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Metacognition in Collaborative Learning

Part of the Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning Series book series (CULS,volume 19)

Abstract

Research has shown that metacognition plays a role in collaborative learning. We view metacognition as a central process supporting all modes of regulation (i.e., self-regulation, shared regulation, and co-regulation), as it enables learners to control and adapt their cognition, motivation, emotion, and behavior at both the individual and group levels. Our claim is that metacognitive monitoring and regulation of collaborative learning can help reduce the collaborative/transactive costs in collaboration and, therefore, contributes to success in computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL). In this chapter, we discuss the role of metacognition in CSCL and broaden the discussion to regulation. Since regulation in CSCL has been studied increasingly, we review the current state of the art in that research and conclude how technological and digital tools could be implemented for studying and supporting metacognition and regulation in CSCL.

Keywords

  • Metacognition
  • Monitoring
  • Self-regulated learning
  • Collaborative learning
  • CSCL

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Further Readings

  • Haataja, E., Malmberg, J., & Järvelä, S. (2018). Monitoring in collaborative learning: Co-occurrence of observed behavior and physiological synchrony explored. Computers in Human Behavior, 87, 337–347. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2018.06.007. This empirical study is one of the first studies monitoring in collaborative learning by videos and physiological data. It studied how students in a group monitor their cognitive, affective, and behavioral processes during their collaboration, as well as how observed monitoring co-occurs with their physiological synchrony during the collaborative learning session. The results indicate not only the role metacognitive monitoring plays in regulation of the collaborative learning process but also that physiological synchrony could potentially shine a light on the joint regulation processes of collaborative learning groups.

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  • Järvelä, S., Hadwin, A. F., Malmberg, J., & Miller, M. (2018). Contemporary perspectives of regulated learning in collaboration. In F. Fischer, C. E. Hmelo-Silver, P. Reimann, & S. R. Goldman (Eds.), Handbook of the Learning Sciences (pp. 127–136). New York: Taylor & Francis. Grounding on decades of self-regulated learning research, this chapter shows that in order to succeed in solo and collaborative learning tasks, students need to develop regulating learning skills and strategies on their own, with peers, and in groups. It introduces the three forms of regulation (self-regulation, co-regulation, and shared regulation), explains the critical processes in regulation, and elaborates what is and what is not regulated learning. The chapter also has recommendations to the design principles and technologies to support regulated learning.

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  • Järvelä, S., Kirschner, P. A., Hadwin, A., Järvenoja, H., Malmberg, J., Miller, M., & Laru, J. (2016). Socially shared regulation of learning in CSCL: Understanding and prompting individual- and group-level shared regulatory activities. International Journal of Computer Supported Collaborative Learning, 11(3), 263–280. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11412-016-9238-2. This paper argues that few studies examine the effectiveness and efficiency of CSCL with respect to cognitive, motivational, emotional, and social issues, despite the fact that the role of regulatory processes is critical for the quality of students’ engagement in collaborative learning settings. The authors review the four earlier lines in developing support in CSCL and show how there has been a lack of work to support individuals in groups to engage in, sustain, and productively regulate their own and the group’s collaborative processes. It is discussed how socially shared regulation of learning (SSRL) contributes to effective and efficient CSCL, what tools are presently available, and what the implications of research on these tools are for future tool development.

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  • Jeong, H., & Hmelo-Silver, C. E. (2016). Seven affordances of computer-supported collaborative learning: How to support collaborative learning? How can technologies help? Educational Psychologist, 51(2), 247–265. https://doi.org/10.1080/00461520.2016.1158654. This paper discusses about the critical processes in collaboration for CSCL. It introduces seven core affordances of technology for collaborative learning based on theories of collaborative learning and CSCL practices. Technology affords learner opportunities to (1) engage in a joint task, (2) communicate, (3) share resources, (4) engage in productive collaborative learning processes, (5) engage in co-construction, (6) monitor and regulate collaborative learning, and (7) find and build groups and communities. The proposed framework is illustrated using in-depth explorations of how technologies are actually used to support collaborative learning in CSCL research and identify representative design strategies and technology examples.

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  • Kirschner, P. A., Sweller, J., Kirschner, F., & Zambrano, J. (2018). From cognitive load theory to collaborative cognitive load theory. International Journal of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning, 13, 213–233. This paper discusses how cognitive load theory can be associated not only individual learning but also efficiency and effectiveness of (computer-supported) collaborative learning. While the theory has been considered in instructional design in individual learning, it has often not considered when designing collaborative learning situations or CSCL. This paper illustrates how and why cognitive load theory can throw light on collaborative learning and generate principles specific to the design and study of collaborative learning.

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Järvelä, S., Malmberg, J., Sobocinski, M., Kirschner, P.A. (2021). Metacognition in Collaborative Learning. In: Cress, U., Rosé, C., Wise, A.F., Oshima, J. (eds) International Handbook of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning. Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning Series, vol 19. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-65291-3_15

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