Gölcük in Kocaeli city is located in the northwestern region of Turkey on the Anatolian fault line. It has been subjected to various civilizations according to archeological evidence and historical sources. Among 23 villages located in Gölcük district, Saraylı, Örcün, and Selimiye that have a long history dated back to around 1326 when the region was conquered by Ottomans are known for their well-preserved rural architectural heritage. The rural houses show architectural design properties that increase the structural resistance for earthquakes due to their various characteristics such as construction materials’ properties. The study involves the determination of raw material characteristics of earthen construction materials of vernacular houses of Saraylı, Örcün, and Selimiye villages.
Archaeometric investigation carried out on samples from earthen bricks, mud plasters, and mortars of representative houses in the mentioned villages. The earthen materials were investigated from the mineralogical and chemical point of view including particle size distribution, aggregate/binder ratio, total soluble salt content, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, Fourier transform infrared analyses (FTIR), and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyses.
The results of the study allowed an understanding of the building technologies and the properties of raw materials employed in the houses in different locations. The determination of the original construction materials would help to develop appropriate restoration strategies and restoration materials compatible with the principles of sustainable architecture.
- Vernacular architecture
- Raw material characteristics
- Hımış-type houses
- Earthen materials
- Sustainable architecture
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout
Purchases are for personal use onlyLearn about institutional subscriptions
Aktaş, Y. D., Akyüz, U., Türer, A., Erdil, B., & Güçhan, N. Ş. (2014). Seismic resistance evaluation of traditional Ottoman timber-frame Hımış houses: Frame loadings and material tests. Earthquake Spectra, 30(4), 1711–1732.
Akyuz, T., Akyuz, S., & Gulec, A. (2015). Elemental and spectroscopic characterization of plasters from Fatih Mosque-Istanbul (Turkey) by combined micro-raman FTIR and EDXRF Techniques. Spectrochimica Acta Part a: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy, 149, 744–750.
Al-Ani, T., & Sarapää, O. (2008). Clay and clay mineralogy. Physical-chemical Properties and Industrial Uses. Geological Survey of Finland.
Andrejkovičová, S., Ferraz, E., Velosa, A. L., Silva, A. S., & Rocha, F. (2012). Air lime mortars with incorporation of sepiolite and synthetic zeolite pellets. Acta Geodynamics Et Geomaterialia, 9(1), 79–91.
Bahobail, M. A. (2012) The mud additives and their effect on thermal conductivity of adobe bricks. Journal of Engineering Sciences, 40(1), 21–3.4.
Bayraktar, N. T., & Kishali, E. (2013). Evaluation of thermal behaviour of traditional Hımış type buildings in Kocaeli. In Kerpiç 13-New Generation Earthen Architecture- Learning from Heritage- International Conference.
Black, C. A. (1965). Methods of soil analysis, part 2. American Society of Agronomy.
Boggs, S. (2009). Petrology of sedimentary rocks. Cambridge University Press.
Brown, R., & Maudlin, D. (2012). Brown, R., & Maudlin, D. (2012). Concepts of Vernacular Architecture. The SAGE Handbook of Architectural Theory, 340–368.
Caner, E. (2003). Archaeometrical investigation of some Seljuk plasters (Doctoral dissertation, METU).
Costa, C., Cerqueira, Â., Rocha, F., & Velosa, A. (2019). The sustainability of adobe construction: Past to future. International Journal of Architectural Heritage, 13(5), 639–647.
Davey, N. (1961). A history of building materials. Phoenix House.
Derrick, M. R., Stulik, D., & Landry, J. M. (1999). Infrared spectroscopy in conservation science, scientific tools for conservation. Los Angeles: The Getty Conservation Institute.
Eres, Z. (2013). “Türkiye'de Geleneksel Kırsal Mimarinin Korunması: Tarihsel Süreç, Yasal Boyut”, Mimari ve Kentsel Koruma, Prof.Dr. Nur Akın’a Armağan. ed. K.K. Eyüpgiller - Z. Eres. İstanbul: Yem Yayınları. 457–469
Galitekin, A. N. (2005). Gölcük Tarihçe ve Kültür Mirası Eserleri (1. Baskı), İstanbul: Gölcük Belediyesi Kültür Yayınları.
Güçhan, N. Ş. (2007). Observations on earthquake resistance of traditional timber-framed houses in Turkey. Building and Environment, 42(2), 840–851.
Gür, Ş. Ö., & Batur, A. (2005). Rural Architecture in the Eastern Black Sea Region/Doğu Karadenizde Kırsal Mimari, İstanbul: Milli Reasürans TAŞ.
Joel, O. A. (2016). Conservation of traditional earth building in Nigeria: Case study of origbo in IFE North Osun State. International Journal of African Society, Cultures and Traditions, 4(2), 20–31.
Jones, C. (2013). Jones, C. (2013). Effect of Lightweight Aggregate Moisture Content on Internally Cured Concrete. Graduate Theses and Dissertations Retrieved from https://scholarworks.uark.edu/etd/83.
Kavas, T., Sabah, E., & Çelik, M. S. (2004). Structural properties of sepiolite-reinforced cement composite. Cement and Concrete Research, 34(11), 2135–2139.
Köksal, G. (2013). Gölcük’teki Mimari Miras Kitabı (1. Baskı), Kocaeli: Çınar Ofset.
Köroğlu, J. (2007). 17 Ağustos 1999 Marmara Depremi’nin Gölcük ve Civarı Çevresel Etkileri, Yayınlanmamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, İstanbul.
Kuban, D. (1995). “Türk Evi Geleneği Üzerine Gözlemler”, Türk İslam Sanatı Üzerine Denemeler. İstanbul: Arkeoloji ve Sanat Yayınları.
Matera, F., & Moss, E. (2004). Temporary site protection for earthen walls and murals at Çata1höyük, Turkey. Conservation and Management of Archaeological Sites, 6(3–4), 213–227.
Matero, F., & Moss, E. (2012). Temporary site protection for earthen walls and murals in Çatalhöyük Turkey (2004). In S. Sullivan & R. Mackay (Eds.), Archaeological sites: Conservation and management (Vol. 5, pp. 392–406). Getty Publications.
Matero, F., & Moss, E. (2004). Temporary site protection for earthen walls and murals at Çatalhöyük, Turkey. Conservation and Management of Archaeological Sites, 6(3 & 4), 213–227.
Meriç, I., Erdil, M., Madani, N., Alam, B., Tavukcuoglu, A., & Caner Saltik, E. N. (2013). Technological properties of earthen building materials in traditional timber frame structure. Proc Kerpic, 13, 465–473.
Mills, J., & White, R. (1994). Organic chemistry of museum objects. Routledge.
Morel, J. C., Mesbah, A., Oggero, M., & Walker, P. (2001). Building houses with local materials: Means to drastically reduce the environmental impact of construction. Building and Environment, 36(10), 1119–1126.
Moussa, A. M. A., Kantiranis, N., Voudouris, K. S., Stratis, J. A., Ali, M. F., & Christaras, V. (2009). The impact of soluble salts on the deterioration of pharaonic and Coptic wall paintings at Al Qurna, Egypt: Mineralogy and chemistry. Archaeometry, 51(2), 292–308.
Oliver, P. (2006). Built to meet needs: Cultural issues in vernacular architecture. Elsevier.
Özgünler, M. (2017). Kırsal Sürdürülebilirlik Bağlamında Geleneksel Köy Evlerinde Kullanılan Toprak Esaslı Yapı Malzemelerinin İncelenmesi. Süleyman Demiral Üniversitesi Mimarlık Bilimleri Ve Uygulamaları Dergisi, 2(2), 33–41.
Papayianni, I., & Pachta, V. (2017). Earth block houses of historic centers. A sustainable upgrading with compatible repair materials. Procedia Environmental Sciences, 38, 274–282.
Pavlík, Z., Fořt, J., Pavlíková, M., Kulovaná, T., & Černý, R. (2015). Characterization of cement pastes containing natural zeolite as a pozzolanic admixture. In Applied mechanics and materials (Vol. 719, pp. 206–209). Trans Tech Publications.
Reddi, L. N., Jain, A. K., & Yun, H. B. (2016). Soil materials for earth construction: Properties, classification and suitability testing. In M. R. Hall, R. Lindsay, & M. Krayenhoff (Eds.), Modern Earth Buildings (pp. 155–171). Woodhead Publishing.
Sey, Y. (2003). Vizyon 2023 Öngörü Panelleri: Sürdürülebilir Kalkınma / Tarihi Kültürel Mirasın Korunması. https://www.tubitak.gov.tr/tubitak_content_files/vizyon2023/csk/EK-13.pdf.
Sharma, A., & Singh, M. R. (2019). Multi-analytical investigation of the composition and binders used in the earthen support layer of fifth–fourteenth century CE painted fragments from Bezeklik, China. Studies in Conservation, 1–17.
Singh, M., & Arbad, B. R. (2014). Characterization of traditional mud mortar of the decorated wall surfaces of Ellora caves. Construction and Building Materials, 65, 384–395.
Singh, M., Kumar, S. V., & Waghmare, S. (2016). Mud plaster wall paintings of Bhaja Caves: Composition and performance characteristics. Indian Journal of History of Science, 51, 431–442.
Singh, M., Kumar, S. V., & Waghmare, S. (2016). An analytical and geoarchaeological approach on earthen plaster of 2nd century BCE Karle Caves of Western Deccan, India. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports, 9, 522–535.
Stefanidou, M., & Papayianni, I. (2005). The role of aggregates on the structure and properties of lime mortars. Cement and Concrete Composites, 27(9–10), 914–919.
Taşova, H., & Alper, A. (2013). Marmara Bölgesi topraklarının bitki besin maddesi kapsamlarının belirlenmesi, veri tabanının oluşturulması ve haritalanması. Toprak Su Dergisi, 2(2), 83–95.
Teutonico, J. M. (1988). A laboratory manual for architectural conservators. ICCROM.
Usanmaz, B. (2007). Gölcük-Saraylı Köyü Sit Koruma Projesi: Fiziksel Düzenleme İçin Ön Koşul ve İlkelerinin Araştırılması (Yayımlanmamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi). İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü Mimarlık Anabilim Dalı, Restorasyon Programı, İstanbul.
Wentworth, C. K. (1922). A scale of grade and class terms for clastic sediments. The Journal of Geology, 30(5), 377–392.
Yılmaz, M., & Bakış, A. (2015). Sustainability in construction sector. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 195, 2253–2262.
Yoon, J., & Kim, K. H. (2017). Critical review of the material criteria of building sustainability assessment tools. Sustainability, 9(2), 186.
This project was funded by Kocaeli University, Scientific Research Project Coordination Unit (BAP) in 2019, Project Number: 2018/088.
Editors and Affiliations
© 2022 The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG
About this paper
Cite this paper
Muşkara, Ü., Bozbaş, S.K. (2022). Characterization of Earthen Building Materials in Gölcük Vernacular Houses. In: Versaci, A., Bougdah, H., Akagawa, N., Cavalagli, N. (eds) Conservation of Architectural Heritage. Advances in Science, Technology & Innovation. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-74482-3_2
Publisher Name: Springer, Cham
Print ISBN: 978-3-030-74481-6
Online ISBN: 978-3-030-74482-3