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University Technology Transfer and Innovation: The Need for Policy in Egypt

Part of the International Studies in Entrepreneurship book series (ISEN,volume 51)

Abstract

In Egypt, the Government has recognized the need for innovation and has introduced measures to encourage its universities to engage in technology transfer. However, policy measures have not been especially effective. The purpose of this chapter is to understand the factors impeding its adoption and make more effective policy recommendations. The study adopted a four-phase investigative strategy whereby each phase contributes to a greater understanding of the technology transfer effectiveness in Egypt.

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Notes

  1. 1.

    The Arab World includes 22 countries, 10 in Africa and 12 in Asia. It is sometimes referred to as the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. The Arab World includes 22 countries, 10 in Africa and 12 in Asia. It is sometimes referred to as the MENA region.

  2. 2.

    The American University in Cairo was founded in 1919. It is an international university offering 37 undergraduate degrees, 44 masters degrees and 2 doctoral degrees. It has some 6453 students and 453 fulltime staff. In the 2018 QS World University Ranking it was ranked 420th globally and 1st in Egypt. In 2013 it opened its Venture Lab, the first university-based incubator in Egypt.

  3. 3.

    These include the Academy of Scientific Research and Technology (Invention and Innovation Development Agency), Ministry of Industry and Foreign Trade Technology and Innovation Centers, National Research Centre Business and Investors Service Office, Technology Innovation and Entrepreneurship Centre, Technology Transfer Offices at Alexandria University, American University in Cairo, Assuit University, Cairo University and Helwan University and a virtual Incubator for Science Based Business.

  4. 4.

    As of 2018, 43 TICOS had been established by ASRT since 2013/14 at a cost of 30.1 million Egyptian pounds. ($1.74 m).

  5. 5.

    Tempus was, from 2007–2013, the European Union’s program supporting the modernization of higher education in the EU’s surrounding area including the Mediterranean region.

  6. 6.

    Such as the U.K.’s Knowledge Transfer Partnerships (ktp.innovateuk.org).

  7. 7.

    The U.S. Business-Higher Education Forum (http://bhef.com) is an example of such an initiative as is AURIL (Association for University Research and Industry Links) in the U.K. (auril.org.uk).

  8. 8.

    The EU is working to develop closer scientific ties between Egypt and the European Research Area particularly through increased Egyptian participation in Horizon 2020, the on-going 80 billion Euro EU Framework Program for Research and Technological Development.

  9. 9.

    The U.K.’s Newton-Mosharafa Fund is a 20-million-pound sterling fund over 5 years intended to bring together the British and Egyptian scientific research and innovation sectors to find solutions to the challenges facing Egypt in economic development and social welfare.

  10. 10.

    A 14,000 square meter Science and Innovation Park operated in co-operation with China’s Tus-Holdings Co Ltd, the arm of Tsinghua University with responsibility for the University’s Science Park (TusPark).

  11. 11.

    In September 2019 a branch of Coventry University, the winner of the UK’s Entrepreneurial University of the Year Award (2011) and The Duke of York Award for University Entrepreneurship (2017), was opened in Elsewedy’s Knowledge Hub University, located on a 50-acre site in the new administrative capital.

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Acknowledgments

The authors would like to acknowledge the funding that Dr. El Hadidi received for her research from the Emerald/EFMD MENA Management Research Fund Award, together with all those who participated in the project. Without them the research would not have been possible.

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Kirby, D.A., El Hadidi, H. (2021). University Technology Transfer and Innovation: The Need for Policy in Egypt. In: Guerrero, M., Urbano, D. (eds) Technology Transfer and Entrepreneurial Innovations. International Studies in Entrepreneurship, vol 51. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-70022-5_10

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