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NH3-CO2 Brine System for Refrigeration at Cold Storages and Seafood Processing Plants in India

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Energy Efficiency in Motor Systems

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Abstract

The Government of India has set targets to reduce 85% of the use of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) by 2047 (over the 2024–2026 average levels). Based on onsite visits to randomly selected seafood processing plants and cold storages in Andhra Pradesh, India, the authors found that more than 70% of them use reciprocating compressors based on HFC (R404a) refrigerant and are not aware that HFC has to be phased out.

This chapter is addressed to seafood processing plants and cold storage owners in India who are currently using HFC-based refrigeration systems. It proposes to consider shifting to use the NH3-CO2 brine system by highlighting its safety, energy efficiency, and cost-saving aspects based on a feasibility study conducted at cold storage located in Andhra Pradesh, India.

The feasibility study revealed that the proposed NH3-CO2 brine system could give better performance than R404a-based refrigeration system at all loads. For instance, at maximum loading of 201.6 kW, the energy savings at 60%, 80%, and 100% loads are 24.6%, 30.24%, and 29.08%, respectively. Consequently, the CO2 emission reduction ranges from 119 ~ 241 tCO2/year and the cost-saving ranges from 9 Million ~18 Million Rs/year, which makes the payback period within 4 years, assuming the localization of its critical components in India.

Besides, the chapter introduces a comprehensive framework of partnership that could be considered to adopt the proposed NH3-CO2 secondary system widely in India.

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Notes

  1. 1.

    http://mpeda.gov.in/MPEDA/#

  2. 2.

    http://www.refrigerantsnaturally.com/natural-refrigerants/

  3. 3.

    http://e-mpeda.nic.in/registration/Rpt_Region_Wise_Storages_With_Capacity.aspx

  4. 4.

    Activities in Gujarat State, in particular, are supported also by Hyogo Prefectural Government, Japan through the activities of the IGES Kansai Research Centre as they have signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) with the State Government of Gujarat.

References

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  2. MOEF&CC. 2018. MOEF&CC home page available at http://www.ozonecell.com/viewsection.jsp?lang=0&id=0,166,399. Last accessed 23 Apr 2019.

  3. MSPI (Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of India). 2018. Energy Statistics, 25th issue, MSPI Central Statistic Office, New Delhi. Available at http://www.indiaenvironmentportal.org.in/files/file/Energy_Statistics_2018.pd. Last accessed on 23 Apr 2019.

  4. MPEDA (Marine Product Export Developing Agency). 2019. Available at http://mpeda.gov.in/MPEDA/#. Last accessed 12 Apr 2019.

  5. Article available at https://www.financialexpress.com/market/indias-seafood-exports-up-13-7-in-april-january/1155153/. Last accessed 02 Aug 2019.

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  8. Asano Hideyo and Mugabe Nelson. 2013. Actual energy conservations by using the NH3-CO2 refrigeration system. Proceeding for the third ICSERA2013. ICRERA2013-3-C-2. Available at https://mayekawa.com.au/494/wp-content/uploads/2013/12/Actual-Energy-Conservations-by-using-NH3-CO2.pdf. Last accessed 23 Apr 2019.

  9. R. Peterson. Six Reasons to Consider a CO2/NH3 Cascade Refrigeration System. Article available at http://stellarfoodforthought.net/six-reasons-to-consider-a-co2nh3-cascade-refrigeration-system/?doing_wp_cron=1564728381.0453319549560546875000. Last accessed 02 Aug 2019, 2014.

  10. D. Yoshimoto, Mayekawa develops new NH3/CO2 system for China market. Article available at http://r744.com/articles/8882/mayekawa_develops_new_nh3_co2_system_for_china. Last accessed 02 Aug 2019, 2019.

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Acknowledgments

The content of this chapter, the conclusions, and the recommendations mentioned in it should be understood to be those of the authors and not attributed to IGES or TERI. Therefore, the authors should be responsible for the accuracy and relevance of the content.

Many thanks go to colleagues and supervisors at IGES and TERI, who contributed in it through suggestions and comments, namely, to Prof. Yutaka Suzuki, Toshizo MAEDA, Mika Tachibana and Aditi Khodke (from IGES), and Girish Sethi (from TERI). Special thanks go to Hiroyuki Egashira, Sales Department, Asian Regional Headquarters, Mayekawa MFG. Co. Ltd. for his valuable technical inputs.

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Correspondence to Abdessalem Rabhi .

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Appendix: Region-Wise Processing Plants and Storage Premises (as on 10-04-2019)

Appendix: Region-Wise Processing Plants and Storage Premises (as on 10-04-2019)

No..

Centre

Processing plants

Cold storage

Chilled storage

Dry fish storage

Other storage

Total

No

Capacity (MT)

No

Capacity (MT)

No

Capacity (MT)

No

Capacity (MT)

No

Capacity (MT)

Capacity (MT)

1

RO Kochi (Kerala)

106

3834.02

131

65,376.40

1

861.00

3

22.70

8

2612.90

68,873.00

2

SRO Quilon (Kerala)

16

579.20

26

8795.50

0

0.00

0

0.00

0

0.00

8795.50

3

RO Vizag (Andhra Pradesh)

14

646.90

25

13,244.00

1

50.00

2

3030.00

0

0.00

16,324.00

4

SRO Bhimavaram (Andhra Pradesh)

43

2222.27

45

20,834.00

2

1786.00

10

871.00

0

0.00

23,491.00

5

RO Chennai, (Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu)

42

2681.94

46

41,010.00

1

804.00

7

1268.00

2

1246.00

44,328.00

6

SRO Tuticorin (Tamil Nadu)

36

978.10

37

17,950.20

7

726.00

5

1922.00

6

752.00

21,350.20

7

SRO Goa

16

1079.26

16

7386.50

0

0.00

0

0.00

2

1400.00

8786.50

8

SRO Mangalore (Karnataka)

44

4049.66

27

13,045.70

0

0.00

4

5050.00

18

10,289.00

28,384.70

9

SRD Ratnagiri Maharashtra

12

1454.90

8

7876.00

1

706.00

4

5810.00

4

5810.00

20,202.00

10

RO Mumbai, (Maharashtra and Gujarat)

47

3416.30

52

39,157.10

1

10.00

3

460.00

0

0.00

39,627.10

11

RO Veraval, Gujarat

88

4467.06

93

45,269.00

0

0.00

13

1196.00

0

0.00

46,465.00

12

SRO Porbandar, Gujarat

27

1496.68

24

14,033.80

4

1386.80

4

484.00

1

5.00

15,909.60

13

SRO BBSR (Odisha)

32

1128.80

31

16,864.00

17

10,568.00

0

0.00

1

2000.00

29,432.00

14

RO Kolkata (West Bengal)

44

1521.06

51

14,761.93

0

0.00

15

1367.58

1

60.00

16,189.51

 

Total

567

29,556.15

612

325,604.13

35

16,897.80

70

21,481.28

43

24,174.90

388,158.11

  1. Source: Authors’ compilation, based on data available at <http://mpeda.gov.in/MPEDA/#>, last accessed 23 Apr. 2019

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Rabhi, A., Pradhan, R.S. (2021). NH3-CO2 Brine System for Refrigeration at Cold Storages and Seafood Processing Plants in India. In: Bertoldi, P. (eds) Energy Efficiency in Motor Systems. Springer Proceedings in Energy. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-69799-0_26

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