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Systems and Networks of Wireless Communication

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Part of the Textbooks in Telecommunication Engineering book series (TTE)


Currently, a huge number of radio engineering systems of fixed and mobile communications are used in the world, designed for transmitting information and using various types of signal modulation, unit design, multi-station access methods, and various network structures. The interaction of systems with all their diversity is effectively ensured at the interface level. In the second chapter, the main attention is paid to the architectural features of WPAN, WLAN, WMAN, and WWAN, grouped according to their purpose and the distance between terminal devices in the structure of the radio network. The standards describing the systems analyze in detail the structure of radio frames, the purpose of individual bits, and the organization of physical and logical channels at different levels. For the construction of radio receivers, the most important are the distribution of radio resources in the network, increasing its efficiency, and reducing the power consumption of network elements. All this refers to the layer of the physical channel of the OSI reference model, which provides radio communication between the BS and the MS, without which the structure of the entire network ceases to perform its main function – the transmission of information. The structures of radio access networks (WiFi, HIPERLAN, UWB, etc.) and mobile communication of digital systems, including 5G systems, as well as the applied multiple access technologies, which led to a change in the structural schemes of the basic types of modulation, are considered in detail. Modern methods of increasing the throughput of a radio channel by aggregating the spectra of active BS in the network structure, as well as algorithmic methods for controlling the dynamic spectrum of the network (software-defined radio (SDR) and cognitive radio (CR)), are considered.


  • Wireless networks and systems
  • Network architecture
  • Multiple access technologies
  • Spectrum aggregation
  • Dynamic radio resource management
  • Software-defined radio (SDR)
  • Cognitive radio (CR)

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  • DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-76628-3_2
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2.1.1 Application 2.1: Having studied Sect., make use of the expression for the signal base (В) (the spectrum spread factor (SF ))

$$ SF=B=\frac{\Delta {f}_{mes}}{\Delta {F}_{mes}}, $$

where ΔFmes = 1/T0 = 1/3.69 μs is the message bandwidth, which for the GSM900 standard is determined by the bit length Т0 = 3.69 μs, and ΔFmes = 271 kHz. The spectrum width of GMSK signal (Δfmes) determined by the symbol duration of the radio signal coincides with the bit duration Т0: Δfmes = 1/Т = 1/Т0 = 271 kHz.

The rate of the informational sequence coincides with the rate of symbol sequence of the physical channel: R = (1/T)/(1/T0) = 1 = B = SF .

2.1.2 Application 2.2

Calculate the spreading factor (SF) of the signal for the system IS-95 under the condition of the speech signal transmission with the rate R = 19.2 kbit/s. Where is the signal noise immunity higher? Explain the reason of this phenomenon.

Having studied Sect., make use of the expression for the signal base (В) (the spectrum spread factor (SF )).

$$ SF=B=\frac{\nu }{R}=\frac{1/{\tau}_{el}}{1/{T}_0}, $$

where the rate of informational video pulses is R = 1/T = 19.2 kbit/s. In the IS-95 system, the pulse duration in the radio channel after video pulse expansion by the Walsh sequence with duration of 64 symbols is \( {\tau}_{el}=\frac{T}{L}=\frac{1}{RL} \), and the rate of elementary pulses (chips) is ν = 1/τel.

The expansion coefficient is

$$ SF=B=\frac{\nu }{R}=\frac{19,2\cdot {10}^3\cdot 64}{19,2\cdot {10}^3}=64\approx 18 dB. $$

An increase in the width of spectrum of the radio signal in comparison with the spectrum of the same video signal in base band, in the example under consideration, by 64 times, significantly reduces the effect of interference at the receiver input and, above all, discrete interference characteristic of mobile communiction systems.

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Logvinov, V.V., Smolskiy, S.M. (2022). Systems and Networks of Wireless Communication. In: Radio Receivers for Systems of Fixed and Mobile Communications. Textbooks in Telecommunication Engineering. Springer, Cham.

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