Skip to main content

Fire Ecology and Management in Eastern Broadleaf and Appalachian Forests

  • Chapter
  • First Online:
Fire Ecology and Management: Past, Present, and Future of US Forested Ecosystems

Abstract

The role of fire in the eastern broadleaf and Appalachian forest regions, until recently, was poorly understood or minimally examined, as this region was long overlooked as a flammable landscape and fire was seen primarily as a threat to the timber resource and wildlife. In the past few decades, a significant body of research has enhanced our understanding of fire and its effects. We now recognize that fire has strongly shaped many ecosystems of this region along complex geomorphological gradients, and that returning fire, or its absence, has significant consequences for forest structure, species composition, and ecosystem function. This chapter synthesizes the state of knowledge regarding the prehistoric and historical roles of fire in these ecosystems; presents research demonstrating the effects of contemporary prescribed fire and wildfire on forest structure, species composition, and consequences for wildlife; examines evidence for shifting flammability of these ecosystems; and discusses the implications for both fire management and ecosystem sustainability in the twenty-first century.

Ecoregions 66, Blue Ridge; 67, Ridge and Valley; 68, Southwestern Appalachians; 69, Central Appalachians; 70, Western Allegheny Plateau; 71, Interior Plateau

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Chapter
USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
eBook
USD 189.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book
USD 249.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info
Hardcover Book
USD 249.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  • Abrams MD (1992) Fire and the development of oak forests. Bioscience 42(5):346–353

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Abrams MD (1998) The red maple paradox: What explains the widespread expansion of red maple in eastern forests? Bioscience 48(5):355–364

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Abrams MC, Ruffner CM (1995) Physiographic analysis of witness-tree distribution (1765–1798) and present forest cover through north central Pennsylvania. Can J For Res 25:659–668

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Alexander HD, Arthur MA (2010) Implications of a predicted shift from upland oaks to red maple on forest hydrology and nutrient availability. Can J For Res 40:716–726

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Alexander HD, Arthur MA (2014) Increasing red maple leaf litter alters decomposition rates and nitrogen cycling in historically oak-dominated forests of the eastern US. Ecosystems 17:1371–1383

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Allen CD, Breshears DD, McDowell NG (2015) On underestimation of global vulnerability to tree mortality and forest die-off from hotter drought in the Anthropocene. Ecosphere 6:129

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Anderson RC (2006) Evolution and origin of the central grassland of North America: Climate, fire, and mammalian grazers. J Torrey Bot Soc 133:626–647

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Anderson RC, Fralish JL, Baskin JM (1999) Savannas, barrens, and rock outcrop plant communities of North America. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Arthur MA, Paratley RD, Blankenship BA (1998) Single and repeated fires affect survival and regeneration of woody and herbaceous species in an oak-pine forest. J Torrey Bot Soc 1998:225–236

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Arthur MA, Alexander HD, Dey DC, Schweitzer CJ, Loftis DL (2012) Refining the oak-fire hypothesis for management of oak-dominated forests of the eastern United States. J For 110(5):257–266

    Google Scholar 

  • Arthur MA, Blankenship BA, Schörgendorfer A, Loftis DL, Alexander HD (2015) Changes in stand structure and tree vigor with repeated prescribed fire in an Appalachian hardwood forest. For Ecol Manage 340:46–61

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Babl EK, Alexander HD, Siegert CM, Willis JW (2020) Could canopy, bark, and leaf litter traits of encroaching non-oak species influence future flammability of upland oak forests? For Ecol Manage 458:1–11

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bailey MJ (1994) Description of the ecoregions of the US. USDA Forest Service, Washington, DC

    Google Scholar 

  • Baker TT, Van Lear DH (1998) Relations between density of rhododendron thickets and diversity of riparian forests. For Ecol Manage 109:21–32

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bale AM (2009) Fire effects and litter accumulation dynamics in a montane longleaf pine ecosystem. Thesis, University of Missouri-Columbia

    Google Scholar 

  • Ballard JP, Horn SP, Li ZH (2017) A 23,000-year microscopic charcoal record from Anderson Pond, Tennessee, USA. Palynology 41:216–229

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Barden LS, Woods FW (1974) Characteristics of lightning fires in southern Appalachian forests. Annual Tall Timbers Fire Ecology Conference 13:455–482

    Google Scholar 

  • Barnes TA, Van Lear DH (1998) Prescribed fire effects on advanced regeneration in mixed hardwood stands. South J Appl For 22(3):138–142

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Baskin JM, Baskin CC (1997) Methods of breaking seed dormancy in the endangered species Iliamna corei (Sherff) Sherff (Malvaceae), with special attention to heating. Nat Areas J 17:313–323

    Google Scholar 

  • BassiriRad H, Lussenhop JF, Sehtiya HL, Borden KK (2015) Nitrogen deposition potentially contributes to oak regeneration failure in the Midwestern temperate forests of the USA. Oecologia 177:53–63

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Beaupre SJ, Douglas LE (2012) Responses of timber rattlesnakes to fire: Lessons from two prescribed burns. In: Dey DC, Stambaugh SL, Clark SL, Schweitzer CJ (eds) Proceedings of the 4th fire in eastern oak forests conference, Springfield, Missouri, 2011. USDA Forest Service Gen Tech Rep NRS-P-102. Newtown Square, Pennsylvania, pp 192–204

    Google Scholar 

  • Belote RT, Prisley S, Jones RH, Fitzpatrick M, de Beurs K (2011) Forest productivity and tree diversity relationships depend on ecological context within mid-Atlantic and Appalachian forests (USA). For Ecol Manage 261:1315–1324

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Black DE, Poynter ZW, Cotton CA, Upadhaya S, Taylor DD, Leuenberger W, Blankenship BA, Arthur MA (2018) Post-wildfire recovery of an upland oak-pine forest on the Cumberland Plateau, Kentucky. Fire Ecol 14:14

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Blankenship BA, Arthur MA (2006) Stand structure over 9 years in burned and fire- excluded oak stands on the Cumberland Plateau, Kentucky. For Ecol Manage 225:134–145

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bolstad PV, Swank W, Vose J (1998) Predicting Southern Appalachian overstory vegetation with digital terrain data. Landsc Ecol 13:271–283

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bourg NA, Gill DE, McShea WJ (2015) Fire and canopy removal effects on demography and reproduction in turkeybeard (Xerophyllum asphodeloides), a fire-dependent temperate forest herb. J Sustain For 34:71–104

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Brandt L, He H, Iverson L, Thompson FR, Butler P, Handler S, Janowiak M, Shannon PD, Swanston C, Albrecht M, Blume-Weaver R, Deizman P, DePuy J, Dijak WD, Dinkel G, Fei S, Jones-Farrand DT, Leahy M, Matthews S, Nelson P, Oberle B, Perez J, Peters M, Prasad A, Schneidermann JE, Shuey J, Smith AB, Studyvin C, Tirpak JM, Walk JW, Wang WJ, Watts L, Weigel D, Westin S (2014) Central Hardwoods ecosystem vulnerability assessment and synthesis: A report from the Central Hardwoods Climate Change Response Framework project. USDA Forest Service Gen Tech Rep NRS-124, Newtown Square, Pennsylvania

    Google Scholar 

  • Brewer JS (2001) Current and presettlement tree species composition of some upland forests in northern Mississippi. J Torrey Bot Soc 128:332–349

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Brose PH (2008) Root development of acorn-origin oak seedlings in shelterwood stands on the Appalachian Plateau of northern Pennsylvania: 4-year results. For Ecol Manage 255:3374–3381

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Brose PH (2010) Long-term effects of single prescribed fires on hardwood regeneration in oak shelterwood stands. For Ecol Manage 260:1516–1524

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Brose P (2011) Fate of the 2001 acorn crop at Clear Creek State Forest, Pennsylvania. In: Fei S, Lhotka JM, Stringer JW, Gottschalk KW, Miller GW (eds) 17th Central Hardwood Forest Conference, Lexington, Kentucky, 2010. USDA Forest Service Gen Tech Rep NRS-P-78, Newtown Square, Pennsylvania, pp 253–261

    Google Scholar 

  • Brose PH (2016) Origin, development, and impact of mountain laurel thickets on the mixed-oak forests of the central Appalachian Mountains, USA. For Ecol Manage 374:33–41

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Brose PH, Van Lear DH (1998) Responses of hardwood advance regeneration to seasonal prescribed fires in oak-dominated shelterwood stands. Can J For Res 28:331–339

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Brose P, Van Lear D (1999) Effects of seasonal prescribed fires on residual overstory trees in oak-dominated shelterwood stands. South J Appl For 23:88–93

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Brose PH, Van Lear DH (2004) Survival of hardwood regeneration during prescribed fires: the importance of root development and root collar location. USDA Forest Service Gen Tech Rep SRS-73, Asheville, North Carolina, pp 123–127

    Google Scholar 

  • Brose PH, Van Lear DH, Cooper R (1999) Using shelterwood harvests and prescribed fire to regenerate oak stands on productive upland sites. For Ecol Manage 113:125–141

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Brose P, Schuler T, Van Lear D, Berst J (2001) Bringing fire back: The changing regimes of the Appalachian mixed-oak forests. J For 99:30–35

    Google Scholar 

  • Brose PH, Tainter F, Waldrop TA (2002) Regeneration history of three Table Mountain pine/pitch pine stands in northern Georgia. USDA Forest Service Gen Tech Rep SRS-48, Asheville, North Carolina, pp 296–301

    Google Scholar 

  • Brose PH, Schuler TM, Ward JS (2006) Responses of oak and other hardwood regeneration to prescribed fire: What we know as of 2005. USDA Forest Service Gen Tech Rep NRS-P-1, Newton Square, Pennsylvania, pp 123–135

    Google Scholar 

  • Brose PH, Dey DC, Phillips RJ, Waldrop TA (2013) A meta-analysis of the fire-oak hypothesis: Does prescribed burning promote oak reproduction in eastern North America? For Sci 59:322–334

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Brose PH, Dey DC, Waldrop TA (2014) The fire-oak literature of eastern North America: Synthesis and guidelines. USDA Forest Service Gen Tech Rep NRS-135, Newtown Square, Pennsylvania

    Google Scholar 

  • Butler PR, Iverson L, Thompson FR, Brandt L, Handler S, Janowiak M, Shannon PD, Swanston C, Karriker K, Bartig J, Connolly S, Dijak W, Bearer S, Blatt S, Brandon A, Byers E, Coon C, Culbreth T, Daly J, Dorsey W, Ede D, Euler C, Gillies N, Hix DM, Johnson C, Lyte L, Matthews S, McCarthy D, Minney D, Murphy D, O’Dea C, Orwan R, Peters M, Prasad A, Randall C, Reed J, Sandeno C, Schuler T, Sneddon L, Stanley B, Steele A, Stout S, Swaty R, Teets J, Tomon T, Vanderhost J, Whatley J, Zegre N (2015) Central Appalachians forest ecosystem vulnerability assessment and synthesis: a report from the Central Appalachians Climate Change Response Framework project. USDA Forest Service Gen Tech Rep NRS-146, Newtown Square, Pennsylvania

    Google Scholar 

  • Cannon JB, Peterson CJ, O’Brien JJ, Brewer JS (2017) A review and classification of interactions between forest disturbance from wind and fire. For Ecol Manage 406:381–390

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Carvell KL, Tryon EH (1961) The effect of environmental factors on the abundance of oak regeneration beneath mature oak stands. For Sci 7(2):98–105

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chiang J-M, Arthur MA, Blankenship BA (2005) The effect of prescribed fire on gap fraction in an oak forest understory on the Cumberland Plateau. J Torrey Bot Soc 132:432–441

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chiodi AM, Larkin NS, Varner JM (2018) An analysis of southeastern US prescribed burn weather windows: seasonal variability and El Niño associations. Int J Wildland Fire 27:176–189

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Clebsch EEC, Busing R (1989) Secondary succession, gap dynamics, and community structure in a southern Appalachian cove forest. Ecology 70(3):728–735

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Davis MB (1981) Quaternary history and the stability of forest communities. In: West DC, Shugart HH, Botkin DF (eds) Forest succession. Springer-Verlag, New York, pp 132–153

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Day FP, Phillips DL, Monk CD (1988) Forest communities and patterns. In: Swank WT, Crossley DA (eds) Forest hydrology and ecology at Coweeta. Springer, New York, pp 141–149

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Delcourt HR, Delcourt PA (1997) Pre-Columbian Native American use of fire on southern Appalachian landscapes. Conserv Biol 11:1010–1014

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Delcourt PA, Delcourt HR (2004) Prehistoric Native Americans and ecological change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Delcourt PA, Delcourt HR, Ison CR, Sharp WE, Gemillion KJ (1998) Prehistoric human use of fire, the eastern agricultural complex, and Appalachian oak- chestnut forests: Paleoecology of Cliff Palace Pond, Kentucky

    Google Scholar 

  • Denman MP, II (2016) Lightning-ignited fires in the Grandfather Ranger District, North Carolina. Thesis, Texas A&M University

    Google Scholar 

  • Devers PK, Stauffer DF, Norman GW, Steffen DE, Whitaker DW, Sole JD, Allen TJ, Bittner SL, Buehler DA, Edwards JW, Figert DE, Friedhoff ST, Giuliano WM, Harper CA, Igo WK, Kirkpatrick RL, Seamster MH, Spiker HA Jr, Swanson DA, Tefft BC (2007) Ruffed grouse population ecology in the Appalachian region. Wildl Monogr 168:1–36

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dey DC (2014) Sustaining oak forests in eastern North America: Regeneration and recruitment, the pillars of sustainability. For Sci 60(5):926–942

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dey DC, Fan Z (2009) A review of fire and oak regeneration and overstory recruitment. USDA Forest Service Gen Tech Rep NRS-P-46, Newtown Square, Pennsylvania, pp 2–20

    Google Scholar 

  • Dey DC, Hartman G (2005) Returning fire to Ozark Highland forest ecosystems: Effects on advance regeneration. For Ecol Manage 217:37–53

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dey DC, Kabrick JM (2015) Restoration of midwestern oak woodlands and savannas. In: Stanturf JA (ed) Restoration of Boreal and Temperate Forests, 2nd edn. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 401–428

    Google Scholar 

  • Dey DC, Schweitzer CJ (2018) A review on the dynamics of prescribed fire, tree mortality, and injury in managing oak natural communities to minimize economic loss in North America. Forests 9(461):1–22

    Google Scholar 

  • Dey DC, Kabrick JM, Schweitzer CJ (2017) Silviculture to restore oak savannas and woodlands. J For 115(3):202–211

    Google Scholar 

  • Dickinson MB, Hutchinson TF, Dietenberger M, Matt F, Peters MP (2016) Litter species composition and topographic effects on fuels and modeled fire behavior in an oak-hickory forest in the Eastern USA. PLoS One 11:8. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0159997

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Driese SG, Horn SP, Ballard JP, Boehm MS, Li Z-H (2017) Micromorphology of late Pleistocene and Holocene sediments and a new interpretation of the Holocene chronology at Anderson Pond, Tennessee, USA. Quatern Res 87:82–95

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Dyer JM (2001) Using witness trees to assess forest change in southeastern Ohio. Can J For Res 32:1708–1718

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dyer JM (2006) Revisiting the deciduous forests of Eastern North America. Bioscience 5:341–352

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dyer JM (2010) Land-use legacies in a central Appalachian forest: differential response of trees and herbs to historic agricultural practices. Appl Veg Sci 13:195–206

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dyer JM, Hutchinson TF (2019) Topography and soils-based mapping reveals fine-scale compositional shifts over two centuries within a central Appalachian landscape. For Ecol Manage 433:33–42

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Elliott KJ, Swank WT (2008) Long-term changes in forest composition and diversity following early logging (1919–1923) and the decline of American chestnut (Castanea dentata). Plant Ecol 197:155–172

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Elliott KJ, Vose JM (2012) Age and distribution of an evergreen clonal shrub in the Coweeta Basin: Rhododendron maximum L. 1. J Torrey Bot Soc 139(2):149–166

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Elliott KJ, Vose JM, Swank WT, Bolstad PV (1999) Long-term patterns in vegetation-site relationships in a Southern Appalachian forest. J Torrey Bot Soc 126:320–334

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fan Z, Ma Z, Dey DC, Roberts SD (2012) Response of advance reproduction of oaks and associated species to repeated prescribed fires in upland oak-hickory forests, Missouri. For Ecol Manage 266:473–477

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fei S, Steiner KC (2007) Evidence for increasing red maple abundance in the eastern United States. For Sci 53(4):473–477

    Google Scholar 

  • Fei S, Kong N, Steiner KC, Moser WK, Steiner EB (2011) Change in oak abundance in the eastern United States from 1980 to 2008. For Ecol Manage 262(8):1370–1377

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fei S, Desprez JM, Potter KM, Jo I, Knott JA, Oswalt CM (2017) Divergence of species responses to climate change. Sci Adv 3(5):e1603055. https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.1603055

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Fesenmyer KA, Christensen NL (2010) Reconstructing Holocene fire history in a southern Appalachian forest using soil charcoal. Ecology 91(3):662–670

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Finzi AC, Canham CD (1998) Non-additive effects of litter mixtures on net N mineralization in a southern New England forest. For Ecol Manage 105:129–136

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Finzi AC, Canham CD, Van Breeman N (1998) Canopy tree-soil interactions within temperate forests: Species effects on pH and cations. J Torrey Bot Soc 142:113–126

    Google Scholar 

  • Flatley WT, Copenheaver CA (2015) Two centuries of vegetation change in an agricultural watershed in southwestern Virginia, USA. J Torrey Bot Soc 142:113–126

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ford WM, Menzel MA, McGill DW, Laerm J, McCay TS (1999) Effects of a community restoration fire on small mammals and herpetofauna in the southern Appalachians. For Ecol Manage 114:233–243

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ford WM, Menzel MA, Odom RH (2002) Elevation, aspect, and cove size effects on woodland salamanders in the southern Appalachians. Southeast Nat 1:315–324

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ford WM, Rodrigue JL, Rowan EL, Castleberry SB, Schuler TM (2010) Woodland salamander response to two prescribed fires in the central Appalachians. For Ecol Manage 260:1003–1009

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ford WM, Silvis A, Johnson JB, Edwards JW, Karp M (2016) Northern long-eared bat day-roosting and prescribed fire in the central Appalachians, USA. Fire Ecol 12(2):13–27

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Foster DR, Motzkin G, Slater B (1998) Land-use history as long-term broad-scale disturbance: regional forest dynamics in central New England. Ecosystems 1(1):96–119

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fox VL, Buehler CP, Byers CM, Drake SE (2010) Forest composition, leaf litter, and songbird communities in oak- vs. maple-dominated forests in the eastern United States. For Ecol Manage 259:2426–2432

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fralish JL, Crooks FB, Chambers JL, Harty FM (1991) Comparison of presettlement, second-growth and old-growth forest on six site types in the Illinois Shawnee Hills. Am Midl Nat 125(2):294–309

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Franklin SB, Robertson PA, Fralish JL (2003) Prescribed burning effects on upland Quercus forest structure and function. For Ecol Manage 184:315–335

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Frost CC (1998) Presettlement fire frequency regimes of the United States: A first approximation. Annual Proceedings of the Tall Timbers Fire Ecology Conference 20:70–81

    Google Scholar 

  • Gaines KP, Stanely JW, Meinzer FC, McCulloh KA, Woodruff DR, Chen W, Adams TS, Lin H, Eissenstat DM (2015) Reliance on shallow soil water in a mixed- hardwood forest in central Pennsylvania. Tree Physiol 36:444–458

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Gilliam FS (2007) The ecological significance of the herbaceous layer in temperate forest ecosystems. Bioscience 57(10):845–858

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gilliam FS, Roberts MR (2003) Interactions between the herbaceous layer and overstory canopy of eastern forests. In: Gilliam FS (ed) The herbaceous layer in forests of Eastern North America. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 198–223

    Google Scholar 

  • Gonzalez-Ollauri A, Stokes A, Mickovski SB (2020) A novel framework to study the effect of tree architectural traits on stemflow yield and its consequences for soil- water dynamics. J Hydrol 582:124448

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gould PJ, Steiner KC, Finley JC, McDill ME (2005) Developmental pathways following the harvest of oak-dominated stands. For Sci 51(1):76–90

    Google Scholar 

  • Grady JM, Hoffman WA (2012) Caught in a fire trap: recurring fire creates stable size equilibria in woody resprouters. Ecology 93(9):2052–2060

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Green SR, Arthur MA, Blankenship BA (2010) Oak and red maple seedling survival and growth following periodic prescribed fire on xeric ridgetops on the Cumberland Plateau. For Ecol Manage 259:2256–2266

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Greenberg CH, Livings-Tomcho A, Lanham JD, Waldrop TA, Tomcho J, Phillips RJ, Simon DM (2007) Short-term effects of fire and other fuel reduction treatments on breeding birds in a Southern Appalachian hardwood forest. J Wildl Manag 71:1906–1916

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Greenberg CH, Collins BS, McNab WH, Miller DK, Wein GR (2015a) Introduction to natural disturbances and historic range of variation: Type, frequency, severity, and post-disturbance structure in central hardwood forests. In: Greenberg CH, Collins BS (eds) Natural disturbances and historic range of variation: Type, frequency, severity, and post-disturbance structure in Central Hardwood Forests, USA, Managing Forest Ecosystem Series, vol 32. Springer, New York, pp 1–32

    Google Scholar 

  • Greenberg CH, Weeks K, Warburton GS (2015b) The historic role of humans and other keystone species in shaping central hardwood forests for disturbance-dependent wildlife. In: Greenberg CH, Collins BS (eds) Natural disturbances and historic range of variation: Type, frequency, severity, and post-disturbance structure in Central Hardwood Forests USA. Springer, pp 319–353

    Google Scholar 

  • Greenberg CH, Moorman CE, Raybuck AL, Sundol C, Keyser TL, Bush J, Simon DM, Warburton GS (2016) Reptile and amphibian response to oak regeneration treatments in productive southern Appalachian hardwood forest. For Ecol Manage 377:139–149

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Greenberg CH, Moorman CE, Matthews-Snoberger CE, Waldrop TA, Simon D, Heh A, Hagan D (2018a) Long-term herpetofaunal response to repeated fuel reduction treatments. J Wildl Manag 82:553–565

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Greenberg CH, Seiboldt T, Keyser TL, McNab H, Scott P, Bush J, Moorman CE (2018b) Reptile and amphibian response to season of burn in upland hardwood forest. For Ecol Manage 409:808–816

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Greenberg CH, Tomcho J, Tomcho A, Lanham JD, Waldrop TA, Simon D, Hagan D (2018c) Long-term avian response to fire severity, repeated burning, and mechanical fuel reduction in upland hardwood forest. For Ecol Manage 424:367–377

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Greenberg CH, Keyser TL, McNab WH, Scott P (2019) Breeding bird response to season of burn in an upland hardwood forest. For Ecol Manage 449

    Google Scholar 

  • Gruchy JP, Harper CA, Gray MJ (2009) Methods for controlling woody invasion into CRP fields in Tennessee. In: Cederbaum SB, Faircloth BC, Terhune TM, Thompson JJ, Carroll JP (eds) Proceedings of Gamebird 2006. Quali VI and Perdix XII, Warnell School of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of Georgia, Athens, pp 315–341

    Google Scholar 

  • Guldin JM (2019) Restoration of native fire-adapted southern pine-dominated forest ecosystems: Diversifying the tools in the silvicultural toolbox. For Sci 65(4):508–518

    Google Scholar 

  • Guyette RP, Muzika R-M, Dey DC (2002) Dynamics of an anthropogenic fire regime. Ecosystems 5:476–486

    Google Scholar 

  • Guyette RP, Dey DC, Stambaugh MC (2003) Fire and human history of a barren-forest mosaic in southern Indiana. Am Midl Nat 149:21–34

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Guyette RP, Dey DC, Stambaugh MC, Muzika R-M (2006) Fire scars reveal variability and dynamics of eastern fire regimes. In: Dickinson MB (ed) Proceedings of fire in eastern oak forests: Delivering science to land managers, Columbus, Ohio, 2005. USDA Forest Service Gen Tech Rep NRS-P-1, Newtown Square, pp 20–39

    Google Scholar 

  • Hammond DN, Smith DW, Zedaker SM, Wright DK, Thompson JW (1998) Floral diversity following harvest on southern Appalachian mixed oak sites. In: Waldrop TA (ed) Proceedings of the ninth southern biennial silvicultural research conference, Clemson, South Carolina, 1997. USDA Forest Service Gen Tech Rep SRS-20, Asheville, pp 461–465

    Google Scholar 

  • Hammond DN, Varner JM, Kush JS, Fan Z (2015) Contrasting sapling bark allocation of five southeastern USA hardwood tree species in a fire-prone ecosystem. Ecosphere 6(7):1–13

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hanberry BB, Abrams MD (2019) Does white-tailed deer density affect tree stocking in forests of the Eastern United States? Ecol Proc 8:30

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hanberry BB, Kabrick JM, He HS (2014) Densification and state transition across the Missouri Ozarks landscape. Ecosystems 17(1):66–81

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hanberry BB, Bragg DC, Hutchinson TF (2018) A reconceptualization of open oak and pine ecosystems of eastern North America using a forest structure spectrum. Ecosphere 9(10):e02431

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hanberry BB, Abrams MD, Arthur MA, Varner JM (2020a) Reviewing fire, climate, and multiple factors as drivers of historically open oak and pine forests and transition to closed forests. Front For Glob Chang 3:56

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hanberry BB, Alexander HD, Bragg D (2020b) Open forest ecosystems: An excluded state with conservation costs. For Ecol Manage 472:118256

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Harper CA, Guynn DC (1999) Factors affecting salamander density and distribution within four forest types in the southern Appalachian Mountains. For Ecol Manage 114:245–252

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Harper CA, Ford WM, Lashley MA, Moorman CE, Stambaugh MC (2016) Fire effects on wildlife in the Central Hardwoods and Appalachian regions. Fire Ecol 12:127–159

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Harris KA, Harper CA, Clark JD, Elmore RD (2020) Direct and indirect effects of fire on eastern box turtles. J Wildl Manag 84(7):1384–1395. (in press)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hart JL, Buchanan ML (2012) History of fire in eastern oak forests and implications for restoration. In: Dey DC, Stambaugh MC, Clark SL, Schweitzer CJ (eds) Proceedings of the 4th fire in eastern oak forests conference, Springfield, Missouri, 2011. USDA Forest Service Gen Tech Rep NRS-P-102, Newtown Square, pp 34–51

    Google Scholar 

  • Hart JL, Kupfer JA (2011) Sapling richness and composition in canopy gaps of a southern Appalachian mixed Quercus forest. J Torrey Bot Soc 138(2):207–219

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hart JL, Horn SP, Grissino-Mayer HD (2008) Fire history from soil charcoal in a mixed hardwood forest on the Cumberland Plateau, Tennessee, USA. J Torrey Bot Soc 5(3):401–410

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hart JL, Clark SL, Torreano SJ, Buchanan ML (2012) Composition, structure, and dendroecology of an old-growth Quercus forest on the tablelands of the Cumberland Plateau, USA. For Ecol Manage 266:11–24

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hengst GE, Dawson JO (1994) Bark properties and fire resistance of selected tree species from the central hardwood region of North America. Can J For Res 24:688–696

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hiers JK, Jackson ST, Hobbs RJ, Bernhardt ES, Valentine LE (2016) The precision problem in conservation and restoration. Trends Ecol Evol 31:820–830

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hood SM, Varner JM, van Mantgem P, Cansler CA (2018) Fire and tree death: Understanding and improving modeling of fire-induced tree mortality. Environ Res Lett 13:113004

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Horn SP, Underwood CA (2014) Methods for the study of soil charcoal as an indicator of fire and forest history in the Appalachian region, USA. In: Waldrop TA (ed) Proceedings of wildland fire in the Appalachians: discussions among managers and scientists, Roanoke, Virginia, 2013. USDA Forest Service Gen Tech Rep SRS-199, Asheville

    Google Scholar 

  • Horn SP, Boehm MS, Ballard JP (2019) An improved chronology for the microscopic charcoal and pollen records from Anderson Pond, Tennessee, USA. Palynology 43(3):517–522

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Huebner CD, Steinman J, Hutchinson TF, Ristau TE, Royo AA (2014) The distribution of a non-native (Rosa multiflora) and native (Kalmia latifolia) shrub in mature closed-canopy forests across soil fertility gradients. Plant and Soil 377(1-2):259–276

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Hurt RD (1987) Indian agriculture in America prehistory to present. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence

    Google Scholar 

  • Hutchinson TF, Boerner RE, Iverson LR, Sutherland S, Sutherland EK (1999) Landscape patterns of understory composition and richness across a moisture and nitrogen mineralization gradient in Ohio (USA) Quercus forests. Plant Ecol 144(2):177–189

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hutchinson TF, Boerner REJ, Sutherland S, Sutherland EK, Ortt M, Iverson LR (2005a) Prescribed fire effects on the herbaceous layer of mixed-oak forests. Can J For Res 35:877–890

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hutchinson TF, Sutherland EK, Yaussy DA (2005b) Effects of repeated prescribed fires on the structure, composition, and regeneration of mixed-oak forests in Ohio. For Ecol Manage 218:210–228

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hutchinson TF, Long RP, Ford RD, Sutherland EK (2008) Fire history and the establishment of oaks and maples in second-growth forests. Can J For Res 38(5):1184–1198

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hutchinson TF, Long RP, Rebbeck J, Sutherland EK, Yaussy DA (2012a) Repeated prescribed fires alter gap-phase regeneration in mixed-oak forests. Can J For Res 42(2):303–314

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hutchinson TF, Yaussy DA, Long RP, Rebbeck J, Sutherland EK (2012b) Long-term (13-year) effects of repeated prescribed fires on stand structure and tree regeneration in mixed-oak forests. For Ecol Manage 286:87–100

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hutchinson TF, Rebbeck J, Stout SL (2016) The devil is in the small dense saplings: A midstory herbicide treatment has limited effects on short-term regeneration outcomes in oak shelterwood stands. For Ecol Manage 372:189–198

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hutchinson TF, Stambaugh MC, Marschall JM, Guyette RP (2019) Historical fire in the Appalachian Plateau of Ohio and Kentucky, USA, from remnant yellow pines. Fire Ecol 15:33

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Iverson LR, Peters MP, Prasad AM, Matthews SN (2019) Analysis of climate change impacts on tree species of the eastern US: Results of DISTRIB-II modeling. Forests 10:302

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Izbicki BJ, Alexander HD, Paulson AK, Frey BR, McEwan RW, Berry AI (2020) Prescribed fire and natural canopy gap disturbances: Impacts on upland oak regeneration. For Ecol Manage 465:118107

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jackson JF, Adams DC, Jackson UB (1999) Allometry of constitutive defense: A model and a comparative test with tree bark and fire regime. Am Nat 153:614–632

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Jackson ST, Webb RS, Anderson KH, Overpeck JT, Webb T III, Williams JW, Hansen BCS (2000) Vegetation and environment in eastern North America during the last glacial maximum. Quat Sci Rev 19(6):489–508

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jenkins MA (2007) Vegetation communities of Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Southeast Nat 6:35–56

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jenkins MA, Parker GR (1998) Composition and diversity of woody vegetation in silvicultural openings of southern Indiana forests. For Ecol Manage 109(1-3):57–74

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Johnson AS, Hale PE (2002) The historical foundations of prescribed burning for wildlife. In: Ford WM, Russell KR, Moorman CE (eds) Proceedings, the role of fire for nongame wildlife management and community restoration: traditional uses and new directions. USDA Forest Service Gen Tech Rep NE-288, Newtown Square, pp 11–23

    Google Scholar 

  • Johnson JB, Edwards JW, Ford WM, Gates JE (2009) Roost tree selection by northern myotis (Myotis septentrionalis) maternity colonies following prescribed fire in a central Appalachian Mountains hardwood forest. For Ecol Manage 258:233–242

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Johnson JB, Ford WM, Edwards JW, Rodrigue JL, Johnson CL (2010) Roost selection by male Indiana myotis following forest fires in central Appalachian hardwoods forests. J Fish Wildl Manag 1:111–121

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Johnson PS, Shifley SR, Rogers R, Dey DC, Kabrick JM (2019) The ecology and silviculture of oaks, 3rd edn. CABI, Cambridge, MA

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Jones BC, Kleitch JF, Dobey CS, Buehler DA, Harper CA (2015) Ruffed grouse reproductive ecology and nest site selection in western North Carolina. J Southeast Assoc Fish Wildl 2:193–201

    Google Scholar 

  • Kane JM, Varner JM, Hiers JK (2008) The burning characteristics in southeastern oaks: Discriminating fire facilitators from fire impeders. For Ecol Manage 256:2039–2045

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kane JM, Varner JM, Saunders MR (2019) Resurrecting the lost flames of American chestnut. Ecosystems 5:995–1006

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kane JM, Varner JM, Stambaugh MC, Saunders M (2020) Reconsidering the fire ecology of the iconic American chestnut. Ecosphere 11(10):e03267

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Keeley JE, Zedler PH (1998) Evolution of life histories in Pinus. In: Richardson DM (ed) Ecology and biogeography of Pinus. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 219–251

    Google Scholar 

  • Kelty MJ (1988) Sources of hardwood regeneration and factors that influence these sources. In: Smith HC, Perkey AW, Kidd WE Jr (eds) Proceedings, Guidelines for regenerating Appalachian hardwood stands, SAF Publ 88-03. West Virginia University, Morgantown

    Google Scholar 

  • Keyser TL (2019) Resprouting by seedlings of four North American deciduous broadleaved tree species following experimental burning. Oecologia 190:207–218

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Keyser TL, Zarnoch SJ (2014) Stump sprout dynamics in response to reductions in stand density for nine upland hardwood species in the southern Appalachian Mountains. For Ecol Manage 319:29–35

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Keyser TL, Arthur MA, Loftis DL (2017) Repeated burning alters the structure and composition of hardwood regeneration in oak-dominated forests of eastern Kentucky, USA. For Ecol Manage 393:1–11

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Keyser TL, McDaniel VL, Klein RN, Drees DG, Burton JA, Forder MM (2018) Short-term stem mortality of 10 deciduous broadleaved species following prescribed burning in upland forests of the southern US. Int J Wildland Fire 27:42–51

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Keyser TL, Greenberg CH, McNab WH (2019) Season of burn effects on vegetation structure and composition in oak-dominated Appalachian hardwood forests. For Ecol Manage 433:441–452

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kinkead CO, Kabrick JM, Stambaugh MC, Grabner KW (2013) Changes to oak woodland stand structure and ground flora composition caused by thinning and burning. USDA Forest Service Gen Tech Rep NRS-P-117, Newtown Square, Pennsylvania

    Google Scholar 

  • Knapp EE, Estes BL, Skinner CN (2009) Ecological effects of prescribed fire season: a literature review and synthesis for managers. USDA Forest Service Gen Tech Rep PSW-224, Albany, CA

    Google Scholar 

  • Knapp BO, Stephan K, Hubbart JA (2015) Structure and composition of an oak- hickory forest after over 60 years of repeated prescribed burning in Missouri, USA. For Ecol Manage 344:95–109

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kneller M, Peteet D (1999) Late-glacial to early Holocene climate changes from a central Appalachian pollen and macrofossil record. Quatern Res 51(2):133–147

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Knott JA, Desprez JM, Oswalt CM, Fei S (2019) Shifts in forest composition in the eastern United States. For Ecol Manage 433:176–183

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kolb TE, Steiner KC, McCormick LH, Bowersox TW (1990) Growth response of northern red-oak and yellow-poplar seedlings to light, soil moisture and nutrients in relation to ecological strategy. For Ecol Manage 38:65–78

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kreye JK, Varner JM, Hiers JK, Mola J (2013) Toward a mechanism for eastern North American forest mesophication: The role of litter drying. Ecol Appl 23:1976–1986

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kreye JK, Varner JM, Hamby G, Kane JM (2018a) Mesophytic litter dampens flammability in fire-excluded pyrophytic oak-hickory woodlands. Ecosphere 9:e02078

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kreye JK, Hiers JK, Varner JM, Hornsby B, Drukker S, O’Brien JJ (2018b) Effects of solar heating on the moisture dynamics of forest floor litter in humid environments: composition, structure, and position matter. Can J For Res 48:1331–1342

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kruger EL, Reich PB (1997) Response of hardwood regeneration to fire in mesic forest openings: I. Post-fire community dynamics. Can J For Res 27:1822–1831

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kuykendall NW III (1978) Composition and structure of replacement forest stands following southern pine beetle infestations as related to selected site variables in the Great Smoky Mountains. Thesis, University of Tennessee, Knoxville

    Google Scholar 

  • Lafon CW, Grissino-Mayer HD (2007) Spatial patterns of fire occurrence in the central Appalachian Mountains and implications for wildland fire management. Phys Geog 28(1):1–20

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lafon CW, Kutac MJ (2003) Effects of ice storms, southern pine beetle infestation, and fire on Table Mountain pine forests of southwestern Virginia. Phys Geog 24(6):502–519

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lafon CW, Naito AT, Grissino-Mayer HD, Horn SP, Waldrop TA (2017) Fire history of the Appalachian region: A review and synthesis. USDA Forest Service Gen Tech Rep SRS-219, Asheville, North Carolina

    Google Scholar 

  • Lashley MA, Harper CA, Bates GE, Keyser PD (2011) Forage availability for white- tailed deer following silvicultural treatments. J Wildl Manag 75:1467–1476

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lashley MA, Chitwood MC, Prince A, Elfelt ME, Kilburg E, DePerno CS, Moorman CE (2014) Subtle effects of a managed fire regime: a case study in the longleaf pine ecosystem. Ecol Indic 38:212–217

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lashley MA, Chitwood MC, Harper CA, DePerno CS, Moorman CE (2015) Variability in fire prescriptions to promote wildlife foods in the longleaf pine ecosystem. Fire Ecol 11:62–79

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lashley MA, Chitwood MC, DePerno CS, Moorman CE (2017) Frequent fires eliminate fleshy fruit production. For Ecol Manage 405:9–12

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Leach MK, Givnish TJ (1999) Gradients in the composition, structure, and diversity of remnant oak savannas in southern Wisconsin. Ecol Monogr 69(3):353–374

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Liang WL (2020) Effects of stemflow on soil water eynamics in forest stands. In: Levia DF, Carlyle-Moses DE, Iidia S, Michalzik B, Nanko K, Tischer A (eds) Forest-water interactions. Springer, Cham, pp 349–370

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Liu Y, Andersen JJ, Williams JW, Jackson ST (2013) Vegetation history in central Kentucky and Tennessee (USA) during the last glacial and deglacial periods. Quatern Res 79(2):189–198

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Loeb S, O’Keefe J (2014) Indiana bats, northern long-eared bats, and prescribed fire in the Appalachians: challenges and considerations. In: Waldrop TA (ed) Proceedings of wildland fire in the Appalachians: discussions among managers and scientists. USDA Forest Service Gen Tech Rep SRS-199, Asheville, North Carolina, pp 73–81

    Google Scholar 

  • Loftis DL (1983) Regenerating southern Appalachian mixed hardwood stands with the shelterwood method. South J Appl For 7:212–217

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lorber J, Thomas-Van Gundy M, Croy S (2018) Characterizing effects of prescribed fire on forest canopy cover in the George Washington and Jefferson National Forests. USDA Forest Service Res Pap NRS-31, Newtown Square, Pennsylvania

    Google Scholar 

  • Lorimer CG (1984) Development of the red maple understory in northeastern oak forests. For Sci 30(1):3–22

    Google Scholar 

  • Lorimer CG, Chapman JW, Lambert WD (1994) Tall understorey vegetation as a factor in the poor development of oak seedlings beneath mature stands. J Ecol 82(2):227–237

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lynch JA, Clark JS (2002) Fire and vegetation histories in the southern Appalachian Mountains: The historical importance of fire before and after European/American settlement. Unpublished report submitted to the USDA Forest Service, George Washington and Jefferson National Forests, Roanoke, Virginia

    Google Scholar 

  • Ma Y, Van Dam RL, Jayawickreme DH (2014) Soil moisture variability in a temperate deciduous forest: Insights from electrical resistivity and throughfall data. Environ Earth Sci 72:1367–1381

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Marschall JM, Guyette RP, Stambaugh MC, Stevenson AP (2014) Fire damage effects on red oak timber product value. For Ecol Manage 320:182–189

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Marshall JM, Buckley DS, Franklin JA (2009) Competitive interaction between Microstegium vimineum and first-year seedlings of three central hardwoods. J Torrey Bot Soc 136:342–349

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mason D, Lashley MA (2021) Spatial scale in fire ecology: an understudied attribute in fire regimes. Fire Ecol (in review)

    Google Scholar 

  • Matheny AM, Fiorella RP, Bohrer G, Poulsen CJ, Morin TH, Wunderlich A, Vogel CS, Curtis PS (2017) Contrasting strategies of hydraulic control in two codominant temperate tree species. Ecohydrology 10:e1815. https://doi.org/10.1002/eco.1815

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Matlack GR (2013) Reassessment of the use of fire as a management tool in deciduous forests of eastern North America. Conserv Biol 27:916–926

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Matthews CE, Moorman CE, Greenberg CH, Waldrop TA (2009) Response of soricid populations to repeated fire and fuel reduction treatments in the southern Appalachian Mountains. For Ecol Manage 257:1939–1944

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Matthews CE, Moorman CE, Greenberg CH, Waldrop TA (2010) Response of reptiles and amphibians to repeated fuel reduction treatments. J Wildl Manag 74:1301–1310

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Maxwell H (1910) The use and abuse of the forests by the Virginia Indians. William and Mary College. Q Hist Mag 19(2):73–103

    Google Scholar 

  • Maynard EE, Brewer JS (2013) Restoring perennial warm-season grasses as a means of reversing mesophication of oak woodlands in northern Mississippi. Restor Ecol 21:242–249

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • McCord JM, Harper CA, Greenberg CH (2014) Brood cover and food resources for wild turkeys following silvicultural treatments in mature upland hardwoods. Wildl Soc Bull 38(2):265–272

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • McEwan RW, Muller RN (2011) Dynamics, diversity, and resource gradient relationships in the herbaceous layer of an old-growth Appalachian forest. Plant Ecol 212:1179–1191

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • McEwan RW, Rhoades C, Beiting S (2005) American chestnut (Castanea dentata) in the pre-settlement vegetation of Mammoth Cave National Park, Central Kentucky, USA. Nat Areas J 25:275–281

    Google Scholar 

  • McEwan RW, Dyer JM, Pederson N (2011) Multiple interacting ecosystem drivers: Toward an encompassing hypothesis of oak forest dynamics across eastern North America. Ecography 34(2):244–256

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • McShea WJ (2000) The influence of acorn crops on annual variation in rodent and bird populations. Ecology 81:228–238

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • McShea WJ, Healy WM, Devers P, Fearer T, Koch FH, Stauffer D, Waldon J (2007) Forestry matters: Decline of oaks will impact wildlife in hardwood forests. J Wildl Manag 71(5):1717–1728

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Miller GW, Kochenderfer JN, Fekedulegn DB (2008) Influence of individual reserve trees on nearby reproduction in two-aged Appalachian hardwood stands. For Ecol Manage 224:241–251

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mola JM, Varner JM, Jules ES, Spector T (2014) Altered community flammability in Florida’s Apalachicola ravines and implications for the persistence of the endangered conifer Torreya taxifolia. PLoS One 9:e103933. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103933

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Monk CD, McGinty DT, Day FP (1985) The ecological importance of Kalmia latifolia and Rhododendron maximum in the deciduous forest of the southern Appalachians. Bull Torrey Bot Club 112:187–193

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Moorman CE, Russell KR, Greenberg CH (2011) Reptile and amphibian response to hardwood forest management and early-successional habitats. In: Greenberg CH, Collins BS, Thompson FR III (eds) Sustaining young forest communities: Ecology and management of early successional habitats in the Central Hardwood Region, USA. Springer, New York, pp 191–208

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Morrissey RC, Jacobs DF, Seifert JR, Fischer BC, Kershaw JA (2008) Competitive success of natural oak regeneration in clearcuts during the stem exclusion stage. Can J For Res 38(6):1419–1430

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Motsinger JR, Kabrick JM, Dey DC, Henderson DC, Zenner EK (2010) Effect of midstory and understory removal on the establishment and development of natural and artificial pin oak advance reproduction in bottomland forests. New For 38:195–213

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Nanney JS, Harper CA, Buehler DA, Bates GE (2018) Nutritional carrying capacity for cervids following disturbance in hardwood forests. J Wildl Manag 82(6):1219–1228

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Noss RF (2012) Forgotten grasslands of the South. Island Press, Washington

    Google Scholar 

  • Nowacki GJ, Abrams MD (1992) Community, edaphic, and historical analysis of mixed oak forests of the Ridge and Valley Province in central Pennsylvania. Can J For Res 22:790–800

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Nowacki GJ, Abrams MD (2008) The demise of fire and “mesophication” of forests in the eastern United States. Bioscience 58:123–138

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • O’Brien JJ, Hiers JK, Varner JM, Hoffman C, Dickinson M, Michaletz S, Loudermilk EL, Butler BW (2018) Advances in mechanistic approaches to quantifying biophysical fire effects. Curr For Rep 4(4):161–177

    Google Scholar 

  • O’Donnell KM, Thompson FR, Semlitsch RD (2016) Prescribed fire alters surface activity and movement behavior of a terrestrial salamander. J Zool 298:303–309

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • O’Keefe JM, Loeb SC (2017) Indiana bats roost in ephemeral, fire-dependent pine snags in the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA. For Ecol and Manag 391:264–274

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Oswald WW, Foster DR, Shuman BN, Chilton ES, Doucette DL, Duranleau DL (2020) Conservation implications of limited Native American impacts in pre-contact New England. Nat Sustain 3:241–246

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Palus JD, Goebel PC, Hix DM, Matthews SN (2018) Structural and compositional shifts in forests undergoing mesophication in the Wayne National Forest, southeastern Ohio. For Ecol Manage 430:413–420

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Parrott DL, Lhotka JM, Stringer JW, Dillaway DN (2012) Seven-year effects of midstory removal on natural and underplanted oak reproduction. North J Appl For 29(4):182–190

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pederson N, Dyer JM, McEwan RW, Hessl AE, Mock CJ, Orwig DA, Rieder HE, Cook BI (2014) The legacy of episodic climatic events in shaping temperate, broadleaf forests. Ecol Monogr 84(4):599–620

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pederson N, D’Amato AW, Dyer JM, Foster DR, Goldblum D, Hart JL, Hessl AE, Iverson LR, Jackson ST, Martin-Benito D, McCarthy BC (2015) Climate remains an important driver of post-European vegetation change in the eastern United States. Glob Chang Biol 21(6):2105–2110

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Perry RW (2012) A review of fire effects on bats and bat habitat in the eastern oak region. In: Dey DC, Stambaugh MC, Clark SL, Schweitzer CJ (eds) Proceedings of the 4th Fire in eastern oak forests conference, Springfield, Missouri, 2011. USDA Forest Service Gen Tech Rep NRS-P-102, Newtown Square

    Google Scholar 

  • Petersen SM, Drewa PB (2006) Did lightning-initiated growing season fires characterize oak-dominated ecosystems of southern Ohio? J Torrey Bot Soc 133:217–224

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pinter N, Fiedel S, Keeley JE (2011) Fire and vegetation shifts in the Americas at the vanguard of Paleoindian migration. Quat Sci Rev 30:e269–e272

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pyne SJ (1982) Fire in America, a cultural history of wildland and rural fire. Princeton University Press, Princeton

    Google Scholar 

  • Pyne SJ, Goldammer JG (1997) The culture of fire: an introduction to anthropogenic fire history. In: Clark JS, Cachier H, Goldammer JG, Stocks B (eds) Sediment records of biomass burning and global change, vol I 51. NATO ASI Series. Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg

    Google Scholar 

  • Raybuck AL, Moorman CE, Greenberg CH, DePerno CS, Gross K, Simon DM, Warburton GS (2012) Short-term response of small mammals following oak regeneration silviculture treatments. For Ecol Manage 274:10–16

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Raybuck AL, Moorman CE, Fritts SR, Greenberg CH, DePerno CS, Simon DM, Warburton GS (2015) Do silvicultural practices to restore oaks affect salamanders in the short term? Wildl Biol 21:186–194

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Regelbrugge JC, Smith DW (1994) Postfire tree mortality in relation to wildfire severity in mixed oak forests in the Blue Ridge of Virginia. North J Appl For 11:90–97

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Reich PB, Abrams MD, Ellsworth DS, Kruger EL, Tabone TJ (1990) Fire affects ecophysiology and community dynamics of central Wisconsin oak forest regeneration. Ecology 71(6):2179–2190

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rentch JS, Hicks RR (2005) Changes in presettlement forest composition for five areas in the central hardwood forest, 1784-1990. Nat Areas J 25:228–238

    Google Scholar 

  • Reukema D (1959) Relation of pine forest overstory opening diameter to growth of pine reproduction. Ecology 40(3):478–482

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Riitters KH, Coulston JW, Wickham JD (2012) Fragmentation of forest communities in the eastern United States. For Ecol Manage 263:85–93

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rogers BM, Jantz P, Goetz SJ (2017) Vulnerability of eastern US tree species to climate change. Glob Chang Biol 23:3302–3320

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Royse J, Arthur MA, Schörgendorfer A, Loftis DL (2010) Establishment and growth of oak (Quercus alba, Quercus prinus) seedlings in burned and fire-excluded upland forests on the Cumberland Plateau. For Ecol Manage 260:502–510

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rubbo MJ, Kiesecker JM (2004) Leaf litter composition and community structure: translating regional species changes into local dynamics. Ecology 85:2519–2525

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ryan KC, Knapp EE, Varner JM (2013) Prescribed fire in North American forests and woodlands: history, current practice, and challenges. Front Ecol Environ 11:e15–e24

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Saladyga T (2017) Forest disturbance history from ‘legacy’ pitch pine (Pinus rigida) at the New River Gorge, West Virginia. Nat Areas J 37:49–57

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sander IL (1972) Size of advance reproduction: Key to growth following harvest cutting. USDA Forest Service Res Pap NC-79, St. Paul, Minnesota

    Google Scholar 

  • Sarvis W (1993) An Appalachian forest: creation of the Jefferson National Forest and its effects on the local community. For Conserv Hist 37:169–178

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Schroeder MJ, Buck CC (1970) Fire weather: a guide for application of meteorological information to forest fire control operations. USDA Forest Service Agric Handb 360, Washington, DC

    Google Scholar 

  • Schweitzer CJ, Dey DC, Wang Y (2016) Hardwood-pine mixedwoods stand dynamics following thinning and prescribed burning. Fire Ecol 12(2):85–104

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Scott AC, Bowman DMJS, Bond WJ, Pyne SJ, Alexander ME (2014) Fire on earth. Wiley Blackwell, West Sussex

    Google Scholar 

  • Shankman D, Wills KM Jr (1995) Pre-European settlement forest communities of the Talladega Mountains, Alabama. Southeast Geog 35:118–131

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Short MF, Stambaugh MC, Dey DC (2019) Prescribed fire effects on oak woodland advance regeneration at the prairie–forest border in Kansas, USA. Can J For Res 49:1570–1579

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Siegert CM, Levia DF (2014) Seasonal and meteorological effects on differential stemflow funneling ratios for two deciduous tree species. J Hydrol 519:446–454

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Siegert CM, Drotar NA, Alexander HD (2019) Spatial and temporal variability of throughfall among oak and co-occurring non-oak tree species in an upland hardwood forest. Geosciences 9:405. https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences9100405

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Siskind T (2020) A burnt landscape: Forest composition in Rabun County, Georgia, 1820 CE Thesis, Texas A&M University

    Google Scholar 

  • Smith KT, Sutherland EK (1999) Fire-scar formation and compartmentalization in oak. Can J For Res 29:166–171

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • South DB, Harper RA (2016) A decline in timberland continues for several southern yellow pines. J For 114:116–124

    Google Scholar 

  • Stambaugh MC, Varner JM, Noss RF, Dey DC, Christensen NL, Baldwin RF, Guyette RP, Hanberry BB, Harper CA, Lindblom SG, Waldrop TA (2015) Clarifying the role of fire in the Eastern Deciduous Forest: reply to Matlack. Conserv Biol 29(3):942–946

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Stambaugh MC, Guyette RP, Marschall JM, Dey DC (2016) Scale dependence of oak woodland historical fire intervals: contrasting the barrens of Tennessee and cross timbers of Oklahoma, USA. Fire Ecol 12:65–84

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Stambaugh MC, Smith KT, Dey DC (2017) Fire scar growth and closure rates in white oak (Quercus alba) and the implications for prescribed burning. For Ecol Manage 391:396–403

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Stambaugh MC, Marschall JM, Abadir ER, Jones BC, Brose PH, Dey DC, Guyette RP (2018) Wave of fire: An anthropogenic signal in historical fire regimes across central Pennsylvania, USA. Ecosphere 9(5):e02222

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Starker TJ (1934) Fire resistance in the forest. J For 32:462–467

    Google Scholar 

  • Stein BA, Kutner LS, Adams JS (2000) Precious heritage: the status of biodiversity in the United States. Oxford University Press (on demand)

    Google Scholar 

  • Stephenson SL, Clovis JF (1983) Spruce forests of the Allegheny Mountains in Central West Virginia. Castanea 48:1–12

    Google Scholar 

  • Taillie PJ, Burnett RD, Roberts LJ, Campos BR, Peterson MN, Moorman CE (2018) Interacting and non-linear avian responses to mixed-severity wildfire and time since fire. Ecosphere 9(6):e02291

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tallamy DW, Shropshire KJ (2009) Ranking lepidopteran use of native versus introduced plants. Conserv Biol 23:941–947

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Thomas RQ, Canham CD, Weathers KC, Goodale CL (2010) Increased tree carbon storage in response to nitrogen deposition in the US. Nat Geosci 3(1):13–17

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Thomas-Van Gundy MA, Nowacki GJ (2013) The use of witness trees as pyro-indicators for mapping past fire. For Ecol Manage 304:333–344

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Thomas-Van Gundy MA, Strager MP (2012) European settlement-era vegetation of the Monongahela National Forest, West Virginia. USDA Forest Service Gen Tech Rep NRS-101, Newtown Square, Pennsylvania

    Google Scholar 

  • Thomas-Van Gundy MA, Rentch J, Adams MB, Carson W (2014) Reversing legacy effects in the understory of an oak-dominated forest. Can J For Res 44(4):350–364

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tift BD, Fajvan MA (1999) Red maple dynamics in Appalachian hardwood stands in West Virginia. Can J For Res 29(2):157–165

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tirpak JM, Giuliano WM, Miller CA, Allen TJ, Bittner S, Buehler DA, Edwards JW, Harper CA, Igo WK, Norman GW, Seamster M, Stauffer DF (2006) Ruffed grouse population dynamics in the central and southern Appalachians. Biol Conserv 133:364–378

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Underwood CA (2013) Fire and forest history from soil charcoal in yellow pine and mixed hardwood-pine forests in the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA. Dissertation, University of Tennessee

    Google Scholar 

  • USDA, USDI (US Department of Agriculture and US Department of Interior) (2001) Review and update of the 1995 federal wildland fire management policy. Interagency federal wildland fire policy review working group. https://www.nifc.gov/PIO_bb/Policy/FederalWildlandFireManagementPolicy_2001.pdf. Accessed 6 May 2020

  • USFS (US Department of Agriculture Forest Service) (2014) Revised land and resource management plan: George Washington National Forest. R8-MB 143 A. George Washington National Forest, Roanoke, Virginia

    Google Scholar 

  • USFS (US Department of Agriculture Forest Service) (2020) Nantahala and Pisgah National Forests proposed land management plan. R8-MB 154 LMP. Nantahala and Pisgah National Forests, Asheville, North Carolina

    Google Scholar 

  • Van Horne ML, Fule PZ (2006) Comparing methods of reconstructing fire history using fire scars in a southwestern United States ponderosa pine forest. Can J For Res 36:855–867

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Van Lear DH, Watt JM (1993) The role of fire in oak regeneration. USDA Forest Service Gen Tech Rep SE-84, Asheville, North Carolina

    Google Scholar 

  • Van Manen FT, Pelton MR (1997) A GIS model to predict black bear habitat use. J For 95:6–12

    Google Scholar 

  • Vander Yacht AL, Keyser PD, Buehler DA, Harper CA, Buckley DS, Applegate RD (2016) Avian occupancy response to oak woodland and savanna restoration. J Wildl Manag 80(6):1091–1105

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Vander Yacht AL, Barrioz SA, Keyser PD, Harper CA, Buckley DS, Buehler DA, Applegate RD (2017a) Vegetation response to canopy disturbance and season of burn during oak woodland and savanna restoration in Tennessee. For Ecol Manage 390:187–202

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Vander Yacht AL, Keyser PD, Harper CA, Buckley DS, Saxton AM (2017b) Restoration of oak woodlands and savannas in Tennessee using canopy disturbance, fire-season, and herbicides. For Ecol Manage 406:351–360

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Vander Yacht AL, Keyser PD, Barrioz SA, Kwit C, Stambaugh MC, Clatterbuck WK, Simon DM (2019) Reversing mesophication effects on understory woody vegetation in Mid-Southern oak forests. For Sci 65(3):289–303

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Varner JM (2018) Encroachment and persistence of trees in southeastern grasslands. In: Hill JG, Barone J (eds) Southeastern grasslands: Biodiversity, ecology, and management. The University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa, pp 183–191

    Google Scholar 

  • Varner JM, Kane JM, Banwell EM, Kreye JK (2015) Flammability of litter from southeastern trees: A preliminary assessment. In: Holley AG, Connor KF, Haywood JP (eds) Proceedings of the 17th biennial southern silvicultural research conference. USDA Forest Service Gen Tech Rep e-GTR-SRS-203, Asheville, North Carolina, pp 183–187

    Google Scholar 

  • Varner JM, Kane JM, Hiers JK, Kreye JK, Veldman JW (2016) Suites of fire-adapted traits in the southeastern USA oaks: Multiple strategies for persistence. Fire Ecol 12:48–64

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Von Allmen EI, Sperry JS, Bush SE (2015) Contrasting whole-tree water use, hydraulics, and growth in a co-dominant diffuse-porous vs. ring-porous species pair. Trees 29:717–728

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Vose JM, Elliott KJ (2016) Oak, fire, and global change in the eastern USA: What might the future hold? Fire Ecol 12:160–179

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Waldrop TA, Lloyd FT (1991) Forty years of prescribed burning on the Santee fire plots: Effects on overstory and midstory vegetation. USDA Forest Service Gen Tech Rep SE-69, Asheville, North Carolina

    Google Scholar 

  • Waldrop TA, White DL, Jones SM (1992) Fire regimes for pine-grassland communities in the southeastern United States. For Ecol Manage 47:195–210

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Waldrop TA, Brudnak L, Rideout-Hanzak S (2007) Fuels on disturbed and undisturbed sites in the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA. Can J For Res 37(6):1134–1141

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Waldrop TA, Yaussy DA, Phillips RJ, Hutchinson TF, Brudnak L, Boerner RE (2008) Fuel reduction treatments affect stand structure of hardwood forests in western North Carolina and southern Ohio, USA. For Ecol Manage 255(8-9):3117–3129

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Waldrop TA, Hagan DL, Simon DA (2016) Repeated application of fuel reduction treatments in the southern Appalachian mountains, USA: Implications for achieving management goals. Fire Ecol 12:28–47

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Walker J, Peet RK (1984) Composition and species diversity of pine-wiregrass savannas of the Green Swamp, North Carolina. Vegetatio 55(3):163–179

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Washburn CSM, Arthur MA (2003) Spatial variability in soil nutrient availability in an oak-pine forest: potential effects of tree species. Can J For Res 33:2321–2330

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wendel GW, Smith HC (1986) Effects of a prescribed fire in a central Appalachian oak-hickory stand. USDA Forest Service NE-RP-594, Broomall, Pennsylvania

    Google Scholar 

  • Westlake SM, Mason D, Lázaro-Lobo A, Burr P, McCollum JR, Chance D, Lashley MA (2020) The magnet effect of fire on herbivores affects plant community structure in a forested system. For Ecol Manage 458:117794

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • White PS (1987) Natural disturbance, patch dynamics, and landscape pattern in natural areas. Nat Areas J 7:14–22

    Google Scholar 

  • Whitney GG (1994) From coastal wilderness to fruited plain. Cambridge University Press, New York

    Google Scholar 

  • Williams M (1989) The forest and the Indian. In: Americas: Their forests and historical geography. Cambridge University Press, New York, pp 22–52

    Google Scholar 

  • Williams CE (1998) History and status of Table Mountain pine–pitch pine forests of the southern Appalachian mountains (USA). Nat Areas J 18:81–90

    Google Scholar 

  • Williams CE, Johnson WC (1990) Age structure and the maintenance of Pinus pungens in pine-oak forests of southwestern Virginia. Am Midl Nat 124:130–141

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wood TB, Comer CE, Perry RW, Oswald BP (2019) Temporal changes in fruit production between recurrent prescribed burns in pine woodlands of the Ouachita Mountains. For Ecol Manage 451:117527

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Yaussy DA, Sutherland EK (1994) Fire history in the Ohio River Valley and its relation to climate. In: Proceedings of the 12th Conference on Fire and Forest Meteorology. Society of American Foresters, Bethesda, p 777

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Mary A. Arthur .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2021 This is a U.S. government work and not under copyright protection in the U.S.; foreign copyright protection may apply

About this chapter

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this chapter

Arthur, M.A. et al. (2021). Fire Ecology and Management in Eastern Broadleaf and Appalachian Forests. In: Greenberg, C.H., Collins, B. (eds) Fire Ecology and Management: Past, Present, and Future of US Forested Ecosystems. Managing Forest Ecosystems, vol 39. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-73267-7_4

Download citation

Publish with us

Policies and ethics