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Understanding the Chronologies of England’s Field Systems

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Part of the Themes in Contemporary Archaeology book series (TCA)

Abstract

The chapter presents the outcomes from a project funded by Historic England to collate and analyse scientific dates for field systems in England. The project identified 393 scientific dates from more than 120 excavated field systems. The analysis provides a constructive critique of fieldscape chronologies and recommends methodological improvements and directions for future research. The results indicate that bounded fields appeared in the English landscape during the first quarter of the second millennium BC, and that subsequent enclosure was an ongoing, geographically discontinuous process. The active apportionment of land and maintenance of field systems was possibly interrupted during c. 1000–600 BC, as a hiatus was observed in the project’s data. Post-Roman and medieval field systems are rarely targeted for scientific dating, with the consequence that the continuity of field systems from the Roman period into later landscapes remains ill-defined. There are major biases in the current dataset of scientific dates. The project has illustrated the requirement for standardised reporting of scientific dates in grey literature reports, publications, and data archives. Geographical biases within the data occur due to regional concentrations in the application of development-led archaeology, and the impacts of regional priorities and research agendas. Future legislative protection, research frameworks and fieldwork strategies should prioritise understanding the long chronologies of field systems and rebalance our current attention towards periodised perspectives.

Keywords

  • England
  • Field systems
  • Dating
  • Chronology
  • Long-term developments

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Acknowledgements

Many people provided advice and assistance during this project: Peter Marshall and Pete Wilson of Historic England; the HER, SMR and local authority archaeologists who responded to our complicated data requests; the contracting units who provided access to data, and especially Chris Evans and Sam Smith of Cambridge Archaeological Unit, Peter Dudley and Andrew Young of Cornwall Archaeological Unit, Diccon Hart of ASE, Mary Ruddy and Jim Brown of MOLA, Rachel Newman and Denise Druce of Oxford Archaeology North, and Steve Preston of TVAS; David Yates and David Knight for information and advice; the helpful staff of the Historic England library.

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Appendix: Table of Sites

Appendix: Table of Sites

ID Site name County Types (primary listed first) Periods (primary listed first) References
1 Chysauster Cornwall Aggregated Bronze Age, Roman Walker et al. (1990) and Smith et al. (1996)
2 Big Moor Derbyshire aggregated Bronze Age Barnatt (2001), Heath (2003) and Bayliss et al. (2013)
3 Timberland, Scunthorpe North Lincolnshire Coaxial Iron Age, Roman Richardson (2009)
4 Bestwall Quarry Dorset Aggregated Bronze Age, Iron Age Bayliss et al. (2009a)
5 Gwithian Cornwall Aggregated Bronze Age Nowakowski et al. (2008), Nowakowski (2007), Bayliss et al. (2008) and Roberts (2007)
6 Moss Carr, Methley West Yorkshire Field system Iron Age, Roman Roberts and Richardson (2002)
7 Doncaster Road, South Elmsall West Yorkshire Field boundary, pit alignment Iron Age, medieval Grassam (2008)
8 Normanton Industrial Estate West Yorkshire Field system Roman, Early medieval Martin and Harrison (2012)
9 AP30 (Asselby to Pannal Pipeline) North Yorkshire Field boundary Post-medieval Gregory et al. (2013)
10 Becca Banks, Aberford (Asselby to Pannal pipeline Area 8) West Yorkshire Field boundary, linear earthwork Bronze Age, Iron Age Gregory et al. (2013)
11 Grove Farm, Little Fenton (Asselby to Pannal pipeline site 2) North Yorkshire Coaxial Roman Gregory et al. (2013)
12 Oldgate Farm, Barkston Ash (Asselby to Pannal pipeline site 18–10) North Yorkshire Enclosure Iron Age Gregory et al. (2013)
13 Coldhill Lane, Saxton (Asselby to Pannal pipeline site 18-11B) North Yorkshire stock enclosure Early medieval Gregory et al. (2013)
14 Rigton Bank, Bardsey (Asselby to Pannal pipeline site 26–2) West Yorkshire Aggregated Roman, Iron Age Gregory et al. (2013)
15 Rigton Bank, Bardsey (Asselby to Pannal pipeline site 26–3) West Yorkshire Field boundary Iron Age, Early medieval Gregory et al. (2013)
16 Stainburn Hill, Kirkby Overblow (Asselby to Pannal pipeline Area 14) North Yorkshire Field boundary Iron Age, Roman Gregory et al. (2013)
17 North Rigton (Asselby to Pannal pipeline Area 15) North Yorkshire Aggregated Iron Age Gregory et al. (2013)
18 Bullerthorpe Lane, Swillington (A1-M1 link road) West Yorkshire Field boundary Roman Roberts et al. (2001)
19 Swillington Common (A1-M1 link road) West Yorkshire Aggregated Iron Age, Roman Roberts et al. (2001)
20 Knottingley Road retention pond (A1[M] Darrington to Dishforth) West Yorkshire Field boundary Roman Brown et al. (2007)
21 Site M, Castle Hills, Ledsham (A1[M] Darrington to Dishforth) West Yorkshire Field boundary Iron Age Brown et al. (2007)
22 Site WWBP, north of Wetherby (A1[M] Darrington to Dishforth) North Yorkshire Pit alignment Iron Age, Roman Brown et al. (2007)
23 Wattle Syke, Wetherby West Yorkshire Aggregated Roman, Iron Age Martin et al. (2013)
24 Holmfield Interchange, Ferrybridge West Yorkshire Pit alignment, coaxial Iron Age, Roman Roberts (2005)
25 Glasshoughton Coalfields Link Rd West Yorkshire Field system Iron Age, Roman Moretti (2008)
26 Carr Lodge Farm, Loversall South Yorkshire stock enclosure Iron Age JSAC (2007)
27 Catesby Business Park, Balby Carr South Yorkshire Coaxial Iron Age, Roman Jones et al. (2005), ASWYAS (2006) and ASWYAS (2008)
28 Bowes Moor field system (A66 Stainmore Pass) Durham Aggregated Early medieval, Iron Age Bayliss et al. (2013) and Gear and Turner (1992)
29 Coach and Horses Earthwork (A66 Stainmore Pass) Durham Cord rig Iron Age Bayliss et al. (2013)
30 Ravock field system, Sites B & D (A66 Stainmore Pass) Durham Coaxial Medieval, Bronze Age Bayliss et al. (2013) and Robinson (1993)
31 Hill Lane, Old Warden (Broom Quarry) Bedfordshire linear ditch, enclosure Bronze Age, Iron Age Cooper and Edmonds (2007)
32 Ash Covert, Old Warden (Broom Quarry) Bedfordshire Field system Bronze Age, Iron Age Cooper and Edmonds (2007)
33 Area 1A South Gate (SG), Stansted Airport Essex Enclosure Early medieval Cooke et al. (2008)
34 M11 Slip Road, Stansted Airport Essex Field boundary Bronze Age, Iron Age Cooke et al. (2008)
35 Eaglestone Flat Derbyshire Aggregated Bronze Age Bayliss et al. (2013) and Barnatt (1994)
36 Crab’s Ledge, Tresco Isles of Scilly Field boundary Iron Age, Early medieval Bayliss et al. (2013) and Ratcliffe and Straker (1996)
37 North Furzton Buckinghamshire stock enclosure Iron Age Bayliss et al. (2013) and Williams (1988)
38 Samson, East Porth Isles of Scilly Field boundary Bronze Age Bayliss et al. (2013) and Ratcliffe and Straker (1996)
39 Stannon, Bodmin Moor Cornwall Aggregated Bronze Age Bayliss et al. (2013), Rose (1992a, b)
40 Saddlesborough Main Reave site 208, Dartmoor Devon Coaxial Bronze Age Jordan et al. (1994) and Smith et al. (1981)
41 Holne Moor, Dartmoor Devon Coaxial Bronze Age Jordan et al. (1994) and Smith et al. (1981)
42 Shaugh Moor, Cholwich Town, site 203 Devon Coaxial Bronze Age Jordan et al. (1994)
43 Shaugh Moor, Wotter Playground site 201 Devon Coaxial, lynchet Bronze Age Jordan et al. (1994)
44 Shaugh Moor, Wotter Common, site 69 Devon Coaxial Bronze Age Jordan et al. (1994) and Smith et al. (1981)
45 Shovel Down, Dartmoor Devon Coaxial Bronze Age Fyfe et al. (2008)
46 Seathwaite Valley Cumbria Field boundary Medieval Wild et al. (2001)
47 360–364 Shirley Road, Southampton Hampshire Field boundary Roman, Iron Age Russel and Fedorowicz (2013)
48 Ashville Trading Estate, Abingdon Oxfordshire Aggregated Iron Age, Roman Parrington (1978)
49 Tremough, Penryn Cornwall Coaxial Iron Age, Roman Gossip and Jones (2007) and Gossip and Jones (2010)
50 Trenowah, St Austell Cornwall Coaxial, field boundary Iron Age, Roman Johns (2008)
51 Croft Road, Spencers Wood, Reading Berkshire Field boundary Iron Age Taylor and Dawson (2015)
52 Charnham Lane, Hungerford, West Berkshire Berkshire linear ditch Neolithic Ford (2014)
53 Hitches Lane, Fleet Hampshire Field system Bronze Age, Roman Pine (2016)
54 North Bersted, Bognor Regis West Sussex Field system Iron Age, Roman Taylor et al. (2014)
55 Shrubsoles Hill, Sheppey Kent Field system Bronze Age Coles et al. (2003)
56 Lidsey Landfill, Woodgate West Sussex Enclosure , field system Iron Age, Roman Wallis and Ford (2014)
57 Colne Fen, Earith Cambridgeshire Coaxial, aggregated Bronze Age, Iron Age Evans et al. (2013)
58 Addenbrooke's Access Road, Site 3, Clay Farm, Trumpington Cambridgeshire Field system Bronze Age, Iron Age Timberlake (2007)
59 Stencoose Cornwall Aggregated Iron Age, Roman Jones (2001)
60 Trewellard, North L&’s End Pipeline Cornwall Field boundary Roman Lawson-Jones (2013)
61 Penhale Round Cornwall Field system Roman Nowakowski and Johns (2015)
62 Harlyn Bay A Cornwall Field boundary Bronze Age Jones and Quinnell (2014)
63 Harlyn Bay B Cornwall Field boundary Bronze Age Jones and Quinnell (2014)
64 Elliott Site, Fengate Cambridgeshire Coaxial, stock enclosure Bronze Age, Iron Age Evans et al. (2009)
65 Pegswood Moor Farm Northumberland Field system, stock enclosure Iron Age, Roman Proctor (2002) and Proctor (2009)
66 Newton Bewley, Hartlepool Durham Field system Early medieval, Roman Platell and Johns (2001)
67 Monkton Road, Minster in Thanet Kent Coaxial Bronze Age Martin et al. (2012)
68 Edgerley Drain Road, Fengate Cambridgeshire Coaxial Bronze Age Evans et al. (2009)
69 Barnsdale Bar Quarry, Norton South Yorkshire Coaxial Iron Age, Roman ASWYAS (2001)
70 Finningley Quarry Northern Extension South Yorkshire Aggregated Iron Age, Roman MAP (2009)
71 Vicarage Lane and Romford Road, London Borough of Newham Greater London Field boundary Early medieval Keith-Lucas et al. (2007) and Branch (2003)
72 Lafone Street, Southwark Greater London cultivation marks, field boundary Bronze Age Bates and Minkin (1999)
73 Redscar Wood pit alignment Northumberland Pit alignment Roman, Early medieval Passmore and Waddington (2009)
74 Shotton Village Northumberland Field boundary Bronze Age Hodgson et al. (2012)
75 Shotton North-East Northumberland stock enclosure Iron Age Hodgson et al. (2012)
76 Huntsman's Quarry, Kemerton Worcestershire Coaxial Bronze Age, Iron Age Jackson (2015)
77 Ormesby St Michael Norfolk Field system, enclosure Bronze Age, Iron Age Gilmour and Mortimer (2012) and Gilmour et al. (2014)
78 Clay Farm, Trumpington Cambridgeshire Coaxial Bronze Age, Iron Age Phillips and Mortimer (2012)
79 Boundary Lane Windfarm, Whittonstall Northumberland Field boundary Medieval, post-medieval ASDU (2014)
80 Newark Road sub-site, Fengate Cambridgeshire Coaxial Bronze Age, Iron Age Pryor (1980) and Pryor (2001)
81 Bridge Road, Rainham Greater London stock enclosure Bronze Age Meddens (1996) and Meddens and Beasley (1990)
82 Roughground Farm, Lechlade Gloucestershire Coaxial Iron Age, Roman Allen et al. (1993)
83 Padholme Road sub-site, Fengate Cambridgeshire Coaxial Bronze Age Pryor (1980) and Pryor (2001)
84 Lancaster University Wind Turbine Lancashire Field system Medieval Bradley (2013)
85 Heathrow Terminal 5 Greater London Coaxial, aggregated Bronze Age Healy et al. (2010)
86 Weir Bank Stud Farm, Bray Berkshire Field system Bronze Age Barnes et al. (1995)
87 Vince's Farm, Ardleigh Essex linear ditch, field system Bronze Age, Iron Age Brown (1999)
88 A15 North Borough Bypass, Etton Cambridgeshire Field system Neolithic, Bronze Age French and Pryor (2005)
89 Castle Hill, Feniton Devon Coaxial Bronze Age Fitzpatrick et al. (1999)
90 Wrotham Quarry, Trottiscliffe Kent Coaxial Iron Age Malim et al. (2013)
91 Dairy Lane, Nursling, Southampton Hampshire Field system Bronze Age, Iron Age Adam et al. (1997)
92 Slade Farm, Bicester Oxfordshire linear ditch Iron Age Ellis et al. (2000)
93 Bar Point, St Mary's Isles of Scilly Field system Iron Age Evans (1983) and Jordan et al. (1994)
94 Sewerby Cottage Farm, Bridlington Humberside Ridge and furrow Medieval, post-medieval Bayliss et al. (2009b)
95 Cranford Lane Greater London Coaxial Bronze Age, Iron Age Cotton and Elsden (in prep) and Historic England (in prep)
96 Simy Folds Durham Field system Early medieval, Bronze Age Coggins et al. (1983)
97 Phoenix Project, Awe Berkshire stock enclosure Iron Age, Roman Booth (2013)
98 Lynton Way, Sawston Cambridgeshire Enclosure Bronze Age Weston et al. (2007)
99 Warren Farm, Lockington Quarry Leicestershire Aggregated Iron Age, Roman Thomas (2013)
100 Wilby Way, Great Doddington Northamptonshire Aggregated Iron Age Thomas and Enright (2003)
101 Priors Hall, Kirby Lane, Corby Northamptonshire Field system Bronze Age Chapman and Jones (2012)
102 Whitelands Farm, Bicester Oxfordshire Field system Early medieval, Iron Age Martin (2011)
103 Alma Road, Peterborough Cambridgeshire Field system Iron Age, Roman Mudd and Upson-Smith (2006)
104 Hillfarrance Somerset Field system Bronze Age Gent and Reed (2007)
105 Tower's Fen, Thorney Cambridgeshire Coaxial Bronze Age Mudd and Pears (2008)
106 Old Rydon Lane, Exeter Devon Field system Bronze Age Pearce et al. (2011)
107 Dunch Hill Midden, Wessex LDP site 081A Wiltshire Field boundary Bronze Age, Iron Age Bradley et al. (1994)
108 Weather Hill Linear Ditch, Wessex LDP site 083 Wiltshire Linear earthwork Bronze Age Bradley et al. (1994)
109 The Devil's Ditch, Wessex LDP site 090 Wiltshire Linear earthwork Iron Age, Bronze Age Bradley et al. (1994)
110 Windmill Hill Linear Ditch, Wessex LDP site 091 Wiltshire Linear earthwork Iron Age Bradley et al. (1994)
111 Brigmerston Down Linear Ditch, Wessex LDP site 092 Wiltshire Linear earthwork Bronze Age Bradley et al. (1994)
112 Haxton Down Linear Ditch/Pit Alignment, Wessex LDP site 099 Wiltshire Linear earthwork, pit alignment Iron Age, Bronze Age Bradley et al. (1994)
113 Sidbury Double Linear Ditch, Wessex LDP sites 100 & 101 Wiltshire Linear earthwork Iron Age Bradley et al. (1994)
114 Hazel Road, Bognor Regis West Sussex Field system Iron Age Bedwin and Pitts 1978) and Jordan et al. (1994)
115 Needingworth Quarry, Over Cambridgeshire Field system Bronze Age Evans et al. (2016)
116 Plantation Camp, Ingram Northumberland Cultivation terrace Iron Age ASUD (1997)
117 Wether Hill cross-ridge dyke, Ingram Northumberland Linear earthwork Iron Age, Roman ASUD (1997)
118 GlaxoSmithKline U Building, Ware Hertfordshire Field boundary Medieval Kaye (2009)
119 Whitemoor Haye Quarry, Alrewas Staffordshire Pit alignment Iron Age Coates (1999) and Knight and Howard (2004)
120 Stanwick, Raunds Northamptonshire Field boundary Bronze Age Harding and Healy (2007)

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Johnston, R., May, R., McOmish, D. (2021). Understanding the Chronologies of England’s Field Systems. In: Arnoldussen, S., Johnston, R., Løvschal, M. (eds) Europe's Early Fieldscapes . Themes in Contemporary Archaeology. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-71652-3_13

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