Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) is the input of freshwater into ocean water and sediments, especially in estuaries, from continental aquifers. Such meteoric water influx can occur at depths up to 3000 m. The mixing of calcium-rich meteoric water with saline marine water in the presence of organic matter can produce early calcite cement in pores. Pervasive to stratabound carbonate cementation in shallow to offshore marine sandstones has been assumed to result from long-term slow diffusion or advective processes. However, results from the sedimentologic and geochemical studies of Cretaceous calcitic concretion-bearing layers in sandstones in a marine coastal setting indicate otherwise. Permineralization of delicate fungi, liverworts, mosses, and macrophytic plant material as well as associated textures and isotopic signatures of carbonate cement within stratabound concretions in the Longarm Formation on Vancouver Island, Canada, indicate high flux flow of calcium-rich meteoric waters during very early diagenesis (eogenesis) to synsedimentary freshwater diagenesis. We propose that calcite cementation from meteoric waters along horizons in estuarine to fully marine sediments can occur through SGD directly via terrestrial aquifer flow through carbonates. Because SGD can be introduced into marine sediments along shallow coastlines as well as at great depths, this groundwater input may be an important geochemical process in the diagenesis of coastal marine sediments, and is key to fossil preservation, including permineralization of land plants along ancient coastlines and possibly the formation of Carboniferous coal balls.
- Carbonate cementation
- Freshwater aquifers
- Longarm Formation
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This manuscript was originally drafted by BGK with contributions from GWR, RAS, and DBF. All authors designed and performed the research leading to this manuscript, which has evolved from earlier drafts dating back to 2014. This particular version emerged from discussions in 2016 prior to Beth’s unfortunate passing. Every attempt has been made to retain Beth’s original vision and thought process. Special thanks to Jim Haggart for consultations involving paleontologic identification and David Kidder and Bill Ullman for valuable comments on earlier versions of the manuscript. Martin Kordesch and Ricardo Zanatta aided in the cathodoluminescence analysis. The manuscript was improved by reviewer comments from Christine Chen, Kathleen Nicoll and Russell S. Shapiro. This study was funded by a National Science Foundation grant (EAR0308931) to GWR and a NSERC grant (A6908) to RAS.
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Gierlowski-Kordesch, E.H., Rothwell, G.W., Stockey, R.A., Finkelstein, D.B. (2021). Submarine Groundwater Discharge as a Catalyst for Eodiagenetic Carbonate Cements Within Marine Sedimentary Basins. In: Rosen, M.R., Finkelstein, D.B., Park Boush, L., Pla-Pueyo, S. (eds) Limnogeology: Progress, Challenges and Opportunities . Syntheses in Limnogeology. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-66576-0_15
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