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Part of the Contributions to Finance and Accounting book series (CFA)


Fraud is a widespread problem and can occur frequently in all sorts of contexts, the implementation of contracts for development projects are not alone and in some ways, other situations are more vulnerable. Dishonesty can form the basis of such behaviour, and if the person or people concerned can get away with it in the short and long term, it can result in sizeable rewards sometimes instantaneously. If they get away with a clearly fraudulent act but circumstances change, in many cases an investigation and prosecution can result, in part because of the political desire to demonstrate that their predecessors were not as honest and law-abiding as was their image at the time.

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  • DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-73916-4_16
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  1. 1.

    AfDB has an Integrity and Prevention Division that: ‘...leads the Department’s proactive role in deterring and preventing corruption and other harmful practices in operations financed by the Bank. (They) develop and implement proactive measures, including campaigns and outreach programs to train and assist operational staff and other partners of the Bank Group’. The Division also develops due diligence tools and risk assessment programs to reduce vulnerability of Bank’s projects as well as mainstream integrity concerns into project implementation processes...

    World Bank INT has a Prevention Unit that has publications on their website:

    • Warning Signs of Fraud and Corruption in Procurement (Formerly known as Common Red Flags of Fraud and Corruption in Procurement)—There are multiple warning signs that can help identify the risk of fraud, corruption, collusion or coercion in procurement. This brochure, Warning Signs of Fraud and Corruption in Procurement, elaborates on these warning signs, which, if spotted, might be cause for concern in a World Bank Group-funded project.

    • Preventing Fraud and Corruption for Greater Development Impact—Taking a more comprehensive approach to targeting fraud and corruption, INT provides World Bank Group staff and clients with guidance on how to build preventive measures into projects. The Preventive Services Unit (PSU), working in partnership with operational teams, turns the unique knowledge gained from INT investigations into practical measures that can deter or stop corruption in World Bank Group-financed projects.

    • Fraud and Corruption in Engineering Consultancy Contracts—This is a study by investigators, for investigators. It focuses not on the big picture but on the small details. It follows a typical procurement process and details the corrupt negotiations and transactions that take place and that have been discovered during investigations. It reports on indicators at all stages that investigators should look for and act on.

    • Curbing Fraud, Corruption and Collusion in the Roads Sector—This report covers global corruption trends in the roads sector and includes recommendations based on the experience of developed and developing countries. It draws from what INT has learned from its investigations of World Bank Group-financed roads projects; borrowing country governments’ investigations and reports; and the experience of developed countries.

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Smith, D. (2021). Conclusion. In: Promoting Integrity in the Work of International Organisations . Contributions to Finance and Accounting. Springer, Cham.

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