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Most, if not all, of the MDBs and other international organisations provide (in the documentation for or about the project and/or financing agreement) that the organisation can, if necessary, conduct an investigation into the project or use of the funds.

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    Apart from each organisation’s templates for investigation documents, such as reports, memos, case notes, etc., there are other materials available on-line, such as these at i-sight which is a Canadian website that gives a contact address in Ottawa, Canada. For example, they list publications such as: (i) 12 Tips for Writing an Effective Investigation Report (ii) Top 10 Investigation Report Must Haves and (iii) Investigation Report Writing. The website notes: ‘In fact, a comprehensive investigation report can serve as crucial evidence in litigation, showing that a thorough investigation was undertaken and that the process and outcome were fully documented. In cases of employee misconduct, fraud, bribery and corruption, the investigation report shows that the company took the behaviour seriously and acted appropriately, demonstrating a culture of ethics and a commitment to compliance. Courts have been known to be more lenient with companies when their investigation reporting is thorough and timely.

    Our resources library contains a plethora of tools to help you hone your investigation reporting skills and establish effective documentation procedures’.

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  7. 7. The Investigation Procedures are also available at:

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    See earlier reference, on page 39 and footnote 67,

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    See FCPA Blog article: ‘Ericsson jolts the FCPA top ten list by Richard L. Cassin, December 9, 2019’ which includes a list of the top ten cases (in terms of value) and notes: ‘Stockholm-based Ericsson cracked our top ten list Friday with a $1 billion mega-settlement that landed at number two … Non-U.S. companies continue to dominate the FCPA top ten, still holding nine of ten spots. The only US company currently on the list is KBR / Halliburton, now ranked ninth with its $579 million resolution from 2009 … With the addition of Ericsson there are now four mobile phone companies in the FCPA top ten. Two of them — Ericsson and Telia — are based in Sweden. Sweden, by the way, ranks as one of the world’s cleanest countries. It’s tied at number three on TI’s latest Corruption Perceptions Index which measures perceived corruption at home. Apparently a country’s rank on the CPI isn’t always a good predictor of how companies from there will behave when they do business overseas.…’

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Smith, D. (2021). Investigations. In: Promoting Integrity in the Work of International Organisations . Contributions to Finance and Accounting. Springer, Cham.

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