Predictive motor control is employed ubiquitously in the animal kingdom. The optokinetic response (OKR), a reflexive eye movement present in most vertebrates, was found to be predictive. Recent studies demonstrated that the cerebellum is necessary but not sufficient for the acquisition of predictive (p) OKR. This chapter reviews recent findings on the roles of cerebellum-brainstem loops in pOKR. First, behavioral characteristics and neuronal circuits subserving pOKR are overviewed. Next, effects of cerebellectomy on acquisition and maintenance of pOKR are summarized along with Purkinje cell activities. Results from cross-species comparisons of pOKR are then summarized, pointing out that a distinctive difference between animals that acquire pOKR and those that don’t is the presence of the velocity storage mechanism (VSM). Finally, the importance of the closed VSM-cerebellar neural loops is discussed in the context of counting passage of time to start and stop the eyes predictively in the adaptive OKR control.
- Eye movement
- Velocity storage mechanism
- Predictive control
- Optokinetic response
- Visual stabilization
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Hirata, Y. (2021). Roles of Cerebellum-Brainstem Loops in Predictive Optokinetic Eye Velocity Control in Fish, Mice, and Humans. In: Mizusawa, H., Kakei, S. (eds) Cerebellum as a CNS Hub. Contemporary Clinical Neuroscience. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-75817-2_9
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