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Performance Analysis of a Solar Water Heater for Space Heating in Residential and Commercial Buildings

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Part of the Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering book series (LNEE,volume 763)


This research aims to analyze the performance of a solar water heater for space heating in residential and commercial buildings in the city of Quito in Ecuador. The collector system is environmentally friendly since during its operation no greenhouse gases are generated, being these the main causes of global warming produced by the burning of fossil fuels. One of the advantages of this innovation is that it is easy to install and transport. It can be installed outside apartment buildings and homes as if they were windows in the building itself, and its location allows the collector to be kept clean, improving the heating performance of the heat transfer fluid and offering a versatile sustainable building concept that reduces energy consumption. Carrying out tests under different meteorological conditions, the efficiency calculation of the solar air collector was developed, obtaining an average value of 59.09% with an acceptable collector performance, achieving an average useful heat of 3807.65 W and an output temperature of around 34.6 to 94 °C. These important data were obtained through methodologies of: thermal analysis in the collector, energy balances in each section and definition of mathematical models. This efficiency achieved offers good perspectives in the application of this type of technologies that contribute to the use of alternative or renewable energies, since the solar resource can be used to cover the energy demand at low costs.


  • Solar air collector
  • Efficiency
  • Thermal
  • Sustainable
  • Saving
  • Energy

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  • DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-72212-8_1
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\( {\rm{A}}_{\rm{col}} \) :

Collector area

\( {\rm{A}}_{\rm{cv}} \) :

Glass Cover Area

\( {\rm{A}}_{\rm{p}} \) :

Plate area

\( {\rm{F}}_{\rm{r}} \) :

Heat Removal Factor

\( BEC\frac{dTc}{dt} \) :

Energy that is accumulated in the solar thermal collector

\( {\rm{h}}_ 1 \) :

Heat Transfer Coefficient

\( {\rm{h}}_ 2 \) :

Heat exchange coefficient

\( {\rm{h}}_ 3 \) :

Heat transfer coefficient between the indoor air and cover

\( {\rm{h}}_ 4 \) :

Heat transfer coefficient for radiation between plate and cover (glass)

\( {\rm{h}}_ 5 \) :

Heat transfer coefficient by natural convection between the indoor air and the plate

\( {\rm{h}}_ 6 \) :

Convection heat transfer coefficient between the insulation and the outside air


Mass flow

\( {\rm{Q}}_ 1 \) :

Heat radiated by the absorber plate

\( {\rm{Q}}_ 2 \) :

Hot air convection heat

\( {\rm{Q}}_ 3 \) :

Convection heat to the outside air Q4 Heat from radiation into outer space Q5 Heat delivered to indoor air

\( {\rm{Q}}_ 4 \) :

Heat from radiation into outer space

\( {\rm{Q}}_ 5 \) :

Heat delivered to indoor air

\( {\rm{Q}}_ 6 \) :

Heat that is lost to the environment through insulation of the collector bottom

\( {\rm{Q}}_ 7 \) :

Heat delivered by radiation to the collector cover

\( Q_u \) :

Useful heat


Solar radiation absorbed per unit area

\( {\rm{T}}_{\rm{pm}} \) :

Average plate temperature

\( {\rm{T}}_{\rm{a}} \) :

Room temperature

\( {\rm{T}}_{\rm{o}} \) :

Outlet fluid temperature

\( {\rm{T}}_{\rm{i}} \) :

Fluid temperature at inlet

\( {\rm{T}}_{\rm{m}} \) :

Average temperature between Tp and Ti

\( {\rm{T}}_{\rm{ai}} \) :

Indoor air temperature

\( {\rm{T}}_{\rm{aex}} \) :

Outside air temperature

\( {\rm{T}}_{\rm{sky}} \) :

Sky Dome Temperature

\( {\rm{T}}_{\rm{aes}} \) :

Outside air temperature through insulation

\( \rm{\tau }_{\rm{cv}} \) :

Glass Transmittance

\( {\rm{U}}_{\rm{L}} \) :

Overall thermal loss coefficient of the collector

\( F_r \) :

Heat Removal Factor

\(\eta \) :

Optical efficiency of the collector


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The authors wish to thank the Faculty of Mechanics of SEK International University with the project P041819 Parque de Energias Renovables, for providing the necessary conditions for the experimental process. The Instituto de Investigación Geológico y Energético (IIGE) and the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) are also thanked for the donation of the solar collector.

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Correspondence to Javier Martínez-Gómez .

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Arguello Bravo, D.A., Martínez-Gómez, J., Urresta Suárez, E.F., Salazar Loor, D.R., Guerrón, G. (2021). Performance Analysis of a Solar Water Heater for Space Heating in Residential and Commercial Buildings. In: Botto Tobar, M., Cruz, H., Díaz Cadena, A. (eds) Recent Advances in Electrical Engineering, Electronics and Energy. CIT 2020. Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering, vol 763. Springer, Cham.

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