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An Exploration of the Fear of Attack Strategy in Chess and Its Influence on Class-A Players of Different Chess Personalities: An Exploration Using Virtual Humans

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Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNISA,volume 12789)


The topic of virtual humans is increasingly important in the field of Artificial Intelligence. Avirtual human can be defined as a computer simulation that mimics an actual human. Virtual humans are widely used in gaming, business, and many other domains. This paper presents an experiment that utilizes virtual chess players that simulate real players to examine the chess personalities of four chess players: a grandmaster and three class-A players. The selected grandmaster is Chigorin who is characterized by his fear of attack strategy. On the other hand, the class-A players represent three chess personalities: negligence of the center and capturing more than usual pieces, employment of traps in the opening phase, and solid openings and control of the center. To this end, the experiment represents simulations of games between Chigorin and each of the three class-A players. The errors of Chigorin and class-A players were utilized as dependent variables to measure the performance of the players. The findings reveal that although the class-A players have almost similar chess ratings, they performed differently during the simulations. Likewise, the outcomes showed that Chigorin played differently while competing against each of the class-A opponents. The results indicate that chess personalities play a significant role in predicting game outcomes between different players and it should be used as a factor along with the chess ratings.


  • Virtual humans
  • Chess
  • Grandmaster
  • Fear of attack
  • Mikhail Chigorin
  • Games

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  • DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-77277-2_15
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Dhou, K. (2021). An Exploration of the Fear of Attack Strategy in Chess and Its Influence on Class-A Players of Different Chess Personalities: An Exploration Using Virtual Humans. In: Fang, X. (eds) HCI in Games: Experience Design and Game Mechanics. HCII 2021. Lecture Notes in Computer Science(), vol 12789. Springer, Cham.

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