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Part of the Human–Computer Interaction Series book series (BRIEFSHUMAN)


In my 2013 book, Orchestrating Human-Centered Design, I was already advocating the need to take into account complexity science and problem-solving techniques to streamline unusual situations where commonly accepted procedures no longer work. This book expands most concepts and methods based on cognitive engineering to a new set based on current developments of human systems integration (HSI). Furthermore, based on experience, “experience-based common sense” (i.e., what I also called educated common sense), must prevail and is appropriately combined with real-world data. This approach is called abduction (Peirce in Collected papers of Charles Sanders Peirce (1931–1958) In: Hartshorne C, Weiss P, Burks A (eds) Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA), a logical inference mechanism that requires us to anticipate possible futures, choose one, and demonstrate that we can reach it using the means available as well as other ones we develop.

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  • DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-76391-6_1
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Fig. 1.1


  1. 1.

    That is, perceiving what we can pick up with our senses, searching for what we do not understand, making sense of what we can gradually rationalize and finally understand, projecting ourselves into possible futures and those of our environment, modeling them, simulating them, trying to define trajectories that will enable us to reach them, and so on, based on strong experience-based models.

  2. 2.

    Abductive reasoning is a logical inference that seeks to find the simplest and most likely conclusion from the observations based on heuristics coming from experience. In cognitive psychology, abduction is a form of intuitive reasoning that consists in suppressing improbable solutions. This notion is opposed to a logic of systematic search exploration.

  3. 3.

    An adjustment variable is a resource used by an economic agent to reduce a temporary imbalance between the means at its disposal and the commitments it has entered into.


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Correspondence to Guy André Boy .

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Boy, G.A. (2021). Introduction. In: Design for Flexibility. Human–Computer Interaction Series(). Springer, Cham.

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