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Quasipolynomial Computation of Nested Fixpoints

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Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNTCS,volume 12651)


It is well-known that the winning region of a parity game with n nodes and k priorities can be computed as a k-nested fixpoint of a suitable function; straightforward computation of this nested fixpoint requires \(\mathcal {O}(n^{\frac{k}{2}})\) iterations of the function. Calude et al.’s recent quasipolynomial-time parity game solving algorithm essentially shows how to compute the same fixpoint in only quasipolynomially many iterations by reducing parity games to quasipolynomially sized safety games. Universal graphs have been used to modularize this transformation of parity games to equivalent safety games that are obtained by combining the original game with a universal graph. We show that this approach naturally generalizes to the computation of solutions of systems of any fixpoint equations over finite lattices; hence, the solution of fixpoint equation systems can be computed by quasipolynomially many iterations of the equations. We present applications to modal fixpoint logics and games beyond relational semantics. For instance, the model checking problems for the energy \(\mu \)-calculus, finite latticed \(\mu \)-calculi, and the graded and the (two-valued) probabilistic \(\mu \)-calculus – with numbers coded in binary – can be solved via nested fixpoints of functions that differ substantially from the function for parity games but still can be computed in quasipolynomial time; our result hence implies that model checking for these \(\mu \)-calculi is in \(\textsc {QP}\). Moreover, we improve the exponent in known exponential bounds on satisfiability checking.


  • Fixpoint theory
  • model checking
  • satisfiability checking
  • parity games
  • energy games
  • \(\mu \)-calculus

Work forms part of the DFG-funded project CoMoC (SCHR 1118/15-1, MI 717/7-1).


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Hausmann, D., Schröder, L. (2021). Quasipolynomial Computation of Nested Fixpoints. In: Groote, J.F., Larsen, K.G. (eds) Tools and Algorithms for the Construction and Analysis of Systems. TACAS 2021. Lecture Notes in Computer Science(), vol 12651. Springer, Cham.

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