Skip to main content

Weak Sustainability Trends in the Andean and Nordic Countries: A Historical Perspective

  • Chapter
  • First Online:
Natural Resources and Divergence

Part of the book series: Palgrave Studies in Economic History ((PEHS))

Abstract

This chapter traces the main sustainability trends of the five countries analyzed in this book. The starting point is to understand sustainability as main measure of development, diminishing the role of GDP or Income. In order to address these concerns, the chapter utilizes mainstream indicators such as natural resources intensity and energy consumption, and adds new comprehensive measures of development-namely Genuine Savings and natural capital as in Blum et al. (National wealth what is missing, why it matters. Oxford University Press, 2017). The first part of the chapter presents a brief debate on what means sustainability in historical perspective and how it is related with the divergent paths between Andean and Nordic countries. The second part has a quantitative account on natural resources (as share on GNI) and a comparison between the available long run estimations of GS for Chile and Sweden plus figures for Norway, Bolivia and Peru. This synopsis shows the main gap between both regions in their approaches to sustainability in the long run.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Chapter
USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
eBook
USD 139.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book
USD 179.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info
Hardcover Book
USD 179.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

Similar content being viewed by others

Notes

  1. 1.

    The report of the Intergovernmental Panel on climate Change (IPCC) gave several warnings on the difficulties to achieve the Paris Agreement regarding the 1.5 degrees goal (intergovernmental2018global).

  2. 2.

    The share of primary products in the export basket in 1900 was 99% in Bolivia, 98% in Chile, 100% in Peru, 86% in Norway and 59% in Sweden (Federico & Tena-Junguito, 2017).

  3. 3.

    The economic crisis provoked by the Pandemic in 2020 has not changed the minds of several policy makers, and GDP growth continues to be the main goal for Latin American experts. E.g. Klaus Schmidt-Hebbel, (former Chief Economist of the OECD) in the newspaper “El Mercurio” affirmed that Chile needs a 4% growth rate to “Achieve development” https://www.emol.com/noticias/Economia/2020/09/23/998735/Schmidt-Hebbel-pib-tendencial-paisdesarrollado.html. Accessed September 23, 2020.

  4. 4.

    “Resources for the Future is a nonprofit corporation for research and education in the development, conservation, and use of natural resources” barnett2013scarcity.

  5. 5.

    “Our main effort, therefore, is directed to a thorough examination of the conceptual and empirical foundations of the doctrine of increasing natural resource scarcity and its effects” (Dickson et al., 2017).

  6. 6.

    Both meetings were held in 1972. The main publication from the Club of Rome meeting in 1972 was re-edited in 2012. Limits to Growth, the 30 year update (Donella H. Meadows et al., 1972).

  7. 7.

    A detailed description of this rule in (Asheim et al., 2003).

  8. 8.

    http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/video/2013/04/18/natural-capital-accounting-in-action. In this video, a brief description of the project (Accessed February 1, 2019).

  9. 9.

    “One is that the methods currently used to value the capital stocks involved – produced capital, natural capital, human capital, or several of them – do not measure the actual values of these stocks correctly” lindmark2018weak.

  10. 10.

    See (Hanley et al., 2015b) for a comprehensive review.

  11. 11.

    In the case of the green new deal, the extraordinary weather vents of 2018 has meant a noticeable resurgence of this idea (Barbier, 2019).

  12. 12.

    The prices fall had a greater impact in 2014 for Bolivia.

  13. 13.

    Some of these studies are being pursued by the project “Genuine Savings as a measure of sustainable development. Towards a GDP replacement”. https://www.rj.se/en/anslag/2019/genuine-savings-as-a-measure-of-sustainable-development.-towards-a-gdp-replacement/.

References

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Cristián Ducoing .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2021 The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG

About this chapter

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this chapter

Ducoing, C. (2021). Weak Sustainability Trends in the Andean and Nordic Countries: A Historical Perspective. In: Ducoing, C., Peres-Cajías, J. (eds) Natural Resources and Divergence. Palgrave Studies in Economic History. Palgrave Macmillan, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-71044-6_9

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-71044-6_9

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Palgrave Macmillan, Cham

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-030-71043-9

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-030-71044-6

  • eBook Packages: Economics and FinanceEconomics and Finance (R0)

Publish with us

Policies and ethics