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Models of Body Image for Boys and Men

Abstract

This chapter reviews three models of body image disturbance (the tripartite influence model, objectification theory, and gender role endorsement) with a focus on their applicability to boys’ and men’s body image concerns. Variables and pathways with empirical support among samples of boys and men were integrated into a unified conceptual model to synthesize the current research and generate ideas for future research and clinical efforts. This unified model includes five domains (i.e., sources of social influence, internalization of societal messages, appearance salience, body-related distress, and body change behaviors) and articulates variables with empirical support within each domain. Pathways between domains are mapped, and variables that may impact the strength of these paths are considered. The chapter ends with a discussion of how this model can be used to direct future research, public policy, prevention efforts, and clinical interventions with boys and men who have body-related distress and engage in disordered eating.

Keywords

  • Male body image
  • Tripartite influence model
  • Objectification theory
  • Masculinity
  • Muscularity dissatisfaction
  • Body fat dissatisfaction
  • Internalization of the muscular ideal
  • Social comparison
  • Social influences
  • Muscularity-oriented disordered eating

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Fig. 2.1

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Tylka, T.L. (2021). Models of Body Image for Boys and Men. In: Nagata, J.M., Brown, T.A., Murray, S.B., Lavender, J.M. (eds) Eating Disorders in Boys and Men. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-67127-3_2

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