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Introduction

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Part of the Contributions to Finance and Accounting book series (CFA)

Abstract

There are many international organisations trying positively to influence the way in which the world is developing. There are numerous reasons why there are so many international organisations and why they were founded—to maintain peace and stability (Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe—OSCE and the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation—NATO), to provide rules for international trade (World Trade Organisation—WTO), to monitor meteorology (World Meteorological Organisation—WMO), to promote cooperation between Police forces (INTERPOL), to promote positive environmental practices (UN Environment Programme—UNEP and the European Environment Agency—EEA) to identify and name but a few. In addition, there are a number of international institutions which aim to alleviate poverty, to promote development and provide funding to poorer parts of the world.

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Notes

  1. 1.

    www.osce.org.

  2. 2.

    www.nato.int.

  3. 3.

    www.wto.org.

  4. 4.

    www.public.wmo.int/en.

  5. 5.

    www.interpol.int.

  6. 6.

    www.unenvironment.org.

  7. 7.

    www.eea.europe.eu.

  8. 8.

    Their websites are provided on many occasions through this book.

  9. 9.

    www.nib.int.

  10. 10.

    www.bstdb.org.

  11. 11.

    www.isdb.org.

  12. 12.

    www.coebank.org.

  13. 13.

    www.caribank.org.

  14. 14.

    www.eadb.org.

  15. 15.

    www.boad.org.

  16. 16.

    www.bcie.org.

  17. 17.

    www.caf.com.

  18. 18.

    www.fao.org.

  19. 19.

    www.unrwa.org.

  20. 20.

    Recently fraud and corruption have tainted the US education sector, as noted by a number of news reports and articles including on 7th February 2020 one from the BBC, as follows: ‘College cheating scandal: Pimco tycoon jailed for ‘chutzpah’: The former head of a top US investment firm has been sentenced to nine months in prison for his role in the US universities admissions scandal … The US college admissions scandal has seen dozens of defendants indicted for allegedly cheating and bribing to get their children into elite universities, like Yale and Stanford. The parents - many of whom are celebrities or wealthy business executives - allegedly paid a firm as much as $6.5m (£4.9m) to cheat on students' college entrance exams or bribe top coaches to offer fake athletic scholarships. The colleges have not been accused of any wrongdoing and are investigating the matter internally. Fifteen parents are still contesting the allegations, and their trials are expected to take place later this year. US actress Lori Loughlin … is among the 50 total individuals - including coaches and other associates - is charged in the case … ’ www.bbc.com.

  21. 21.

    The Uniform Framework for Preventing and Combating Fraud and Corruption, which can be found published on most of the 5 MDBs websites and at: www.crossdebarment.org.

  22. 22.

    For example, the MDB cross debarment website at www.crossdebarment.org.

  23. 23.

    The list of films in Appendix A includes one about Madoff.

  24. 24.

    an entry posted on September 18, 2019 by Robert: http://www.crimecitycentral.com/5-famous-white-collar-crime-cases/. There are further examples of individual and corporate misconduct in the two series of documentaries entitled ‘Dirty Money’ on Netflix.

  25. 25.

    www.undp.org/content/undp/en/home/blog/2019/ensuring-sustainable-solutions-to-combatting-corruption.html. He went on to suggest four next steps:

    Learning from our anti-corruption work in the past decade, we... have identified four key priority areas of interventions for the ‘Next Generation of Anti-Corruption Programming’: Sustainable Development Goal 16 (#SDG16) and anti-corruption; technology and innovation; business integrity; and social accountability.

    SDG 16 gives us a tremendous opportunity to integrate anti-corruption policies in the national development agendas. Increased investments on SDG 16 will significantly help strengthen the overall ethics and integrity infrastructure in a country, including credible electoral processes and strong political parties, parliaments, anti-corruption institutions, judiciaries, media and civil society organisations. These investments will help countries move from transparency to accountability - ensuring transparency is not only important, but also that accountability requires making those in power answerable for their actions, sanctioning when necessary and addressing impunity.

    Technology and innovation such as big data analytics, artificial intelligence and blockchain technology hold remarkable potential to detect, predict, prevent, and deter corruption. Whilst recognising the corruption risks in the use of new technologies, our aim for the next generation of anti-corruption programming is to harness the benefits of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, built upon the digital revolution.

    Business integrity. The Panama and Paradise papers – the work of investigative journalists around the world on illegal and hidden money in offshore jurisdictions – uncovered a complex network of politicians, businesses and other interests. They revealed a close link between corruption, organised crime and money laundering, and the need to ensure transparency in beneficial ownership, national capacity to prevent illicit financial flows, and an effective international mechanism in the return of stolen assets.

    We therefore aim to address corruption not only as a crime and an impediment to development, but also as a direct threat to peace and stability. Strengthening business integrity is crucial in fighting corruption, but promoting a fair business environment will require the collaborative efforts of government, businesses, and civil society, as well as an independent media, to address the challenges.

    Social accountability. In the long run, social accountability through a proactive and inclusive engagement of all sections of society is key to preventing and combating corruption. Civic engagement is instrumental in institutionalising integrity, ethics, and moral standards in public and private sectors.

    Taken together, these four aspects will help ensure that we increasingly see the results of the progress we have made in the policy space for sustainable impact.

  26. 26.

    www.transparency.org/cpi2018.

  27. 27.

    www.transparency.org/research/gcb/global_corruption_barometer_2019.

  28. 28.

    www.afrobarometer.org.

  29. 29.

    www.worldjusticeproject.org.

  30. 30.

    www.mihalyfazekas.eu.

  31. 31.

    www.digiwhist.eu. DIGIWHIST is an abbreviation of ‘The Digital Whistleblower’ and works towards: ‘Fiscal Transparency, Risk Assessment and Impact of Good Governance Policies Assessed’.

  32. 32.

    http://digiwhist.eu/about-digiwhist/.

  33. 33.

    www.eib.org.

  34. 34.

    www.crossdebarment.org.

  35. 35.

    The EIB’s Investigation Procedures are also available at: www.eib.org/en/publications/anti-fraud-procedures.htm.

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Smith, D. (2021). Introduction. In: Promoting Integrity in the Work of International Organisations . Contributions to Finance and Accounting. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-73916-4_1

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