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Tendinopathy pp 265–279Cite as

Plantar Fascia

Abstract

Plantar fasciopathy is a common disorder of the foot characterized by pain along the medial aspect of the heel. It is a condition that is routinely encountered by a variety of healthcare practitioners, including primary care providers, orthopedists, and podiatrists. Plantar fasciopathy is a degenerative process of the broad, fibrous aponeurosis spanning the plantar structures of the foot. Risk factors for the development of plantar fasciopathy include pes cavus, pes planus, body habitus, abnormal biomechanics, and increased, prolonged mechanical load. Treatment of plantar fasciopathy includes correction of these risk factors, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and judicious use of corticosteroid injections. Regenerative injection therapies, including platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and prolotherapy, have shown promise. Surgical treatment includes open fasciotomies, endoscopic fasciotomies, and microtenotomy. Surgery is rarely required and is reserved for cases that are refractory to nonoperative treatments.

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Abbreviations

BMI:

Body mass index

ESWT:

Extracorporeal shockwave therapy

FDL:

Flexor digitorum longus

FGF:

Fibroblast growth factor

FHL:

Flexor hallucis longus

MRI:

Magnetic resonance imaging

MTP:

Metatarsophalangeal

NSAID:

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug

PDGF:

Platelet-derived growth factor

PRP:

Platelet rich plasma

TGF-®:

Transforming growth factor beta

US:

Ultrasound

VEGF:

Vascular endothelial growth factor

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Si, V., Hrubes, M. (2021). Plantar Fascia. In: Onishi, K., Fredericson, M., Dragoo, J.L. (eds) Tendinopathy. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-65335-4_17

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