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Climate Governance and Sustainable Development: A Sight to the Intermediate and Border Cities of Ecuador

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Abstract

Although urban areas in Latin America are not major GHG emitters, they play crucial, little-studied roles in the field of climate change. In Ecuador, there are 21 intermediate cities, which include at least 7 border cities. Intermediate cities are key to achieving sustainable urban development, merged with rural networks and environmental systems. The present work aims to conduct a sociodemographic characterization of intermediate and border cities of Ecuador and to develop a mapping of climate change actors. Three intermediate and border cities (Esmeraldas, Loja and Nueva Loja), belonging to the country's regions: Coast, Highlands and Amazonian Lowland, respectively, were analyzed. The methodology was proposed from a qualitative-quantitative approach, with two stages: 1) Identification of the sociodemographic structure and distribution through the survey of secondary sources; and 2) Development of a mapping of actors based on a given methodology, which groups four steps: a) Clarify the objectives of the mapping, b) Define the variables and design the scheme, c) Collect the information, and d) Analyze the mapping of actors. The results contrast the social characteristics and demographic indicators between these cities and the climate governance instruments. Based on these data, a dynamic graphic mapping was developed that identifies the active strategic actors of climate change at the national, provincial and cantonal levels, determining the National Government as the leading actor of climate governance, and the absence of key actors such as media, journalists and private companies.

Keywords

  • Climate change
  • Demography
  • Strategic actors
  • Intermediate cities
  • Sustainable development

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Notes

  1. 1.

    MAE, Ministry of Environment and Water; IDB, Inter-American Development Bank; CAN, Department of Countries of the Andean Group; UNCCD, National Focal Point of the United Nations Convention para la Lucha contra la Desertificación; ONU REDD, Programa Nacional Conjunto ONU REDD Ecuador; FOCAM Ecuador, Fomento de Necesidades para la Mitigación de Cambio Climático en el Ecuador; PNUD, Programa de Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo; SENPLADES, Secretaría Nacional de Planifi-cación y Desarrollo; GEF, Fondo para el Medio Ambiente Mundial; FAO, Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Alimentación y la Agricultura; CIIFEN, Centro Internacional para la Investigación del Fenómeno del Niño; USAID, Agencia de los Estados Unidos para el Desarrollo Internacional; USFS, Servicio Forestal de los Estados Unidos; UNL, Universidad Nacional Loja; ONU-HABITAT, Programa de las Naciones Unidas para los Asentamientos Humanos; CAF, Banco de Desarrollo de América Latina; AFD, Agencia Francesa de Desarrollo; LAIF, Facilidad de Inversión en América Latina; UTPL, Univer-sidad Técnica Particular de Loja; CeALCI, Fundación Carolina; USFQ: Universidad San Fran-cisco de Quito; PNUD, Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo; y, MDMQ, Mu-nicipio del Distrito Metropolitano de Quito.

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Duque-Rengel, V.K., Heredia-R, M., Calva-Cabrera, K.D., Torres, B., Toulkeridis, T. (2021). Climate Governance and Sustainable Development: A Sight to the Intermediate and Border Cities of Ecuador. In: , et al. Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Water Energy Food and Sustainability (ICoWEFS 2021). ICoWEFS 2021. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-75315-3_69

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