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CD34+ Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

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Abstract

Although hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantations have been performed daily for more than 50 years, the concept of “regenerative medicine” was only proposed at the beginning of the 21st century, with the goal to structurally and functionally repair damaged tissues and organs using stem cells. Despite the hype and the hope generated by the pluripotency of embryonic or induced pluripotent stem cells, ethical problems and/or risk of teratoma formation and genomic instability hinder their use in the clinic in the foreseeable future. Various types of adult stem cells, mostly isolated from bone marrow (BM), peripheral blood, umbilical cord blood, or adipose tissue, have thus been commonly used to regenerate organs within the past years, with unequal efficacy. CD34+ cells emerge now as the more convincing cell type. From their discovery in 1984 until the end of the 1990s, they were considered as being solely HSCs. However, it was progressively demonstrated that endothelial, cardiac muscle, liver, and bone progenitor cells also bear the CD34 marker, giving rise to the transgressive concept of “cell plasticity”, which postulated that HSCs can transdifferentiate into other cell lineages from different germ layers. However, this concept should be definitely rejected because evidence has accumulated that adult BM harbors rare pluripotent stem cells, named very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs), which are also CD34+. They have been shown to be precursors of hematopoietic, mesenchymal, endothelial, cardiomyocytic, lung epithelial stem cells, and germ cells. To date, no clinical studies have been performed using VSELs. However, the clinical demonstration in recent years of the regeneration potential of CD34+ stem cells, which are probably derived from VSELs, could open the way to their greater therapeutic use in the near future.

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Abbreviations

ABMT:

Autologous bone marrow transplant

ALD:

Alcoholic liver disease

BMT:

Bone marrow transplant

BM-MNCs:

Bone marrow mononuclear cells

BMP-4:

Bone morphogenetic protein-4

CoREST:

Chromatin remodeling complex

CLI:

Critical limb ischemia

CRL3:

CULLIN3-E3 ubiquitin ligase

ESCs:

Embryonic stem cells

EPCs:

Endothelial progenitor cells

EPCR:

Endothelial protein C receptor

FSH:

Follicle stimulating hormone

GVHD:

Graft versus host disease

GMP:

Good manufacturing process

HGF:

Hepatocyte growth factor

HLA:

Human leucocyte antigens

iPSCs:

Induced pluripotent stem cells

KL:

Kit ligand

LH:

Leutinizing hormone

LSD-1A:

Lysine-specific histone demethylase 1A

MSCs:

Mesenchymal stem cells

MI:

Myocardial Infarction

MNCs:

Mononuclear cells

NO:

No-option

PB-MNCs:

Peripheral blood MNCs

PBSCs:

Peripheral blood stem cells

SDF:

Stromal cell derived factor

VSELs:

Very small embryonic-like stem cells

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Correspondence to Philippe Hénon .

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Hénon, P., Lahlil, R. (2021). CD34+ Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine. In: Haider, K.H. (eds) Stem Cells. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-77052-5_2

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