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Preservation Actors: Challenges and Risks of Managing World Heritage Cities

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World Heritage Patinas

Part of the book series: The Latin American Studies Book Series ((LASBS))

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Abstract

In Brazil, the policy of preserving cultural heritage has been developed for over eighty years. The international recognition of Brazilian cultural properties has been established in the country since 1980, with the inscription of Ouro Preto on the UNESCO World Heritage List. After more than 40 years of the UNESCO World Heritage Convention (1972), 15 Brazilian cultural sites are part of this list, of which seven are historical cities, two are urban architectural ensembles, three correspond to archaeological sites, two of them in urban areas, one modern city, one urban cultural landscape and one mixed (cultural and natural) site. Analyzing the challenges and risks of preserving these sites implies understanding the actors of this preservation, what implications can be highlighted as a result of this recognition, and how to confront them with a view to providing sustainable management. The present text is based on the latest initiatives produced in the institutional field in order to contemplate, within the management framework, reflections and operative measures that favour the achievement of this objective. In this case, the national and international meetings produced at the initiative of Iphan in the discussion of the rehabilitation of historic urban sites (Brasília 2002), the management of historical cities (Goiás 2003), the management of modern cultural heritage (Belo Horizonte 2017), the management of World Heritage sites in Brazil (Goiás 2018) and the economic potential of the heritage in its tourist dimension (Porto Alegre 2019) should be highlighted. In addition to this, the text also addresses the fronts of action undertaken by the non-governmental sector, committed in particular to the preservation of this heritage, such as the Organization of Brazilian World Heritage Cities—OCBPM, highlighting the results obtained in the process of articulation for a strategic management of Brazilian cities declared World Heritage, notably based on their national meetings. Finally, the text points out, on the one hand, the central demands of these cities in Brazil, identified and ratified in this process, and also signals the answers that the Public Power, on the part of the administration, is seeking to give, culminating in the presentation of reflections on the challenges of managing this World Heritage in Brazil. Aspects such as the preferential attention to be given through customized investments, the construction of concertation processes between the public and private sectors and the citizenry in order to guarantee sustainable processes, programmatic integration in the face of the recognition of the transversality of cultural heritage and its economic potential, should be highlighted.

Marcelo Brito—Director of the Department of Cooperation and Promotion of the National Institute for Historical and Artistic Heritage—IPHAN. Ministry of Tourism.

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Notes

  1. 1.

    As of December 2019, the Brazilian sites (cultural and mixed) declared as World Heritage are the historic city of Ouro Preto (1980), historic center of the city of Olinda (1982), Jesuit Missions of the Guaranis. Ruins of São Miguel das Missões (1983), historic center of Salvador (1985), Bom Jesus de Congonhas Sanctuary (1985), Brasília (1987), Serra da Capivara National Park (1991), historic center of São Luís (1997), historic center of Diamantina (1999), historic center of Goiás (2001), São Francisco Square in São Cristóvão (2010), Pampulha Modern Ensemble (2016), Valongo Wharf (2017), Rio de Janeiro, Carioca Landscapes between the Mountain and the Sea (2012) and Paraty and Ilha Grande: cultural and biodiversity (2019). See UNESCO. WHC. World Heritage List. Available at: https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/. Accessed: 25 April 2020.

  2. 2.

    IPHAN (2003), p. 04.

  3. 3.

    IPHAN. Ordinance nº 299, 6 July (2004), Brasília. Section 1: To create the Plan for the Preservation of the Historic Urban Site—PPSH (Criar o Plano de Preservação de Sítio Histórico Urbano - PPSH). See: http://portal.iphan.gov.br/uploads/legislacao/Portaria_n_299_de_6_de_Julho_de_2004.pdf.

  4. 4.

    IPHAN. International Seminar: Challenges in the Management of Modern Cultural Heritage (Desafios da Gestão do Patrimônio Cultural Moderno), Belo Horizonte (2017).

  5. 5.

    IPHAN. Charter of Pampulha. Belo Horizonte (2017), pp. 01–02.

  6. 6.

    IPHAN. Agreement of Goiás. Goiás, 2018, p. 01.

  7. 7.

    The recognition of strategic instances for promoting the achievement of the intended objectives is assumed and highlighted here. The search for strategic alliances with institutional partners, in particular, agents for fostering development is imperative. IPHAN considers it essential to qualify institutional articulations, promoting cooperative entities to collaborate in the implementation of actions. The Agreement of Goiás results, therefore, from the consent between the then ministers of Culture, Tourism, Environment and Cities and the mayors of historic cities and IPHAN.

  8. 8.

    This TCU Judgment, of an operational nature, enabled a greater articulation between the areas of heritage, tourism, urban development and the environment, by advocating the need for greater synergy between the corresponding sectoral policies. By recommending the establishment of a national policy aimed at World Heritage sites, with an emphasis on the tourist dimension, new opportunities were created to overcome different readings generated from specific benchmarks, making it evident that heritage management is by nature transversal and the agents involved, directly or indirectly, need to interact more intensely. See TCU. Judgment No. 311/2017—Plenary.

  9. 9.

    Held in conjunction with the 6th Brazilian Meeting of Tourist-Historic and World Heritage Cities, in partnership with the OCBPM—Organization of Brazilian Cities World Heritage and the Ministry of Tourism—MTUR.

  10. 10.

    IPHAN. Charter of Porto Alegre. International seminar Heritage + Tourism 2019 (Patrimônio + Turismo 2019) and 6th Brazilian Meeting of Tourist-Historic and World Heritage Cities Meeting. Porto Alegre, 2019, pp. 01–02.

  11. 11.

    Cf. Consolidated statute of the Organization of Brazilian Cities as a World Heritage Site (Estatuto consolidado da Organização das Cidades Brasileiras Patrimônio Mundial). Brasília, 11 May 2016.

  12. 12.

    RIBAS, Mario. 6th Brazilian Meeting of Tourist-Historic and World Heritage Cities Meeting. Accessed: 18 April 2020, in: http://cidadeshistoricas.cnm.org.br/palavra-presidente-ocbpm.

  13. 13.

    Carta de Olinda. Accessed: 18 April 2020. Available at: http://cidadeshistoricas.cnm.org.br/assets/download/carta-de-olinda.pdf.

  14. 14.

    Charter of São Luis Accessed: 18 April 2020. Available at: http://cidadeshistoricas.cnm.org.br/assets/download/carta-de-sao-luis.pdf.

  15. 15.

    Charter of Brasília, Accessed on: 18 April 2020. Available at: http://cidadeshistoricas.cnm.org.br/assets/download/carta-de-brasilia.pdf.

  16. 16.

    Charter of Foz do Iguaçu, Accessed: 18 April 2020. Available at: http://cidadeshistoricas.cnm.org.br/assets/download/Carta_de_Foz_Final.pdf.

  17. 17.

    Municipality Participation Fund.

  18. 18.

    Charter of Manaus. Accessed: 18 April 2020. Available at: http://cidadeshistoricas.cnm.org.br/assets/download/carta-de-manaus-final.pdf.

  19. 19.

    Held in conjunction with the International Seminar on the Economic Potential of Heritage in its Tourism Dimension.

  20. 20.

    Charter of Porto Alegre. Accessed: 18 April 2020. Available at: http://cidadeshistoricas.cnm.org.br/assets/download/carta-de-porto-alegre.pdf.

  21. 21.

    The Interpretation Centers are “spaces for welcoming visitors who present and interpret these places in accessible language for both adults and children, preparing and ordering visits to these places, as an inducing element for managing the flow of visitors”, constituting themselves in the “space where the tourist offer associated with the place can be promoted, providing the visitor with new ways of approaching tourist-cultural information, using interactive technological resources and making it more permeable to the public when transmitting the content that is meant to be disseminated”. In: BRITO, Marcelo. Interpretation Center in Heritage Cultural Sites. IPHAN, Brasília, 2019, p. 02.

  22. 22.

    Brasil (2019).

  23. 23.

    Id., Ibid., Art. 5th, item VIII.

  24. 24.

    In December 2019, the first seminar was held in the city of São Cristóvão, which was attended by the city's City Hall, Universities, Civil Defense, State Government, UNESCO and IPHAN. Accessed: 19 April 2020. Available at: http://portal.iphan.gov.br/noticias/detalhes/5496.

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Brito, M. (2021). Preservation Actors: Challenges and Risks of Managing World Heritage Cities. In: Christofoletti, R., Olender, M. (eds) World Heritage Patinas. The Latin American Studies Book Series. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-64815-2_2

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