Skip to main content

The Socialoid: A Computational Model of a City

  • 1469 Accesses

Abstract

A socialoid (our term) is an integrated collection of data and models about a society. As such, and accepting that it can never be complete, it is a computational model of a society. We are in the early stages of building a socialoid for Philadelphia, PA. We call it the Philadelphioid. The Philadelphioid is a diachronic (temporal), mashed, geographic information system (GIS) with an extensive integrated library of integrated analytics tools. The purpose of this chapter is to articulate our design rationale for the Philadelphioid and to illustrate its underlying concepts and premises. Central among these concepts is the principle of solution pluralism, which enjoins us to use analytics and visualization to create and explore multiple solutions to decision problems. We illustrate an application of this philosophy by discussing analysis pertaining to food deserts carried out with the Philadelphioid.

References

  • Bankes S (1993) Exploratory Modeling for Policy Analysis. Operations Research 41(3):435–449

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Bernstein J, Shierholz H (2014) The minimum wage: A crucial labor standard that is well targeted to low- and moderate-income households. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 33(4):1036–1043

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Cannuscio CC, Hillier A, Karpyn A, Glanz K (2014) The social dynamics of healthy food shopping and store choice in an urban environment. Social Science and Medicine 122:13–20

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Chou C, Kimbrough SO, Murphy FH, Sullivan-Fedock J, Woodard CJ (2014) On empirical validation of compactness measures for electoral redistricting and its significance for application of models in the social sciences. Social Science Computer Review 32(4):534–542

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Choudhury MD, Sharma S, Kiciman E (2016) Characterizing dietary choices, nutrition, and language in food deserts via social media. In: Proceedings of the 19th ACM Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work & Social Computing (CSCW ’16), ACM, New York, NY, USA, pp 1157–1170

    Google Scholar 

  • Claes S, Moere AV (2013) Street infographics: raising awareness of local issues through a situated urban visualization. In: Proceedings of the 2nd ACM International Symposium on Pervasive Displays (PerDis ’13), ACM, pp 133–138

    Google Scholar 

  • Cranshaw J, Raz S, Hong J, Sadeh N (2012) The livehoods project: Utilizing social media to understand the dynamics of a city. In: International AAAI Conference on Weblogs and Social Media, pp 58–65

    Google Scholar 

  • Davies HT, Nutley SM (2000) What works?: Evidence-based policy and practice in public services. Policy Press

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Dawes RM (1979) The robust beauty of improper linear models in decision making. American Psychologist 34(7):571–582

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • De Melo Borges J, Budde M, Peters O, Riedel T, Schankin A, Beigl M (2016) Estavis: A real-world interactive platform for crowdsourced visual urban analytics. In: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on IoT in Urban Space (Urb-IoT ’16), ACM, pp 65–70

    Google Scholar 

  • Di Mascio D, Clarke R, Akama Y, Salim F (2016) Urban HCI: (re)adapting the city together. In: Proceedings of the 2016 ACM Conference Companion Publication on Designing Interactive Systems, pp 89–92

    Google Scholar 

  • Edwards W, Barron FH (1994) SMARTS and SMARTER: Improved simple methods for multiattribute utility measurement. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 60(3):306–325

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Gallacher S, Golsteijn C, Kalnikaite V, Houben S, Johnson R, Harrison D, Marquardt N (2015) SenCity 2: visualizing the hidden pulse of a city. In: Adjunct Proceedings of the 2015 ACM International Joint Conference on Pervasive and Ubiquitous Computing and Proceedings of the 2015 ACM International Symposium on Wearable Computers (UbiComp/ISWC’15 Adjunct), ACM, pp 1391–1394

    Google Scholar 

  • Georges V, Courtemanche F, Senecal S, Baccino T, Fredette M, Leger PM (2016) Ux heatmaps: Mapping user experience on visual interfaces. Proceedings of the 2016 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems pp 4850–4860

    Google Scholar 

  • Haas C, Hachadoorian L, Kimbrough SO, Miller P, Murphy F (2020) Seed-fill-shift-repair: A redistricting heuristic for civic deliberation. PloS one 15(9):e0237935

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hafford WB (2014) Linked open data and the Ur of the Chaldees project. Web post: http://dlib.nyu.edu/awdl/isaw/isaw-papers/7/hafford/#p1, iSAW Papers 7.7 (2014). Accessed: 2020-11-01

  • Hall M, Kimbrough SO, Michalk W, Schneider J, Weindardt C (2013) Making solution pluralism in policy making accessible: Optimization of design and services for constituent well-being. In: Extended abstracts of the 2013 ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI). (Workshop on Engaging the Human-Computer Interaction Community With Public Policymaking Internationally)

    Google Scholar 

  • Halpern O, LeCavalier J, Calvillo N, Pietsch W (2013) Test-bed urbanism. Public Culture 25(2):272–306

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Johann H, Hall M, Kimbrough SO, Quintus N, Weinhardt C (2014) Service district optimization: Usage of facility location methods and geographic information systems to analyze and optimize urban food retail distribution. Working paper, SSRN

    Google Scholar 

  • Keeney RL, Raiffa H (1993) Decisions with multiple objectives: preferences and value tradeoffs. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kimbrough SO, Lau HC (2016) Business Analytics for Decision Making. CRC Press, Boca Ratan, FL

    MATH  Google Scholar 

  • Kitchin R (2013) The real-time city? big data and smart urbanism. GeoJournal

    Google Scholar 

  • Klauers F, Paasche T, Söderström O (2014) Michel Foucault and the smart city: power dynamics inhering in contemporary governing through code. Environment and Planning 32:869–885

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Laurel B, Oren T, Don A (1990) Issues in multimedia interface design: media integration and interface agents. Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems Empowering people - CHI ’90 pp 133–139

    Google Scholar 

  • Mayer VL, Hillier MA Aand Bachhuber, Long JA (2014) Food insecurity, neighborhood food access, and food assistance in Philadelphia. Journal of Urban Health 91(6):1087–1097

    Google Scholar 

  • Messeter J, Johansson M (2008) Place-specific computing: conceptual design cases from urban contexts in four countries. In: Proceedings of the 7th ACM conference on Designing interactive systems (DIS ’08), ACM, New York, NY, pp 99–108

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Miller P, Kimbrough S, Schacht J (2018) Simulating redistricting in the classroom: A binding arbitration decision game using Louisiana census data. PS: Political Science & Politics 51(3):664–668

    Google Scholar 

  • Odom W (2010) ‘mate, we don’t need a chip to tell us the soil’s dry’: opportunities for designing interactive systems to support urban food production. In: Proceedings of the 8th ACM Conference on Designing Interactive Systems (DIS ’10), ACM, ACM, New York, NY, pp 232–235

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Ploeg MV, Breneman V, Farrigan T, Hamrick K, Hopkins D, Kaufman P, Lin B, Nord M, Smith T, Williams R, Kinnison K, Olander C, Singh A, Tuckermanty E, Krantz-kent R, Polen C, Mcgowan H, Kim S (2009) Access to Affordable and Nutritious Food: Measuring and Understanding Food Deserts and Their Consequences Report to Congress

    Google Scholar 

  • Schwartz R, Naaman M, Matni Z (2013) Making sense of cities using social media: Requirements for hyper-local data aggregation tools. In: Proceedings of the International AAAI Conference on Weblogs and Social Media, AAAI, pp 15–22

    Google Scholar 

  • Smyth M, Helgason I (2010) Informing the design of the future urban landscape. In: Proceedings of the 8th ACM Conference on Designing Interactive Systems (DIS ’10), ACM, ACM, New York, NY, pp 438–439

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Söderström O, Paasche T, Klauser F (2014) Smart cities as corporate storytelling. City 18(3):307–320

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Sweller J (1994) Cognitive load theory, learning difficulty, and instructional design. Learning and instruction 4(4):295–312

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Todd P, Benbasat I (1994) The Influence of Decision Aids on Choice Strategies - An Experimental-Analysis of the Role of Cognitive Effort. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 60(1):36–74

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Vanolo A (2014) Smart mentality: The smart city as disciplinary strategy. Urban Studies 51(5):883–898

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • von Winterfeldt D, Edwards W (1986) Decision Analysis and Behavioral Research. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK

    Google Scholar 

  • Xia C, Schwartz R, Xie K, Krebs A, Langdon A, Ting J, Naaman M (2014) Citybeat: real-time social media visualization of hyper-local city data. In: Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on World Wide Web, pp 167–170

    Google Scholar 

  • Yoon KP, Hwang CL (1995) Multiple Attribute Decision Making: An Introduction, Quantitative Applications in the Social Sciences, vol 104. Sage, CA

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Yu A, Nahapetian A (2013) Participatory sensing for fighting food deserts. In: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Body Area Networks (BodyNets ’13), ICST (Institute for Computer Sciences, Social-Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering),, ICST, Brussels, Belgium, pp 221–224

    Google Scholar 

  • Zheng Y, Capra L, Wolfson O, Yang H (2014) Urban computing: Concepts, methodologies, and applications. ACM Trans Intell Syst Technol 5(3):Article 38

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Margeret Hall .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Open Access This chapter is licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license and indicate if changes were made.

The images or other third party material in this chapter are included in the chapter's Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the chapter's Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder.

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2021 The Author(s)

About this chapter

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this chapter

Hall, M., Haas, C., Schacht, J., Kimbrough, S.O. (2021). The Socialoid: A Computational Model of a City. In: , et al. Market Engineering . Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-66661-3_12

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-66661-3_12

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Cham

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-030-66660-6

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-030-66661-3

  • eBook Packages: Computer ScienceComputer Science (R0)