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Cerebellum-Like Systems in Actinopterygian Fishes with a Special Focus on the Diversity of Cerebellum-Like System in the Mesencephalon

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Abstract

In addition to the cerebellum, most vertebrates possess cerebellum-like structures with components similar to the molecular layer, granule cells, and Purkinje cells. Most of such cerebellum-like structures situate in the medulla oblongata. In actinopterygian fishes, however, an additional cerebellum-like system is present in the mesencephalon. The torus longitudinal is the granule layer-like structure that sends parallel fiber-like axons to the most superficial layer of the optic tectum, or the stratum marginale. Pyramidal cells or type I cells of the optic tectum, which send ascending dendrites to the stratum marginale, are Purkinje cell-like neurons. This chapter introduces morphology, neural circuitry, and functions of the cerebellum-like systems, with a special focus on the mesencephalic cerebellum-like system in actinopterygian fishes. A recent study suggests that the mesencephalic cerebellum-like system is involved in the visual attention shift, although further studies are necessary to understand fully the significance of this peculiar cerebellum-like system.

Keywords

  • Cerebellum
  • Cerebellum-like
  • Crest cell
  • Pyramidal cell
  • Torus longitudinal
  • Stratum marginal
  • Tectum
  • Actinoterygian
  • Teleost

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Abbreviations

AUR:

Auricula cerebelli

CC:

Corpus cerebelli

CC4:

Lobule 4 of corpus cerebelli

CCg:

Granular layer of corpus cerebelli

CLS:

Cerebellum-like system

CrC:

Cerebellar crest

DCN:

Dorsal cochlear nucleus

dlz:

Dorsolateral zone of mormyrid ELL

DO:

Descending octaval nucleus

DOdm:

Dorsomedial zone of DO

DON:

Dorsal octavolateral nucleus

EG:

Eminentia granularis

EGp:

Posterior part of EG

ELL:

Electrosensory lateral line lobe

flm:

Medial longitudinal fascicle

EOD:

Electric organ discharge

GR:

Corpus glomerulosum pars rotunda

GP:

Granule population of McCormick and Hernandez (1996)

HB:

Habenula

IP:

Interpeduncular nucleus

l:

Lateral fiber part of TL

L:

Lateral granular cell part of TL

LC:

Lobus caudalis

LCg:

Granular layer of LC

LFN:

Lateral funicular nucleus

LI:

Inferior lobe

ll:

Lateral lemniscus

m:

Medial fiber part of TL

M:

Medial granular cell part of TL

MLL:

Mechanosensory lateral line lobe

mz:

Medial zone of mormyrid ELL

NAT:

Anterior tuberal nucleus

NLV:

Lateral valvular nucleus

NLVpl:

Posterolateral part of NLV of Ito and Yoshimoto (1990)

NLVpm:

Posteromedial part of NLV of Ito and Yoshimoto (1990)

NM:

Medial octavolateral nucleus

NPC:

Nucleus paracommissuralis

NPE:

Nucleus praeeminentialis

NPEl:

Lateral part of NPE

NPEm:

Medial part of NPE

NSE:

Nucleus subeminentialis

NSV:

Nucleus subvalvularis

nII:

Optic nerve

NIII:

Oculomotor nucleus

NVm:

Trigeminal motor nucleus

nVIII:

Octaval nerve

P:

Pituitary

pc:

Posterior commissure

RCLS:

Rhombencephalic CLS

pLL:

Posterior lateral line nerve

Rm :

Middle reticular formation

rV:

Central root of trigeminal nerve

rVII:

Central root of facial nerve

SAC:

Stratum album centrale

SFGS:

Stratum fibrosum et griseum superficiale

SGC:

Stratum griseum centrale

SGN:

Secondary gustatory nucleus

SM :

Stratum marginale

SO:

Stratum opticum

SOP:

Secondary octaval population

SPV:

Stratum periventriculare

SV:

Vascular sac

TE:

Telencephalon

TL:

Torus longitudinalis

TLa:

Torus lateralis

TO:

Optic tectum

TS:

Torus semicircularis

TSc:

Central nucleus of TS

TSl:

Lateral nucleus of TS

TSvl:

Ventrolateral nucleus of TS

VC:

Valvula cerebelli

VCl:

Lateral lobe of VC

VCm:

Medial lobe of VC

vlz:

Ventrolateral zone of mormyrid ELL

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Yamamoto, N., Hagio, H. (2021). Cerebellum-Like Systems in Actinopterygian Fishes with a Special Focus on the Diversity of Cerebellum-Like System in the Mesencephalon. In: Mizusawa, H., Kakei, S. (eds) Cerebellum as a CNS Hub. Contemporary Clinical Neuroscience. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-75817-2_2

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