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Water

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Part of the Sustainable Development Goals Series book series (SDGS)

Abstract

The world’s freshwater sources are already limited and existed human activities constantly pollute sources. This chapter aims to present a comprehensive technology selection for freshwater generation, waste treatment, heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. Smart cities, which we believe should be built upon the concept of self-sustaining, cannot be considered independently of activities such as water, waste, and air conditioning management. We selected specific technologies in the Open Digital Innovation Hub (ODIH) to provide air conditioning, water generation and consumption, and waste disposal needs with optimum resource consumption. Greywater and rainwater will be purified by membrane technology to reproduce usable water. The salty seawater located beloved ODIH will be desalinated by the Sea Water Reverse Osmosis (SWRO) system, and lastly, the system which produces high-quality water from moisture is the main water production systems. Toilet and organic wastes are treated by a small-scale bioreactor that works with the anaerobic digestion principle. Exhausted gas will be used in a particular stove. For the HVAC, we will use an air source heat pump with a 16-kW capacity. According to the results of our calculations, ODIH can produce its required water without a water supply network connection.

The author would like to acknowledge the help and contributions of Ali Barışcan Kaya, Ali Kemal Dikmecli, Doğu Mert Özkan, Efe Durmazkul, Güney Yurtsever, Yasemin Beril Kılıç in completing of this chapter.

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  • DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-75093-0_2
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Correspondence to Sinan Küfeoğlu .

Appendices

Appendix 2.1 Harvestable Rainwater (Area*rainfall*0.72)

Months Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Total
Litres 7499.52 6229.44 5382.72 3810.24 2704.32 2142.72 1952.64 2393.28 3810.24 6048 7439.04 9097.92 58,510.08

Appendix 2.2 Harvestable Rainwater After Purification

Months Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Total
Litres 6749.568 5606.496 4844.448 3429.216 2433.888 1928.448 1757.376 2153.952 3429.216 5443.2 6695.136 8188.128 52,659.072

Appendix 2.3 Used Rainwater

Months Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Total
Litres 5366.667 5366.667 5366.667 3810.24 2704.32 2142.72 1952.64 2393.28 3810.24 5366.667 5366.667 5366.667 49,013.442

Appendix 2.4 Surplus Rainwater

Months Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Total
Litres 2132.853 862.773 16.053 0 0 0 0 0 0 681.333 2072.373 3731.253 9496.638

Appendix 2.5 Used Rainwater After Purification (Used*0.9)

Months Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Total:
Litres 4830 4830 4830 3429.216 2433.888 1928.448 1757.376 2153.952 3429.216 4830 4830 4830 44,112.096

Appendix 2.6 Greywater Production (Per day: 355 * 0.75 * 0.8 ≌ 210 L)

Months Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Total
Litres 6300 6300 6300 6300 6300 6300 6300 6300 6300 6300 6300 6300 75,600

Appendix 2.7 Greywater Amount After Purification (Greywater Production*0.9)

Months Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Total
Litres 5670 5670 5670 5670 5670 5670 5670 5670 5670 5670 5670 5670 68,040

Appendix 2.8 Total Water by Sources

Months Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Total
Greywater 5670 5670 5670 5670 5670 5670 5670 5670 5670 5670 5670 5670 68,040
Rainwater 4830 4830 4830 3429.216 2433.888 1928.448 1757.376 2153.952 3429.216 4830 4830 4830 44,112.096
Reverrse osmosis 0 0 0 1400.784 2396.112 2901.552 3072.624 2676.048 1400.784 0 0 0 13,847.904
Water from humidity 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 1800
Total 10,650 10,650 10,650 10,650 10,650 10,650 10,650 10,650 10,650 10,650 10,650 10,650 127,800

Appendix 2.9 Water from Humidity (5 L * 30)

Months Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Total
Litres 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 1800

Appendix 2.10 Reverse Osmosis

Months Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Total
Litres 0 0 0 1400.784 2396.112 2901.552 3072.624 2676.048 1400.784 0 0 0 13,847.904

Appendix 2.11 Energy Consumptions (Purification: 3 kWh/m3, Reverse Osmosis: 11 kWh/m3, Water from Humidity: 350 kWh/m3, Hydrophore: 2.11 kWh/m3)

Months Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Total
Greywater 18.9 18.9 18.9 18.9 18.9 18.9 18.9 18.9 18.9 18.9 18.9 18.9 226.8
Rainwater 16.1 16.1 16.1 11.431 8.113 6.428 5.858 7.18 11.431 16.1 16.1 16.1 147.041
Reverse Osmosis 0 0 0 15.409 26.357 31.917 33.799 29.437 15.409 0 0 0 152.328
Water from humidity 52.5 52.5 52.5 52.5 52.5 52.5 52.5 52.5 52.5 52.5 52.5 52.5 630
Hydrophore 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 264
Total 109.5 109.5 109.5 142.24 127.87 131.745 133.057 130.017 120.24 109.5 109.5 109.5 1420.169

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Küfeoğlu, S. (2021). Water. In: The Home of the Future. Sustainable Development Goals Series. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-75093-0_2

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