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Gerald Ford and the Rockefeller Commission

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Abstract

This chapter scrutinises the failure of the Ford administration to establish its proposed reforms of intelligence oversight in response to the New York Times’ article written by Seymour Hersh. It identifies the differing roles of the Rockefeller Commission and the Intelligence Coordinating Group (ICG) in the Ford strategy during the Year of Intelligence. This chapter also examines which sources of public opinion Ford and his advisers relied on during the crisis and how that contributed to the administration’s inability to convince the American public to support its reforms of intelligence oversight.

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Notes

  1. 1.

    Seymour Hersh, ‘Huge CIA Operation Reported in US Against Antiwar Forces, Other Dissidents in Nixon Years’, New York Times, 22 December 1974.

  2. 2.

    Ibid.

  3. 3.

    United States’ Senate Resolution 21, ‘To establish a select committee of the Senate to conduct an investigation and study of governmental operations with respect to intelligence activities’, 94th Congress, 27 January 1975.

  4. 4.

    Memorandum, Howard J Osborn to Executive Secretary, CIA Management Committee, ‘Family Jewels’, 16 May 1973, (online Central Intelligence Agency Library https://www.cia.gov/library/readingroom/collection/family-jewels). For more on this see John Prados, The Family Jewels: The CIA, Secrecy, and Presidential Power, (Austin, 2016); ‘Reflections of DCI Colby and Helms on the CIA’s “Time of Troubles”’, Studies in Intelligence, Vol. 51, No. 3 (2007).

  5. 5.

    Gates, From the Shadows, 60.

  6. 6.

    John Jay, ‘Federalist No.64’, in Lawrence Goldman (ed.), The Federalist Papers, (Oxford, 2008), 315–320.

  7. 7.

    Rhodri Jeffreys-Jones, The CIA and American Democracy, (New Haven, 1998), 9.

  8. 8.

    Memorandum of Conversation, 9.18 am – 10.18 am 7 January, 1975, (Box 8, Memoranda of Conversations – Ford Administration, National Security Adviser Memoranda of Conversation, 1973–1977, GRFPL).

  9. 9.

    Olmsted, Challenging the Secret Government, 46–7.

  10. 10.

    Data from http://www.gallup.com/poll/28456/congress-approval-rating-matches-historical-low.aspx

  11. 11.

    ‘A Bicentennial Commission on American Government’, August 26 1975, (Box 4, “Bicentennial (2)”, James M. Cannon Files, GRFPL).

  12. 12.

    Thomas M DeFrank, Write It When I’m Gone: Remarkable Off-The-Record Conversations with Gerald R. Ford (New York, 2007), 101.

  13. 13.

    Ford, A Time to Heal: the autobiography of Gerald R. Ford (New York, 1979), 229.

  14. 14.

    Although Hersh refrained from leading the story, it was publicly revealed by the Los Angeles Times in February 1974. For more on Project Azorian see Norman Polmar and Michael White, Project Azorian: The CIA and the Raising of the K-129, (Annapolis, 2010); David Sharp, The CIA’s Greatest Covert Operation: Inside the Daring Mission to Recover a Nuclear-Armed Soviet Sub, (Lawrence, 2012); M. Todd Bennett, ‘Détente in deep water: the CIA mission to salvage a sunken Soviet submarine and US-USSR relations, 1968–1975’, Intelligence and National Security, 33 (2018), 196–210.

  15. 15.

    Colby and Forbath, Honourable Men, 390–391.

  16. 16.

    George Lardner Jr., ‘Interview with Colby June 17, 1983’, (George Lardner Jr. Papers, Box 18, Colby, William E. Articles, interviews, and notes, 1975–1983 Folder, Library of Congress).

  17. 17.

    George Lardner Jr., ‘Interview with James Angleton June 24, 1983’, (George Lardner Jr. Papers, Box 14, Angleton, James, 1977–1981 Folder, Library of Congress).

  18. 18.

    George Lardner Jr., ‘Interview with Seymour Hersh, March 14, 1976’, (George Lardner Jr. Papers, Box 18, Colby, William E. Articles, interviews, and notes, 1975–1983 Folder, Library of Congress).

  19. 19.

    Colby and Forbath, Honourable Men, 393.

  20. 20.

    John Herbers, ‘Ford Forbids C.I.A. to Act Illegally in Domestic Field’, New York Times, 23 December, 1974.

  21. 21.

    Memorandum of Conversation, 5.30 pm 3 January, 1975, (Box 8, Memoranda of Conversations – Ford Administration, National Security Adviser Memoranda of Conversation, 1973–1977, GRFPL).

  22. 22.

    Colby and Forbath, Honourable Men, 394–5.

  23. 23.

    Henry Kissinger, Years of Renewal, (London, 1999) 312–3.

  24. 24.

    Colby and Forbath, Honourable Men, 398.

  25. 25.

    Seymour Hersh, ‘Colby Said to Confirm CIA Role in US’, New York Times, 1 January, 1975.

  26. 26.

    Seymour Hersh, ‘President Tells Colby to Speed Report on CIA’, New York Times, 24 December, 1974.

  27. 27.

    Laurence Silberman, Memorandum for the President, 3 January 1975, (Box 7, Intelligence—President’s Meeting with Richard Helms folder, Richard B. Cheney Files, GRFPL).

  28. 28.

    Colby and Forbath, Honourable Men, 396.

  29. 29.

    Memorandum of Conversation: Allegations of CIA Domestic Activities 5.30 pm, 3 January 1975.

  30. 30.

    Ford, A Time to Heal, 229–230.

  31. 31.

    Memorandum of Conversation: Allegations of CIA Domestic Activities 5.30 pm, 3 January 1975.

  32. 32.

    Richard Cheney, ‘Intelligence Investigations’, Handwritten Note, Undated, (Box 6, Intelligence—General folder, Richard B. Cheney Files, GRFPL).

  33. 33.

    Richard Cheney, Untitled Handwritten Note, Undated, (Box 6, Intelligence—General folder, Richard B. Cheney Files, GRFPL).

  34. 34.

    Memorandum, Henry Kissinger to Donald Rumsfeld, ‘Public Handling of New York Times Allegations of CIA Domestic Activities’, 23 December 1974, (Box 6, Intelligence—General folder, Richard B. Cheney Files, GRFPL).

  35. 35.

    Memorandum of Conversation, 11.am—12.18 pm, 3 January 1975, (Box 8, Memoranda of Conversations – Ford Administration, National Security Adviser Memoranda of Conversation, 1973–1977, GRFPL).

  36. 36.

    Memorandum of Conversation: Allegations of CIA Domestic Activities, 12.37 pm—1.00 pm, 4 January 1975, (Box 8, Memoranda of Conversations – Ford Administration, National Security Adviser Memoranda of Conversation, 1973–1977, GRFPL).

  37. 37.

    Memorandum of Conversation, 11.am—12.18 pm, 3 January 1975.

  38. 38.

    Transcript of interview with Walter Cronkite, 21 April 1975, found in Dept of State Bulletin, 12 May 1975, Vol. LXXII, No 1872.

  39. 39.

    Memorandum of Conversation, 9.40 am − 12.20 am 4 January 1975, (Box 8, Memoranda of Conversations – Ford Administration, National Security Adviser Memoranda of Conversation, 1973–1977, GRFPL).

  40. 40.

    Randall B. Woods, Shadow Warrior: William Egan Colby and the CIA (New York, 2013), 362.

  41. 41.

    Colby and Forbath, Honourable Men, 376.

  42. 42.

    Colby and Forbath, Honourable Men, 392.

  43. 43.

    Telecon, William Colby and Henry Kissinger, Memorandum of Telephone Conversation. 24 December 1974, (Digital National Security Archive Collection: Kissinger Telephone Conversations, 1969–1977 [Hereafter referred to as DNSA Kissinger Telecons]).

  44. 44.

    Kissinger, Years of Renewal, 320–5.

  45. 45.

    Memorandum of Conversation 9.40 am—12.20 pm, 4 January 1975.

  46. 46.

    Gerald R. Ford: ‘Executive Order 11828 – Establishing a Commission on CIA Activities Within the United States,’ 4 January 1975.

  47. 47.

    Memorandum of Conversation, 4 January 1975, 12.37 pm—1 pm.

  48. 48.

    Office of the White House Press Secretary, ‘Statement by the President’, 4 January 1975, (Box 117, Central Intelligence Agency 2 Folder, Ron Nessen Papers, GRFPL).

  49. 49.

    Office of the White House Press Secretary, ‘Statement by the President’, 4 January 1975.

  50. 50.

    Jack Marsh, Memorandum for the President, 24 December 1974, (Box 7, Intelligence—Rockefeller Commission—General Folder, Richard B. Cheney Files, GRFPL).

  51. 51.

    Memorandum, 26 December 1974, (Box 7, Intelligence—Rockefeller Commission—General Folder, Richard B. Cheney Files, GRFPL).

  52. 52.

    Gerald R. Ford: ‘Remarks on Taking the Oath of Office,’ 9 August 1974. Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, The American Presidency Project. http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=4409

  53. 53.

    Ron Nessen Interviewed by Richard Norton Smith, Oral History Interview, 28 January 2009, Gerald R. Ford Oral History Project.

  54. 54.

    Kissinger, Years of Renewal, 324.

  55. 55.

    Laurence Silberman, Memorandum for the President, 3 January 1975, (Box 7, Intelligence—President’s Meeting With Richard Helms, Richard B. Cheney Files, GRFPL).

  56. 56.

    Memorandum of Conversation, ‘Allegations of CIA Domestic Activities’, 5.25 pm—7.05 pm 4 January 1975, (Box 8, Memoranda of Conversations – Ford Administration, National Security Adviser Memoranda of Conversation, 1973–1977, GRFPL).

  57. 57.

    Memorandum, 26 December 1974.

  58. 58.

    Memorandum of Conversation, ‘Allegations of CIA Domestic Activities’, 5.25 pm—7.05 pm 4 January 1975.

  59. 59.

    Memorandum of Conversation, ‘Allegations of CIA Domestic Activities’, 12.37 pm—1.00 pm, 4 January 1975.

  60. 60.

    Memorandum of Conversation, ‘Allegations of CIA Domestic Activities’, 5.25 pm—7.05 pm 4 January 1975.

  61. 61.

    Telecon, Dean Rusk and Henry Kissinger, Memorandum of Telephone Conversation. 6 January 1974, (DNSA Kissinger Telecons).

  62. 62.

    Memorandum of Conversation, 11.am—12.18 pm, 3 January 1975.

  63. 63.

    Memorandum of Conversation 9.40 am—12.20 pm, 4 January 1975.

  64. 64.

    Richard Cheney, Handwritten Note, 30 December 1974, (Box 7, Intelligence—Rockefeller Commission—General, Richard Cheney Files, GRFPL).

  65. 65.

    Seymour Hersh, ‘CIA Told to Curb Activities Abroad’, New York Times, 7 January 1975.

  66. 66.

    Seymour Hersh, ‘Ford Names Rockefeller to Head Inquiry into CIA’, New York Times, 6 January 1975.

  67. 67.

    Memorandum of Conversation, ‘Allegations of CIA Domestic Activities’, 5.25 pm—7.05 pm 4 January 1975.

  68. 68.

    Carroll Kirkpatrick, ‘White House Defends CIA Probe Panel’, Washington Post, 6 January 1975.

  69. 69.

    Harold M. Schmeck Jr., ‘Leaders in Congress Say Own Hearings Will Go On’, New York Times, 6 January 1975; Seymour Hersh, ‘CIA Told to Curb Activities Abroad’, New York Times, 7 January 1975.

  70. 70.

    Louis Harris, ‘CIA Commission: Another Cover-Up?’, 13 February 1975, (Box 48, President Ford Committee—Research Office Gallup, GRFPL).

  71. 71.

    George C Wilson, ‘Vice President to Head Study of CIA Spying’, Washington Post, 6 January 1975.

  72. 72.

    Joseph Kraft, ‘A Sad Commission’, Washington Post, 7 January 1975.

  73. 73.

    Anthony Ripley, ‘Views and Background of Ford Commission Investigating the CIA’, New York Times, 14 January 1975.

  74. 74.

    Seymour Hersh, ‘Ford Names Rockefeller to Head Inquiry into CIA’, New York Times, 6 January 1975.

  75. 75.

    Nick Himmersch, ‘Rockefeller Wrong Man to Investigate CIA’, Los Angeles Times, 12 January 1975.

  76. 76.

    Tom Wicker, ‘A Blue Ribbon Goat’, New York Times, 7 January 1975.

  77. 77.

    Gerald R. Ford: “Statement Announcing Establishment of a Commission on CIA Activities Within the United States,” January 4, 1975. Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, The American Presidency Project. http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=4838

  78. 78.

    ‘Investigating the CIA’, New York Times, 7 January 1975.

  79. 79.

    Carroll Kirkpatrick, ‘White House Defends CIA Probe Panel’, Washington Post, 6 January 1975.

  80. 80.

    Daniel Schorr, Clearing the Air (Boston, 1977), 151.

  81. 81.

    Memorandum of Conversation: Allegations of CIA Domestic Activities 5.25 pm – 7.05 pm, 4 January 1975.

  82. 82.

    Colby and Forbath, Honourable Men, 400.

  83. 83.

    David Belin to Nelson Rockefeller, 10 January 1975, (Box 126, Buchen, Philip (1) Folder, Ron Nessen Papers, GRFPL).

  84. 84.

    David Belin to Richard Cheney, 6 May 1975, (Box 23, Justice—General (4) folder, Philip Buchen Files, GRFPL).

  85. 85.

    Daniel Schorr, Clearing the Air (Boston, Mass., 1977) 143–146.

  86. 86.

    Tom Wicker, ‘Big Brother At Hand’, New York Times, 2 March 1975.

  87. 87.

    ‘Colby Oral Fill-In to Ford on Assassination Reported’, New York Times, 5 March 1975.

  88. 88.

    Memorandum of Conversation, 2.00 pm 5 June 1975, (Box 12, Memoranda of Conversations – Ford Administration, National Security Adviser Memoranda of Conversation, 1973–1977, GRFPL).

  89. 89.

    Rockefeller Report, 10.

  90. 90.

    Rhodri Jeffreys-Jones, The FBI (New Haven, 2007), 173.

  91. 91.

    Rockefeller Report, 132.

  92. 92.

    Rockefeller Report, 142–144. Although the other ‘agency of the government’ is not named, it is likely to be the National Security Agency and its Project Minaret as discovered by the Church Committee.

  93. 93.

    Richard Helms, CIA Memo, 5 December 1972, found in the Rockefeller Report, 147.

  94. 94.

    Rockefeller Report, 149.

  95. 95.

    Rockefeller Report, 25.

  96. 96.

    Rockefeller Report, 111.

  97. 97.

    Rockefeller Report, 115.

  98. 98.

    Olmsted, Challenging the Secret Government, 84.

  99. 99.

    Rockefeller Report, 227.

  100. 100.

    Seymour Hersh, ‘Family Plans to Sue C.I.A. Over Suicide in Drug Test’, New York Times, 10 July 1975.

  101. 101.

    Office of the White House Press Secretary, ‘Statement by the Press Secretary’, 21 July 1975, (Box 117, Central Intelligence Agency (2) folder, Ron Nessen Papers, GRFPL).

  102. 102.

    Rockefeller Report, 185.

  103. 103.

    Rockefeller Report, 12.

  104. 104.

    Rockefeller Report, 18.

  105. 105.

    Peter Clapper to David Belin, Public Affairs Consideration in Deleting Assassinations Findings, 29 May 1975, (Box 23, C:12 Peter Clapper Folder, David W. Belin Papers, GRFPL).

  106. 106.

    Peter Clapper to David Belin, Public Affairs Consideration in Report, 2 May 1975, (Box 23, C:12 Peter Clapper Folder, David W. Belin Papers, GRFPL).

  107. 107.

    Frank Church, CBS Morning News, 5 June 1975, reported in Fred Barnes & Orr Kelly, ‘Ford Gets Report on CIA”, Washington Star, 6 June 1975.

  108. 108.

    Colby and Forbath, Honourable Men, 399.

  109. 109.

    Gerald R. Ford, ‘The President’s News Conference’, 9 June 1975. Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, The American Presidency Project. http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=4979

  110. 110.

    Ford, A Time to Heal, 265.

  111. 111.

    Colby and Forbath, Honourable Men, 376.

  112. 112.

    Austin Scott, ‘Report on CIA Called A Rush Job’, Washington Post, 20 July 1975.

  113. 113.

    “Operation Chaos”, New York Times, 11 June 1975.

  114. 114.

    Tom Wicker, ‘The Rocky Report: Better Than Expected’, New York Times, 13 June 1975.

  115. 115.

    Olmsted, Challenging the Secret Government, 84.

  116. 116.

    James R. Dickenson, ‘CIA Panel Treads Fine Line Between Revelation and Sympathy’, Washington Star, 11 June 1975.

  117. 117.

    Garry Will, ‘Abolish the CIA: It’s The Only Cleansing’, Washington Star, 13 June 1975.

  118. 118.

    “A Call To Adjustments”, New York Times, 15 June 1975.

  119. 119.

    Joseph Kraft, ‘Our Intelligence Apparatus,’ Washington Post, 10 June 1965; ‘The Rockefeller Report and the CIA’, Washington Post, 11 June 1975.

  120. 120.

    Congressional Record. 1975. 94th Cong., 1st sess., vol. 121, 18282.

  121. 121.

    Congressional Record. 1975. 94th Cong., 1st sess., vol. 121, 18523.

  122. 122.

    Congressional Record. 1975. 94th Cong., 1st sess., vol. 121, 19128.

  123. 123.

    Congressional Record. 1975. 94th Cong., 1st sess., vol. 121, 19095.

  124. 124.

    Memorandum of Conversation, ‘Allegations of CIA Domestic Activities’, 5.25 pm—7.05 pm 4 January 1975.

  125. 125.

    Joseph Kraft, ‘Our Intelligence Apparatus’, Washington Post, 10 June 1965.

  126. 126.

    Henry Kissinger, Philip Buchen, James T Lynn, ‘Implementation of the Recommendations of the Commission on CIA Activities Within the United States,’ August 1975, (Box 7, Intelligence—Rockefeller Commission—Implementation of Recommendations Folder, Richard B. Cheney Files, GRFPL).

  127. 127.

    Les Janka to General Scowcroft, Public Affairs Handling of Rockefeller Commission Report on CIA, 27 May 1975, (Box 1, Outside the System Chronological File 5/27/75 Folder, NSA Advisor Outside the System Chronological File, GRFPL).

  128. 128.

    Henry Kissinger, Philip Buchen, James T Lynn, ‘Implementation of the Recommendations of the Commission on CIA Activities Within the United States,’ August 1975.

  129. 129.

    William Colby to President Gerald R. Ford, 8 January 1976, (Box 6, Intelligence – Meeting to Review Decision Book folder, Richard B. Cheney Files, GRFPL).

  130. 130.

    Henry Kissinger, Philip Buchen, James T Lynn, ‘Implementation of the Recommendations of the Commission on CIA Activities Within the United States,’ August 1975.

  131. 131.

    Memorandum for the President, ‘The Intelligence Community’, 18 September 1975, (Box 6, Intelligence—Options Paper Folder, Richard B. Cheney Files, GRFPL).

  132. 132.

    Memorandum for the President, ‘The Intelligence Community’, 18 September 1975.

  133. 133.

    Memorandum for the President, ‘The Intelligence Community’, 18 September 1975.

  134. 134.

    George Gallup, ‘Gallup Poll Surveys’, 21 October 1975, (Box 2, Foster Chanock Files, GRFPL).

  135. 135.

    Brent Scowcroft to the President, ‘Recommendation of Admiral Anderson Concerning the White House Role in the Intelligence Investigations’, 14 February 1975, (Box 4, Robert C. McFarlane Files, GRFPL).

  136. 136.

    Henry A. Kissinger to the President, Meeting with the Secretary of Defence, 28 March 1975, (Box 4, Robert C. McFarlane Files, GRFPL).

  137. 137.

    Richard Cheney, ‘Investigation of the Intelligence Community’ Handwritten Note, Undated, (Box 6, Intelligence –Congressional Investigations (1) Folder, Richard Cheney Files, GRFPL).

  138. 138.

    Gerald R. Ford, Proclamation 4364—Law Day, U.S.A., 9 April 1975.

  139. 139.

    Gerald R. Ford, Address at the Yale University Law School Sesquicentennial Convocation Dinner, 25 April 1975.

  140. 140.

    Editorial from Cleveland Plain Dealer, 27 April 1975 quoted in ‘Crime: Recent Editorials’, (Box 23, Justice—General (4) folder, Philip Buchen Files, GRFPL).

  141. 141.

    Mike Duval to Jack March, ‘Draft Plan for Intelligence Coordinating Group’ Memo, 23 October 1975, (Box 57, Intelligence Coordinating Group—Draft Plan Folder, James E Connor Files, GRFPL).

  142. 142.

    Gerald R. Ford, White House Memo, 19 September 1975, (Box 57, Intelligence Coordinating Group – General Folder, James E. Connor Files, GRFPL).

  143. 143.

    ‘Detailed Agenda’, Undated, (Box 57, Intelligence Coordinating Group—Meeting with President 10/13/75 Folder, James E Connor Files, GRFPL).

  144. 144.

    Meeting With the President, 13 October 1975, (Box 57, Intelligence Coordinating Group—Meeting with President 10/13/75 Folder, James E Connor Files, GRFPL).

  145. 145.

    Jack Marsh, ‘Draft Executive Order Imposing Restrictions on Intelligence Activities’, 29 October 1975 (Box 13, Intelligence—General folder, Loen and Leppert Files, GRFPL).

  146. 146.

    Rockefeller Report, 12.

  147. 147.

    Executive Order 11905, 18 February 1976, Sec 4, (b), (4).

  148. 148.

    Executive Order 11905, 18 February 1976, Sec 6, (a), (1).

  149. 149.

    Office of the White House Press Secretary, ‘Statement by Gerald R. Ford to the Congress of the United States’, 17 February 1976, (Box 7, Intelligence—President’s Actions Draft Report (2) folder, Richard B. Cheney Files, GRFPL).

  150. 150.

    Gerald R. Ford, Remarks and a Question-and-Answer Session at a Public Forum in Keene, 19 February 1976.

  151. 151.

    Gerald R. Ford, The President’s News Conference, 17 February 1976.

  152. 152.

    ‘The Need for Intelligence’, The Washington Post, 12 June 1975.

  153. 153.

    Peter Clapper to David Belin, Public Affairs Consideration in Deleting Assassinations Findings, 29 May 1975.

  154. 154.

    Anthony Lewis, ‘In Sheep’s Clothing’, New York Times, 19 February 1976.

  155. 155.

    ‘The President’s Secrecy Legislation’, Washington Post, 23 February 1976.

  156. 156.

    Congressional Record. 1975. 94th Cong., 1st sess., vol. 121 4126.

  157. 157.

    Ford, A Time to Heal, 162.

  158. 158.

    Gerald R. Ford: “Remarks on Signing a Proclamation Granting Pardon to Richard Nixon,” 8 September 1974. Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, The American Presidency Project. http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=4695

  159. 159.

    Ron Nessen, White House News Conference, 26 December 1974, (transcript found in Box 4, Ron Nessen Files, GRFPL).

  160. 160.

    Memorandum of Conversation, 12.42 pm—1,20 pm 27 January 1975, (Box 8, Memoranda of Conversations—Ford Administration, National Security Adviser Memoranda of Conversation, 1973–1977, GRFPL).

  161. 161.

    Robert Hartmann to Gerald Ford, ‘Tax Cut Bill’, 28 March 1975, (Box C17, Presidential Handwriting File, GRFPL).

  162. 162.

    Foster Chanock to Dick Cheney, ‘The Status of the Presidency’, 25 November 1975, (Box 2, Foster Chanock Files, GRFPL).

  163. 163.

    James A Stimson, ‘Public Support for American Presidents: A Cyclical Model’, Public Opinion Quarterly, 40 (1976), 1–21.

  164. 164.

    Republican National Committee, Catalogue of Political Services, (Box 29, Republican National Committee—Catalog of Political Services Folder, John Marsh Files, GRFPL).

  165. 165.

    James R. Beniger, ‘Winning the Presidential Nomination: National Polls and State Primary Elections 1936–1972’, Public Opinion Quarterly, 40 (1976), 22–38.

  166. 166.

    ‘Initial Reaction to Sindlinger Visit’, Dave Gergen to Mike Duval, 20 September 1976. (Box 8, Opinion Polls Folder, David Green Files, GRFPL).

  167. 167.

    ‘The Role of Radio and Television in Political Campaign’, Bob Mead to Dick Cheney and Donald Rumsfeld, 19 June 1975, (Box 3, Helen Collins Files, GRFPL).

  168. 168.

    Second Debate Transcript, 6 October 1976, found at Commission on Presidential Debates, online at http://www.debates.org/index.php?page=october-6-1976-debate-transcript (accessed 20 January 2017).

  169. 169.

    National Security Council Meeting, 15 May 1975, (National Security Advisor’s NSC Meeting File, GRFPL).

  170. 170.

    Gerald R. Ford, A Time to Heal, 178.

  171. 171.

    White House Press Conference, 21 January 1976, (transcript found in Box 16, Ron Nessen Files, GRFPL).

  172. 172.

    Gerald R. Ford, Humour and the Presidency, (New York, 1987), 48–49.

  173. 173.

    Iwan Morgan, Reagan: American Icon (London, 2016), 116.

  174. 174.

    Thomas M DeFrank, Write It When I’m Gone, 103.

  175. 175.

    Memorandum of Conversation, 3.00 pm 2 October 1975, (Box 16, Memoranda of Conversations—Ford Administration, National Security Adviser Memoranda of Conversation, 1973–1977, GRFPL).

  176. 176.

    Memorandum of Conversation, 5 June 1975, (Box 12, Memoranda of Conversations—Ford Administration, National Security Adviser Memoranda of Conversation, 1973–1977, GRFPL).

  177. 177.

    Memorandum, Fred Slight to Jerry Jones, 26 August 1975, (Box 2, Foster Chanock Files, GRFPL).

  178. 178.

    Jack Anderson, “Mr Ford—A Part of the People”, Washington Post, 3 August 1975.

  179. 179.

    Philip Powlick, ‘The Sources of Public Opinion for American Foreign Policy Officials’, International Studies Quarterly, 39 (1995), 427–51.

  180. 180.

    ‘Momentum’, Memorandum, Robert Teeter to Bo Calloway, 11 December 1975. (Box B2, President Ford Committee Records, GRFPL).

  181. 181.

    ‘The Politics of Presidential Travel’, Dave Gergen to Dick Cheney, 21 June 1976. (Box 42, Presidential Handwriting File, GRFPL).

  182. 182.

    ‘The Role of Radio and Television in Political Campaign’, Bob Mead to Dick Cheney and Donald Rumsfeld, 19 June 1975, (Box 3, Helen Collins Files, GRFPL).

  183. 183.

    White House Press Conference, 1 October 1976, (transcript in Box 24, Robert Dole Folder, Robert T. Hartmann Files, GRFPL).

  184. 184.

    Lawrence R Jacobs and Robert Y Shapiro, Politicians Don’t Pander: Political Manipulation and the Loss of Democratic Responsiveness (Chicago, 2000).

  185. 185.

    Bruce M. Russett, Controlling the Sword: The Democratic Governance of National Security (Cambridge, MA, 1990), 100–101.

  186. 186.

    Gallup Organisation, The American Voter: Cynic or Disillusionist? 23 March 1976, (Box 2 Foster Chanock Files, GRFPL).

  187. 187.

    Peter Clapper to David Belin, Public Affairs Consideration in Deleting Assassinations Findings, 29 May 1975.

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Townley, D. (2021). Gerald Ford and the Rockefeller Commission. In: The Year of Intelligence in the United States. Palgrave Macmillan, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-67646-9_2

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