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Can a Differential Attack Work for an Arbitrarily Large Number of Rounds?

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Information Security and Cryptology – ICISC 2020 (ICISC 2020)

Abstract

Differential cryptanalysis is one of the oldest attacks on block ciphers. Can anything new be discovered on this topic? A related question is that of backdoors and hidden properties. There is substantial amount of research on how Boolean functions affect the security of ciphers, and comparatively, little research, on how block cipher wiring can be very special or abnormal. In this article we show a strong type of anomaly: where the complexity of a differential attack does not grow exponentially as the number of rounds increases. It will grow initially, and later will be lower bounded by a constant. At the end of the day the vulnerability is an ordinary single differential attack on the full state. It occurs due to the existence of a hidden polynomial invariant. We conjecture that this type of anomaly is not easily detectable if the attacker has limited resources.

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Notes

  1. 1.

    This happens with probability at least \(2^{-8}\) for any Boolean function, see Appendix A.

  2. 2.

    This function is used twice as W and as Y for 2 disjoints sets of 6 inputs.

  3. 3.

    For example if one input A is b the other must be e.

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Appendices

Appendix A On Boolean Function Vulnerability

It is possible to see that a Boolean function chosen at random will satisfy our exact property \(Z({a+d})({b+e})({c+f})=0\) with probability \(2^{-8}\), cf. Section 5 in [13] and/or Appendix C in [16]. The result is the same as long as we have three linear factors which are linearly independent. In general, Boolean functions which are constant over large affine spaces are not an exception, it is systematic. 100% of Boolean functions in 6 variables are 3-normal and can be annihilated by a product of 3 affine polynomials. cf. Section 5 in [19] and [35]. We use another method to obtain the same result. It is sufficient to check all the 150357 classes of Boolean functions based on a database of Boolean functions of [6] based on earlier work by Maiorana [45].

Moreover, our experience shows that typically (when the Boolean function is balanced) both Z or \(Z+1\) will admit numerous solutions of this type, some of which could work with an attack such as described in this paper.

Table 3. Classes of Boolean Functions with 6 Variables w.r.t. k-normality
Table 4. Classes of Boolean Functions with 6 Variables w.r.t. k-weak-normality

No Boolean function whatsoever should be assumed to be secure against the attacks such as described in this paper. For example with the original Boolean function used in T-310 we have \(Zc(b+d)f=0\) and \(Z(a+b)c(1+e)=0\) and many other relations of this type. From here it is possible to construct a product invariant attack on demand, using exactly one single relation like this, see [17]. In other words, just one such annihilation equation, which was not chosen by the attacker, can lead to an attack on T-310 working for any number of rounds. This is already for an invariant attack at order 1. Properties which involve two encryptions like in our Theorem 5.1.1 and the existence of multiple ways to annihilate polynomials further increase the freedom for the attacker.

Appendix B The Key Recovery Question

There exists multiple ways in which non-linear invariant attacks can be exploited in cryptanalysis in order to decrypt actual encrypted communications. This question was already studied in Section 9 in [16] and Section 6 in [12] and Section 6 in [13] and there are several distinct ways to approach this problem. Some invariants (not all) introduce pervasive biases made of higher order correlation properties which do not degrade as the number of rounds increases. Other invariants do directly involve some key bits. In some sense we expect that most invariants are NOT suitable for actual attacks, in the sense that other invariants are more suitable for various technical reasons.

1.1 Appendix B.1 New Ways to Exploit Polynomial Invariants

In this paper we discover a possibility to convert a non-linear invariant attack into a differential attack. This opens new possibilities for key recovery in 3 steps as follows. First, we guess some key bits, then, determine some internal values, finally, confirm through a statistical distinguisher. It is important to note that the question of which key bits should be guessed and which ones are determined, is a major practical combinatorial optimization problem in cryptanalysis. It leads to interesting security “metric” notions such as SAT immunity and UNSAT immunity, cf. [11].

1.2 Appendix B.2 Multiple Simultaneous Differentials and Cube Attacks

A more advanced method to enable key recovery would be to explore the rich world of cube attacks which is a form of a higher order differential attack. This type of discrete differential properties is much older than it is usually assumed, it was studied since at least 1976, cf. [24], and there are many flavours of cube attacks [52, 53]. It is quite rare that several differential properties can work simultaneously and that the overall combined probability remains very high. One example of this is with MiFare classic in [8, 37], and it happens again here. Our attack has 8 differences which form a linear space and could be used simultaneously in a variety of combined differential, invariant or/and cube attacks. An interesting question is then how quickly the complexity of such attacks increases as the number of rounds grows. Here we need to look at a new type of conditional cube attack: when a certain product of polynomials is at 1. We need to focus on cube properties which involve key bits, which cannot be taken for granted in general, cf. Section 4.1. in [3]. The space of possible attacks is enormous and we leave this for future research.

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Courtois, N.T., Quisquater, JJ. (2021). Can a Differential Attack Work for an Arbitrarily Large Number of Rounds?. In: Hong, D. (eds) Information Security and Cryptology – ICISC 2020. ICISC 2020. Lecture Notes in Computer Science(), vol 12593. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-68890-5_9

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