbers of Mexican migrants, but more than two decades later, in the 1970s and 1980s, studies of Mexican migrants in the United States did not depict deportations, or the fear of deportations, as having major or broad effects in Mexican migration environments.

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Fig. 5.1

Notes

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  3. 3.

    Massey, D. S., J. Durand & N. J. Malone (2003). Beyond Smoke and Mirrors: Mexican Immigration in an Era of Economic Integration. New York: Russel Sage Foundation.

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    Brownell, P. (2005). The Declining Enforcement of Employer Sanctions, <http://www.migrationpolicy.org/article/declining-enforcement-employer-sanctions>

  5. 5.

    The number of Border Patrol agents did not exceed 5000 until 1996 when the number of agents increased to 5942. In 2010, the number of Border Patrol agents was 20,558, and in 2011 it was 21,444. See U.S. Department of Homeland Security (dhs) (2012). U.S. Border Patrol Fiscal Year Staffing Statistics, 2012, <http://www.cbp.gov/xp/cgov/border_security/border_patrol/usbp_statistics/>.

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    U.S. Department of Homeland Security (dhs) (2011). Table 38. Aliens Removed by Criminal Status and Region and Country of Nationality: Fiscal Years 2001 to 2010. In: Yearbook of Immigration Statistics, 2010 (pp. 96–104). Washington, D.C.: dhs, Office of Immigration Statistics.

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    González, M. de L. (2008). Secuestran los “Zetas” a migrantes. El Universal, April 16, <http://archivo.eluniversal.com.mx/nacion/158852.html>.

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  14. 14.

    Hamann, E. T. & V. Zúñiga (2011). Schooling and the Everyday Ruptures Transnational Children Encounter in the United States and Mexico. In: C. Coe, R. R. Reynolds, D. A. Boehm, J. M. Hess & H. Rae-Espinoza (eds.). Everyday Ruptures: Children, Youth, and Migration in Global Perspective (pp. 141–160). Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press.

  15. 15.

    Rodríguez, N. & J. M. Hagan (2004). Fractured Families and Communities: Effects of Immigration Reform in Texas, Mexico, and El Salvador. Latino Studies, 2(3), 328–351, <doi:10.1057/palgrave.lst.8600094>.

  16. 16.

    Rodríguez, N. & J. M. Hagan (2004). Fractured Families and Communities: Effects of Immigration Reform in Texas, Mexico, and El Salvador. Latino Studies, 2(3), 328–351, <doi:10.1057/palgrave.lst.8600094>.

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  21. 21.

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  22. 22.

    Rodríguez, N. & J. M. Hagan (2004). Fractured Families and Communities: Effects of Immigration Reform in Texas, Mexico, and El Salvador. Latino Studies, 2(3), 328–351, <doi:10.1057/palgrave.lst.8600094>.

  23. 23.

    Hagan, J., N. Rodriguez, R. Capps & N. Kabiri (2003). The Effects of Recent Welfare and Immigration Reforms on Immigrants’ Access to Health Care. International Migration Review, 37(2), 444–463, <doi:10.1111/j.1747-7379.2003.tb00144.x>.

  24. 24.

    Rodríguez, N. & J. M. Hagan (2004). Fractured Families and Communities: Effects of Immigration Reform in Texas, Mexico, and El Salvador. Latino Studies, 2(3), 328–351, <doi:10.1057/palgrave.lst.8600094>.

  25. 25.

    Rodríguez, N. & J. M. Hagan (2004). Fractured Families and Communities: Effects of Immigration Reform in Texas, Mexico, and El Salvador. Latino Studies, 2(3), 328–351, <doi:10.1057/palgrave.lst.8600094>.

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    Rodríguez, N. & J. M. Hagan (2004). Fractured Families and Communities: Effects of Immigration Reform in Texas, Mexico, and El Salvador. Latino Studies, 2(3), 328–351, <doi:10.1057/palgrave.lst.8600094>.

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    Arbona, C., N. Olvera, N. Rodriguez, J. Hagan, A. Linares & M. Wiesner (2010). Acculturative Stress among Documented and Undocumented Latino Immigrants in the United States. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 32(3), 362–384, <doi:10.1177/0739986310373210>.

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    Arbona, C., N. Olvera, N. Rodriguez, J. Hagan, A. Linares & M. Wiesner (2010). Acculturative Stress among Documented and Undocumented Latino Immigrants in the United States. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 32(3), 362–384, <doi:10.1177/0739986310373210>.

  29. 29.

    Arbona, C., N. Olvera, N. Rodriguez, J. Hagan, A. Linares & M. Wiesner (2010). Acculturative Stress among Documented and Undocumented Latino Immigrants in the United States. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 32(3), 362–384, <doi:10.1177/0739986310373210>.

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    Lopez, M. H., R. Morin & P. Taylor. (2010). Illegal Immigration Backlash Worries, Divides Latinos, <http://www.pewhispanic.org/2010/10/28/>.

  31. 31.

    Lopez, M. H., R. Morin & P. Taylor. (2010). Illegal Immigration Backlash Worries, Divides Latinos, <http://www.pewhispanic.org/2010/10/28/>.

  32. 32.

    Lopez, M. H., A. Gonzalez-Barrera y S. Motel (2011). As Deportations Rise to Record Levels, Most Latinos Oppose Obama’s Policy, <http://www.pewhispanic.org/files/2011/12/Deportations-and-Latinos.pdf>.

  33. 33.

    Arbona, C., N. Olvera, N. Rodriguez, J. Hagan, A. Linares & M. Wiesner (2010). Acculturative Stress among Documented and Undocumented Latino Immigrants in the United States. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 32(3), 362–384, <doi:10.1177/0739986310373210>.

  34. 34.

    At the time of the writing of this report, the Pew Hispanic Center has made datasets available to the public only up to and including surveys conducted in 2008.

  35. 35.

    Hagan, J., N. Rodriguez, R. Capps & N. Kabiri (2003). The Effects of Recent Welfare and Immigration Reforms on Immigrants’ Access to Health Care. International Migration Review, 37(2), 444–463, <doi:10.1111/j.1747-7379.2003.tb00144.x>.

  36. 36.

    Dreby, J. (2012). How Today’s Immigration Enforcement Policies Impact Children, Families, and Communities: A View from the Ground. Washington, D.C., <https://www.americanprogress.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/08/DrebyImmigrationFamiliesFINAL.pdf>.

  37. 37.

    Perez, R. (2001). When Immigration is Trauma: Guidelines for the Individual and Family Clinician. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 71(2), 153–170.

  38. 38.

    Brabeck, K. & Q. Xu (2010). The Impact of Detention and Deportation on Latino Immigrant Children and Families: A Quantitative Exploration. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 32(3), 341–361, <doi:10.1177/0739986310374053>; Capps, R., R. M. Castaneda, A. Chaundry & R. Santos (2007). Paying the Price: The Impact of Immigration Raids on America’s Children, http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/411566_immigration_raids.pdf>; Chiu, B., L. Egyes, P. Markowitz & J. Vasandani (2009). Constitution onice: A Report on Immigration Home Raid Operations. New York: Cardozo Immigration Justice Clinic; and Shore, E. S. (2010). Immigration Enforcement and its Impact on Latino Children in the State of Georgia. Atlanta.

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    Dreby, J. (2012). How Today’s Immigration Enforcement Policies Impact Children, Families, and Communities: A View from the Ground. Washington, D.C., https://www.americanprogress.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/08/DrebyImmigrationFamiliesFINAL.pdf>.

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    Capps, R., R. M. Castaneda, A. Chaundry & R. Santos (2007). Paying the Price: The Impact of Immigration Raids on America’s Children, http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/411566_immigration_raids.pdf>; and Baum, J., R. Jones & C. Barry (2010). In the Child’s Best Interest? The Consequences of Losing a Lawful Immigrant Parent to Deportation, https://www.law.berkeley.edu/files/Human_Rights_report.pdf>.

  42. 42.

    This information is cited in Dreby, J. (2012). How Today’s Immigration Enforcement Policies Impact Children, Families, and Communities: A View from the Ground. Washington, D.C., https://www.americanprogress.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/08/DrebyImmigrationFamiliesFINAL.pdf>.

  43. 43.

    Author’s interview of immigrant parents, Houston, Texas, October 17, 2006.

  44. 44.

    U.S. Department of Homeland Security (dhs) (2009). Removals Involving Illegal Alien Parents of United States Citizen Children. Washington, D.C, http://www.oig.dhs.gov/assets/Mgmt/OIG_09-15_Jan09.pdf>.

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    Capps, R., R. M. Castaneda, A. Chaundry & R. Santos (2007). Paying the Price: The Impact of Immigration Raids on America’s Children, http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/411566_immigration_raids.pdf>.

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    Baum, J., R. Jones & C. Barry (2010). In the Child’s Best Interest? The Consequences of Losing a Lawful Immigrant Parent to Deportation, https://www.law.berkeley.edu/files/Human_Rights_report.pdf>.

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  49. 49.

    The United States deported 2364 Mexican migrants via air routes to Mexico City through its Interior Repatriation Initiative from October to November, 2012. See Washington, D. (2012). US Repatriation Program to Mexico Ends. El Paso Times, December 6, <http://www.elpasotimes.com/news/ci_22133865/repatriation-program-mexico-ends>.

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    Comisión Nacional de los Derechos Humanos (cndh) (2011). Informe especial sobre secuestro de migrantes en México. Mexico, <http://www.cndh.org.mx/sites/all/doc/Informes/Especiales/2011_secmigrantes.pdf>.

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Rodríguez, N. (2022). Living in Fear and Insecurity: Growing Risks in Mexican Migration Environments. In: Escobar Latapí, A., Masferrer, C. (eds) Migration Between Mexico and the United States. IMISCOE Research Series. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-77810-1_5

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