Skip to main content

Nature-Based Solutions as Tools for Monitoring the Abiotic and Biotic Factors in Urban Ecosystems

  • Chapter
  • First Online:
Urban Services to Ecosystems

Abstract

Nature-based solutions (NBS) include a wide spectrum of situations: natural and seminatural green spaces, urban forests, designed gardens and parks, green road lines and roundabouts, bio-swales, productive gardens, green roofs and walls. In each site, the challenge is to provide the best solution according to the environmental and cultural context and the citizens’ demand. The urban horticulture in synergy with NBS provides to design, realise and manage green solutions for specific problems in the urban context. NBS supplies actions able to improve urban resilience and many opportunities for improving urban quality, optimising the delivering of a mixed range of ecosystem services (ES). This chapter highlights that NBS can be used for monitoring, soil, air and water quality, water matrices and pollinator diversity. We therefore describe methods for monitoring the quality of soil, air, water matrices and pollinator diversity and abundance. In conclusion, we point out some key aspects, under an interdisciplinary perspective, in order to promote further and deeper knowledge in the application of NBS in the urban environments.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Chapter
USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
eBook
USD 139.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book
USD 179.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info
Hardcover Book
USD 179.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  • Abhijith KV, Kumar P, Gallagher J, McNabola A, Baldauf R, Pilla F, Broderick B, Di Sabatino S, Pulvirenti B (2017) Air pollution abatement performances of green infrastructure in open road and built-up street canyon environments. Atmos Environ 162:71–86

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Arnold JE, Egerer M, Daane KM (2019) Local and landscape effects to biological controls in urban agriculture – a review. Insects 10:215

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Baldacchini C, Castanheiro A, Maghakyan N, Sgrigna G, Verhelst J, Alonso R, Amorim JH, Bellan P, Bojović DD, Breuste J, Bühler O, Cântar IC, Cariñanos P, Carriero G, Churkina G, Dinca L, Esposito R, Gawroński SW, Kern M, Le Thiec D, Moretti M, Ningal T, Rantzoudi EC, Sinjur I, Stojanova B, Aničić Urošević M, Velikova V, Živojinović I, Sahakyan L, Calfapietra C, Samson R (2017) How does the amount and composition of PM deposited on Platanus acerifolia leaves change across different cities in Europe? Environ Sci Technol 51(3):1147–1156

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Baldacchini C, Sgrigna C, Clarke W, Tallis M, Calfapietra C (2019) An ultra-spatially resolved method to quali-quantitative monitor particulate matter in urban environment. Environ Sci Pollut Res 26:18719–18729

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Baldock KCR, Goddard MA, Hicks DM, Kunin WE, Mitschunas N, Morse H, Osgathorpe LM, Potts SG, Robertson KM, Scott AV, Staniczenko PPA, Stone GN, Vaughan IP, Memmott J (2019) A systems approach reveals urban pollinator hotspots and conservation opportunities. Nature Ecology & Evolution 3:363–373

    Google Scholar 

  • Baró F, Haase D, Gómez-Baggethun E, Frantzeskaki N (2015) Mismatches between ecosystem services supply and demand in urban areas: a quantitative assessment in five European cities. Ecol Indic 55:146–158

    Google Scholar 

  • Bartholomée O, Lavorel S (2019) Disentangling the diversity of definitions for the pollination ecosystem service and associated estimation methods. Ecol Indic 107:105576

    Google Scholar 

  • Battisti L, Larcher F, Devecchi M (2017) L’orto come strumento di educazione ambientale e inclusione sociale. esperienze multidisciplinari nella città di Torino. Memorie Geografiche 15:453–459

    Google Scholar 

  • Blicharska M, Andersson J, Bergsten J, Bjelke U, Hilding-Rydevik T, Johansson F (2016) Effects of management intensity, function and vegetation on the biodiversity in urban ponds. Urban For Urban Green 20:103–112

    Google Scholar 

  • Bonelli S, Casacci LP, Barbero F, Cerrato C, Dapporto L, Sbordoni V, Scalercio S, Zilli A, Battistoni A, Teofili C, Rondinini C, Balletto E (2018) The first red list of Italian butterflies. Insect Conserv & Diversity 11(5):506–521

    Google Scholar 

  • Bortolotti L, Bogo G, de Manincor N, Fisogni A, Galloni M (2016) Integrated conservation of bee pollinators of a rare plant in a protected area near Bologna, Italy. Conservation Evidence 13:51–56

    Google Scholar 

  • Bretzel F, Vannucchi F, Romano D, Malorgio F, Benvenuti S, Pezzarossa B (2016) Wildflowers: from conserving biodiversity to urban greening- a review. Urban For Urban Green 20:428–436

    Google Scholar 

  • Cameron R, Hitchmough J (2016) Environmental horticulture science and management of green landscapes. CABI, Oxfordshire, p 250. ISBN 1780641389

    Google Scholar 

  • Cameron RWF, Taylor JE, Emmett MR (2014) What’s ‘cool’ in the world of green façades? How plant choice influences the cooling properties of green walls. Build Environ 73:198–207

    Google Scholar 

  • Cariveau D, Winfree R (2015) Causes of variation in wild bee responses to anthropogenic drivers. Curr Opinion Insect Sci 10:104–109

    Google Scholar 

  • Chaudhary S, McGregor A, Houston D, Chettri N (2015) The evolution of ecosystem services: a time series and discourse-centered analysis. Environ Sci Policy 54:25–34

    Google Scholar 

  • Cherqui F, Szota C, Poelsma P, James R, Burns MJ, Fletcher T, Bertrand-Krajewski JL (2019) How to manage nature-based assets such as storm-water control measures? Conference Paper LESAM 2019, Vancouver

    Google Scholar 

  • Colding J, Barthel S (2013) The potential of ‘urban Green commons’ in the resilience building of cities. Ecol Econ 86:156–166

    Google Scholar 

  • Collins JP, Kinzig A, Grimm NB, Fagan WF, Hope D, Wu J, Borer ET (2000) A new urban ecology. Am Sci 5(88):416–425

    Google Scholar 

  • Corcos D, Cerretti P, Caruso V, Mei M, Falco M, Marini L (2019) Impact of urbanization on predator and parasitoid insects at multiple spatial scales. PLoS One 14(4):e0214068

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Dennis P, Herzog F, Jeanneret P, Arndorfer M, Bailey D, Bogers MMB, et al (2012) BIOBIO: biodiversity in organic and low-input farming systems. Handbook for recording key indicators. Wageningen, Alterra, Alterra-Report 2308. 92 pp

    Google Scholar 

  • Dzierżanowski K, Popek R, Gawrońska H, Sæbø A, Gawroński SW (2011) Deposition of particulate matter of different size fractions on leaf surfaces and in waxes of urban Forest species. Int J Phytoremediation 13(10):1037–1046

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Ferracini C, Alma A (2007) Evaluation of the community of native eulophid parasitoids on Cameraria ohridella Deschka and Dimic in urban areas. Environ Entomol 36:1147–1153

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Ferrazzi P, Vercelli M, Chakir A, Romane A, Mattana M, Consonni R (2017) Pollination effects on antioxidant content of Perilla frutescens seeds analysed by NMR spectroscopy. Nat Prod Res 31(23):2705–2711

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Fini A, Frangi P, Mori J, Donzelli D, Ferrini F (2017) Nature based solutions to mitigate soil sealing in urban areas: results from a 4-year study comparing permeable, porous, and impermeable pavements. Environ Res 156:443–454

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Gallai N, Salles JM, Settele J, Vaissière BE (2009) Economic valuation of the vulnerability of world agriculture confronted with pollinator decline. Ecol Econ 68:810–821

    Google Scholar 

  • Getter KL, Rowe DB, Robertson GP, Cregg BM, Andresen JA (2009) Carbon sequestration potential of extensive Green roofs. Environ Sci Technol 43:7564–7570

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Goulson D, Nicholls E, Botías C, Rotheray EL (2015) Bee declines driven by combined stress from parasites, pesticides, and lack of flowers. Science 347(6229):1255957

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Guidolotti G, Calfapietra C, Pallozzi E, De Simoni G, Esposito R, Mattioni M, Nicolini G, Matteucci G, Brugnoli E (2017) Promoting the potential of flux-measuring stations in urban parks: an innovative case study in Naples, Italy. Agric For Meteorol 233:153–162

    Google Scholar 

  • Hall DM, Camilo GD, Tonietto RK, Ollerton J, Ahrné K, Arduser M, Ascher JS, Baldock KCR, Fowler R, Frankie G, Goulson D, Gunnarsson B, Hanley ME, Jackson JI, Langellotto G, Lowenstein D, Minor ES, Philpott SM, Potts SG, Sirohi MH, Spevak EM, Stone GN, Threlfall C (2017) The city as a refuge for insect pollinators. Conserv Biol 31:24–29

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hernandez JL, Frankie GW, Thorp RW (2009) Ecology of urban bees: a review of current knowledge and directions for future study. Cities Environ 2(1):1–15

    Google Scholar 

  • Hicks DM, Ouvrard P, Baldock KCR, Baude M, Goddard MA, Kunin WE, Mitschunas N, Memmott J, Morse H, Nikolitsi M, Osgathorpe LM, Potts SG, Robertson KM, Scott AV, Sinclair F, Westbury DB, Stone GN (2016) Food for pollinators: quantifying the nectar and pollen resources of urban flower meadows. PLoS One 11(6):e0158117

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Hunter ML, Redford KH, Lindenmayer DB (2014) The complementary niches of anthropocentric and biocentric conservationists: Anthropocentrists and biocentrists. Conserv Biol 28:641–645

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2014) Climate Change 2014–Synthesis Report– Summary for Policy Makers. http://www.ipcc.ch/report/ar5/syr/. (Last accessed: February 10, 2020)

  • International Organization for Standardization (ISO) (2018) Sustainable cities and communities — Indicators for city services and quality of life (ISO 37120:2018).. https://www.iso.org/standard/68498.html. (last accessed: February 10, 2020)

  • International Union for Conservation of Nature – IUCN (2020) Available online: https://www.iucn.org/commissions/commission-ecosystem-management/our-work/nature-based-solutions. (Last accessed: February 09, 2020)

  • Jayasooriya VM, Ng AWM (2014) Tools for modeling of stormwater management and economics of green infrastructure practices: a review. Water Air Soil Pollut 225(8):1–20

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Jayasooriya VM, Ng AWM, Muthukumaran S, Perera BJC (2017) Green infrastructure practices for improvement of urban air quality. Urban For Urban Green 21:34–47

    Google Scholar 

  • Kardel F, Wuyts K, Maher BA, Samson R (2012) Intra-urban spatial variation of magnetic particles: monitoring via leaf saturation isothermal remanent magnetisation (SIRM). Atmos Environ 55:111–120

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Keesstra S, Nunes J, Novara A, Finger D, Avelar D, Kalantari Z, Cerdà A (2018) The superior effect of nature based solutions in land management for enhancing ecosystem services. Sci Total Environ 610-611:997–1009

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kennedy CM, Lonsdorf E, Neel MC, Williams NM, Ricketts TH, Winfree R, Bommarco R, Brittain C, Burley AL, Cariveau D, Carvalheiro LG, Chacoff NP, Cunningham SA, Danforth BN, Dudenhöffer JH, Elle E, Gaines HR, Garibaldi LA, Gratton C, Holzschuh A, Isaacs R, Javorek SK, Jha S, Klein AM, Krewenka K, Mandelik Y, Mayfield MM, Morandin L, Neame LA, Otieno M, Park M, Potts SG, Rundlöf M, Saez A, Steffan-Dewenter I, Taki H, Viana BF, Westphal C, Wilson JK, Greenleaf SS, Kremen C (2013) A global quantitative synthesis of local and landscape effects on wild bee pollinators in agroecosystems. Ecol Lett 16(5):584–599

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Ksiazek K, Fant J, Skogen K (2012) An assessment of pollen limitation on Chicago green roofs. Landsc Urban Plan 107(4):401–408

    Google Scholar 

  • Larcher F, Devecchi M, Battisti L, Vercelli M (2017) Urban horticulture and ecosystem services: challenges and opportunities for greening design and management. Italus Hortus 24(1):33–39

    Google Scholar 

  • Leroy M, Portet-Koltal F, Legras M, Lederf M, Moncond’huy V, Polaerte I, Marcotte S (2016) Performance of vegetated swales for improving road runoff quality in a moderate traffic urban area. Sci Total Environ 566-567:113–121

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Lowenstein DM, Matteson KC, Minor ES (2015) Diversity of wild bees supports pollination services in an urbanized landscape. Oecologia 179:811–821

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Mach BM, Potter DA (2018) Quantifying bee assemblages and attractiveness of flowering woody landscape plants for urban pollinator conservation. PLoS One 13(12):e0208428

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • MacIvor JS, Packer L (2015) “Bee hotels” as tools for native pollinator conservation: a premature verdict? PLoS One 10(3):e0122126

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • MacIvor JS, Ruttan A, Salehi B (2015) Exotics on exotics: pollen analysis of urban bees visiting Sedum on a green roof. Urban Ecosyst 18:419–430

    Google Scholar 

  • Maes D, Verovnik R, Wiemers M, Brosens D, Beshkov S, Bonelli S, Buszko J, Cantú Salazar L, Cassar LF, Collins S, Dincă V, Djuric M, Dusej G, Elven H, Franeta F, Garcia Pereira P, Geryak Y, Goffart P, Gór A, Hiermann U, Höttinger H, Huemer P, Jakšić P, John E, Kalivoda H, Kati V, Komac B, Kőrösi A, Kulak AV, Kuussaari M, L’Hoste L, Lelo S, Mestdagh X, Micevski N, Mihut S, Monasterio León Y, Munguira ML, Murray T, Nielsen PS, Ólafsson E, Õunap E, Pamperis L, Pavlíčko A, Pettersson LB, Popov S, Popović M, Ryrholm N, Šašić M, Pöyry J, Savenkov N, Settele J, Sielezniew M, Sinev S, Stefanescu C, Švitra G, Tammaru T, Tiitsaar A, Tzirkalli E, Tzortzakaki O, van Swaay CAM, Viborg AL, Wynhoff I, Zografou K, Warren MS (2019) Integrating national red lists for prioritising conservation actions for European butterflies. J Insect Conserv 23(2):301–330

    Google Scholar 

  • Marafuz I, Rodrigues C, Gomes A (2015) Analysis and assessment of urban flash floods on areas with limited available altimetry data (Arounca, NW Portugal): a methodological approach. Environ Earth Sci 73:2937–2949

    Google Scholar 

  • Matteson KC, John S, Ascher G, Langellotto A (2008) Bee richness and abundance in new York City urban gardens. Ann Entomol Soc Am 101:140–150

    Google Scholar 

  • McCravy KW (2018) A review of sampling and monitoring methods for beneficial arthropods in Agroecosystems. Insects 9:170

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • McDonald R, Kroeger T, Boucher T, Longzhu W, Salem R, Adams J, Bassett S, Edgecomb M, Garg S (2016) Planting healthy air: a global analysis of the role of urban trees in addressing particulate matter pollution and extreme heat. The Nature Conservancy, Arlington

    Google Scholar 

  • Melles SJ (2005) Urban bird diversity as an Indicator of human social diversity and economic inequality in Vancouver, British Columbia. Urban Habitats 1(3):25–48

    Google Scholar 

  • Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (Program) (Ed.) (2005) Ecosystems and human well-being: synthesis. Island Press, Washington, DC

    Google Scholar 

  • Moore LJ, Kosut M (2013) Buzz: urban beekeeping and the power of the bee. NYU Press, New York

    Google Scholar 

  • Morel JL, Chenu C, Lorenz K (2015) Ecosystem services provided by soils of urban, industrial, traffic, mining, and military areas (SUITMAs). J Soil Sediment 15:1659–1666

    Google Scholar 

  • National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) & University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR). (n.d.). Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model Users’ Page.. http://www2.mmm.ucar.edu/wrf/users/. (Last accessed: January 21, 2020)

  • Nesshöver C, Assmuth T, Irvine KN, Rusch GM, Waylen KA, Delbaere B, Haase D, Jones-Walters L, Keune H, Kovacs E, Krauze K, Külvik M, Rey F, van Dijk J, Inge Vistad O, Wilkinson ME, Wittmer H (2017) The science, policy and practice of nature-based solutions: an interdisciplinary perspective. Sci Total Environ 579:1215–1227

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Niemela J (1999) Is there a need for a theory of urban ecology? Urban Ecosyst 3:57–65

    Google Scholar 

  • Nieto A, Roberts SPM, Kemp J, Rasmont P, Kuhlmann M, García Criado M, Biesmeijer JC, Bogusch P, Dathe HH, De la Rúa P, De Meulemeester T, Dehon M, Dewulf A, Ortiz-Sánchez FJ, Lhomme P, Pauly A, Potts SG, Praz C, Quaranta M, Radchenko VG, Scheuchl E, Smit J, Straka J, Terzo M, Tomozii B, Window J, Michez D (2014) European red list of bees. IUCN, Luxembourg

    Google Scholar 

  • O’Connor RS, Kunin WE, Garratt MPD, Potts SG, Roy HE, Andrews C, Jones CM, Peyton J, Savage J, Harvey M, Morris RKA, Roberts SPM, Wright I, Vanbergen AJ, Carvell C (2019) Monitoring insect pollinators and flower visitation: the effectiveness and feasibility of different survey methods. Methods Ecol Evol 10:2129–2140

    Google Scholar 

  • Oldfield EE, Felson AJ, Wood SA, Hallett RA, Strickland MS, Bradford MA (2014) Positive effects of afforestation efforts on the health of urban soils. For Ecol Manage 313:266–273

    Google Scholar 

  • Ordóñez C, Grant A, Millward A, Steenberg J, Sabetski V (2019) Developing performance indicators for nature-based solution projects in urban areas: the case of trees in revitalized commercial spaces. Cities And The Environment (CATE) 12(1):1–23

    Google Scholar 

  • Panno A, Carrus G, Lafortezza R, Mariani L, Sanesi G (2017) Nature-based solutions to promote human resilience and wellbeing in cities during increasingly hot summers. Environ Res 159:249–256

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Pardee GL, Philpott SM (2014) Native plants are the bee’s knees: local and landscape predictors of bee richness and abundance in backyard gardens. Urban Ecosyst 17:641–659

    Google Scholar 

  • Parsons SE, Frank SD (2019) Urban tree pests and natural enemies respond to habitat at different spatial scales. J Urban Ecol 5(1):1–15

    Google Scholar 

  • Pennino MJ, McDonald RI, Jaffe PR (2016) Watershed-scale impacts of stormwater green infrastructure on hydrology, nutrient fluxes, and combined sewer overflows in the mid-Atlantic region. Sci Total Environ 565:1044–1053

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Picciau L, Alma A, Ferracini C (2019) Effect of different feeding sources on lifespan and fecundity in the biocontrol agent Torymus sinensis. Biol Control 134:45–52

    Google Scholar 

  • Pickett STA, Cadenasso ML, Grove JM (2004) Resilient cities: meaning, models, and metaphor for integrating the ecological, socio-economic, and planning realms. Landsc Urban Plan 69:369–384

    Google Scholar 

  • Potts SG, Imperatriz-Fonseca V, Ngo HT, Aizen MA, Biesmeijer JC, Breeze TD, Dicks LV, Garibaldi LA, Hill R, Settele J, Vanbergen AJ (2016) Safeguarding pollinators and their values to human Well-being. Nature 540:220–229

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Power AL, Worsley AT, Booth C (2009) Magneto-biomonitoring of intra-urban spatial variations of particulate matter using tree leaves. Environ Geochem Health 31(2):315–325

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Quaranta M, Ambroselli S, Barro P, Bella S, Carini A, Celli G, Cogoi P, Comba L, Comoli R, Felicioli A, Floris I, Intoppa F, Longo S, Maini S, Manino A, Mazzeo G, Medrzycki P, Nardi E, Niccolini L, Palmieri N, Patetta A, Piatti C, Piazza MG, Pinzauti M, Porporato M, Porrini C, Ricciardelli Dalbore G, Romagnoli F, Ruiu L, Satta A, Zandigiacomo P (2004) Wild bees in agroecosystems and semi-natural landscapes. 1997–2000 collection period in Italy. Bull Insectol 57(1):11–61

    Google Scholar 

  • Quaranta M, Cornalba M, Biella P, Comba M, Battistoni A, Rondinini C, Teofili C (2018) Lista Rossa IUCN delle api italiane minacciate. IUCN, Roma

    Google Scholar 

  • Reedyk S, Forsyth A (2006) Using field chemistry kits for monitoring nutrients in surface water. Publication number PRO-121-2006-1. Ottawa, Ontario, Canada: Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada PFRA

    Google Scholar 

  • Rega C, Bartual AM, Bocci G, Sutter L, Albrecht M, Moonen A-C, Jeanneret P, van der Werf W, Pfister SC, Holland JM, Paracchini ML (2018) A pan-European model of landscape potential to support natural pest control services. Ecol Indic 90:653–664

    Google Scholar 

  • Roy HE, Baxter E, Saunders A, Pocock MJO (2016) Correction: focal plant observations as a standardised method for pollinator monitoring: opportunities and limitations for mass participation citizen science. PLoS One 11(5):e0155571

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Savard J-PL, Clergeau P, Mennechez G (2000) Biodiversity concepts and urban ecosystems. Landsc Urban Plan 48:131–142

    Google Scholar 

  • Selmi W, Weber C, Rivière E, Blonda N, Mehdi L, Nowak D (2016) Air pollution removal by trees in public green spaces in Strasbourg city, France. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening 17:192–201

    Google Scholar 

  • Sgrigna G, Baldacchini C, Dreveck S, Cheng Z, Calfapietra C (2020) Relationships between air particulate matter capture efficiency and leaf traits in twelve tree species from an Italian urban-industrial environment. Sci Total Environ 718:137310

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Shackleton CM, Ruwanza S, Sinasson Sanni GK, Bennett S, De Lacy P, Modipa R, Mtati N, Sachikonye M, Thondhlana G (2016) Unpacking Pandora’s box: understanding and categorising ecosystem disservices for environmental management and human wellbeing. Ecosystems 19:587–600

    Google Scholar 

  • Shapiro J, Báldi A (2014) Accurate accounting: how to balance ecosystem services and disservices. Ecosyst Serv 7:201–202

    Google Scholar 

  • Somme L, Moquet L, Quinet M, Vanderplanck M, Michez D, Lognay G, Jacquemart A-L (2016) Food in a row: urban trees offer valuable floral resources to pollinating insects. Urban Ecosyst 19:1149–1161

    Google Scholar 

  • Sparks TH, Butchard SHM, Balmford A, Bennun L, Stanwell-Smith D, Walpole M, Bates NR, Bomhard B, Buchanan GM, Chenery AM, Collen B, Csirke J, Diaz RJ, Dulvym NK, Fitzgerald C, Kapos V, Mayaux P, Tierney M, Waycott M, Wood L, Green RE (2011) Linked indicator sets for addressing biodiversity loss. Oryx 45(03):411–419

    Google Scholar 

  • TEEB – The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (2011) TEEB manual for cities: ecosystem services in urban management. www.teebweb.org

  • Tiwary A, Kumar P (2014) Impact evaluation of green–grey infrastructure interaction on built-space integrity: an emerging perspective to urban ecosystem service. Sci Total Environ 487:350–360

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Tong Z, Whitlow TH, Macrae PF, Landers AJ, Harada Y (2015) Quantifying the effect of vegetation on near-road air quality using brief campaigns. Environ Pollut 201:141–149

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Tonietto R, Fant J, Ascher J, Ellis K, Larkin D (2011) A comparison of bee communities of Chicago green roofs, parks and prairies. Landsc Urban Plan 103:102–108

    Google Scholar 

  • Underwood E, Darwin G, Gerritsen E (2017) Pollinator initiatives in EU Member States: Success factors and gaps. Report for European Commission under contract for provision of technical support related to Target 2 of the EU Biodiversity Strategy to 2020 – maintaining and restoring ecosystems and their services ENV.B.2/SER/2016/0018. Institute for European Environmental Policy, Brussels.

    Google Scholar 

  • United Nations Conferences on Housing and Sustainable Urban Development (2017) Habitat III policy papers: policy paper 8 urban ecology and resilience. United Nations, New York. https://www.habitat3.org

  • United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service (2019) I-tree eco manual. Northern Research Station.. https://www.itreetools.org/resources/manuals/Ecov6_ManualsGuides/Ecov6_UsersManual.pdf. (Last accessed: January 23, 2020)

  • US EPA (2009) National Water Quality Inventory. 2004 report. EPA-841-R-02-001. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC

    Google Scholar 

  • van den Bosch M, Ode Sang Å (2017) Urban natural environments as nature-based solutions for improved public health – a systematic review of reviews. Environ Res 158:373–384

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Van Swaay C, Cuttelod A, Collins S, Maes D, López Munguira M, Šašić M, Settele J, Verovnik R, Verstrael T, Warren M, Wiemers M, Wynhof I (2010) European red list of butterflies. Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg

    Google Scholar 

  • Vercelli M, Ferrazzi P (2014) Melliferous potential yield of Torino city (Piedmont, Northwestern Italy). In: 2nd ApiEcoFlora & Biodiversity. Proceedings of Apimondia Symposium, 6–7 November 2014, Roma

    Google Scholar 

  • Vieira J, Matos P, Mexia T, Silva P, Lopes N, Freitas C, Correia O, Santos-Reis M, Branquinho C, Pinho P (2018) Green spaces are not all the same for the provision of air purification and climate regulation services: the case of urban parks. Environ Res 160:306–313

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Weerakkody U, Dover JW, Mitchell P, Reiling K (2018) Quantification of the traffic-generated particulate matter capture by plant species in a living wall and evaluation of the important leaf characteristics. Sci Total Environ 635:1012–1024

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Weltecke K, Gaertig T (2012) Influence of soil aeration on rooting and growth of the Beuys-trees in Kassel, Germany. Urban For Urban Green 11:329–338

    Google Scholar 

  • Wenzel A, Grass I, Belavadi VV, Tscharntke T (2020) How urbanization is driving pollinator diversity and pollination – a systematic review. Biol Conserv 241:108321

    Google Scholar 

  • Westphal C, Bommarco R, Carré G, Lamborn E, Morison N, Petanidou T, Potts SG, Roberts SPM, Szentgyörgyi H, Tscheulin T, Vaissière BE, Woyciechowski M, Biesmeijer JC, Kunin WE, Settele J, Steffan-Dewenter I (2008) Measuring bee diversity in different European habitats and biogeographical regions. Ecol Monogr 78(4):653–671

    Google Scholar 

  • Whittinghill LJ, Rowe DB, Schutzki R, Cregg BM (2014) Quantifying carbon sequestration of various green roof and ornamental landscape systems. Landsc Urban Plan 123:41–48

    Google Scholar 

  • Zölch T, Henze L, Keilholz P, Pauleit S (2017) Regulating urban surface runoff through nature-based solutions – an assessment at the micro-scale. Environ Res 157:135–144

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Federica Larcher .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2021 The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG

About this chapter

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this chapter

Larcher, F. et al. (2021). Nature-Based Solutions as Tools for Monitoring the Abiotic and Biotic Factors in Urban Ecosystems. In: Catalano, C., Andreucci, M.B., Guarino, R., Bretzel, F., Leone, M., Pasta, S. (eds) Urban Services to Ecosystems . Future City, vol 17. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-75929-2_7

Download citation

Publish with us

Policies and ethics