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The Obsolescence of Presuppositions

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Logicians speak of “hyper-contradictions,” levels of truth, and the very logic itself of paradoxes; a set of propositions, both proven true and proven false whose outlines involve semantics, mathematics, physics, and ecology. But ultimately, their Medieval Clouds of Unknowing—Insolubilia—remain. Throughout the biological sciences, paradoxical frontiers meet every fact head on. Survival itself proves to be the most vulnerable of all statements of fact, and thus is central to paradoxical thinking. This includes what have been described as “parallel worlds,” “Schrödinger’s cat,” and Russell’s Paradox.


  • Russell’s Paradox
  • Donne’s Paradox
  • Henry George
  • Edward Curtis
  • Cloud of Unknowing

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    The booke of Marcus Tullius Cicero entituled Paradoxa Stoicorum Contayninge a precise discourse of diuers poinctes and conclusions of vertue and phylosophie according the traditions and opinions of those philosophers, whiche were called Stoikes. Wherunto is also annexed a philosophicall treatyse of the same authoure called Scipio hys dreame. Anno. 1569. Cicero, Marcus Tullius., Newton, Thomas, 1542?-1607., Cicero, Marcus Tullius. Somnium Scipionis. Imprinted at London: In Fletestreate neare vnto Sainte Dunstones Church by T. Marshe, [1569]; See D Mehl (2002). C Damon; JF Miller; KS Myers, eds. The Stoic Paradoxes according to Cicero (in) Vertis in Usum. Walter de Gruyter. p. 39. ISBN 3598777108; See M.O. Webb (1985). Cicero’s Paradoxica Stiocorum: A New Translation with Philosophical Commentary (PDF). Texas Tech University.

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    See, for example, “Nomadic-colonial life strategies enable paradoxical survival and growth despite habitat destruction,” Zong Xuan Tan, Kang Hao Cheong, eLife 2017;6:e21673 DOI:,, Accessed September 21, 2018; and “A Paradoxical Evolutionary Mechanism in Stochastically Switching Environments,”, Article | OPEN | Published: 14 October 2016, Kang Hao Cheong, Zong Xuan Tan, Neng-gang Xie & Michael C. Jones, Scientific Reports, Volume, 6, Article number: 34889 (2016),, Accessed September 21, 2018.

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    For a superb bibliography of Primary Sources concerning these topics, from 1897 to 1945, as well as Recent Sources, see “Paradoxes and Contemporary Logic,” the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,, Accessed February 6, 2019. In Jainism, for example, there are at least eleven forms of infinity. See “Zero and Infinity in Mathematics: Ayoga Kevali and Siddha in Jain Philosophy,” by Medhavi Jain, II ISJS-Transaction, Vol. 4, no. 1, Jan-Mar., New Delhi, India, 2020, pp. 18–19.

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Tobias, M.C., Morrison, J.G. (2021). The Obsolescence of Presuppositions. In: On the Nature of Ecological Paradox. Springer, Cham.

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