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The Obsolescence of Presuppositions

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Abstract

Logicians speak of “hyper-contradictions,” levels of truth, and the very logic itself of paradoxes; a set of propositions, both proven true and proven false whose outlines involve semantics, mathematics, physics, and ecology. But ultimately, their Medieval Clouds of Unknowing—Insolubilia—remain. Throughout the biological sciences, paradoxical frontiers meet every fact head on. Survival itself proves to be the most vulnerable of all statements of fact, and thus is central to paradoxical thinking. This includes what have been described as “parallel worlds,” “Schrödinger’s cat,” and Russell’s Paradox.

Keywords

  • Russell’s Paradox
  • Donne’s Paradox
  • Henry George
  • Edward Curtis
  • Cloud of Unknowing

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Notes

  1. 1.

    See John R. Stilgoe, What Is Landscape? The MIT Press, 2015, pp. x1, and 125.

  2. 2.

    pp 99–124|, The Nature of Paradoxes/the Natural Paradox, Sean Ryan, https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1057/9781137385086_5, https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1057/9781137385086_1#citeas, Accessed February 1, 2019.

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    See Wilfred Thesiger, Arabian Sands, Longmans, London, 1959, p. 308.

  4. 4.

    See Conservation of Rare or Little-Known Species – Biological, Social, and Economic Considerations, Edited by Martin G. Raphael and Randy Molina, in Chapter 10, “Economic Considerations,” by Richard L. Johnson, Cindy S. Swanson, and Aaron J. Douglas, Island Press, Washington D.C., 2007, pp. 288–289.

  5. 5.

    See A Window On Eternity – A Biologist’s Walk Through Gorongosa National Park, by Edward O. Wilson, Simon & Schuster, New York, 2014, pp. 140–141.

  6. 6.

    John Donne, “The Paradox,” (deemed 1635), p. 70 of the two-volume Grolier Edition, From The Text Of the Edition of 1633, Revised by James Russell Lowell, Notes by Charles Eliot Norton, Volume 1, New York, 1895. See Donne’s Biathanatos, A Declaration of that Paradoxe, or Thesis, that Self-homicide is not so naturally sin…London: Printed for Humphrey Moseley, 1648.

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    “India man to sue parents for giving birth to him,” BBC News US, February 7, 2019, https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-india-47154287, Accessed February 7, 2019.

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    Progress and Poverty: An Inquiry into the Cause of Industrial Depressions, and of Increase of Want with Increase of Wealth – The Remedy, Wm. M. Hinton & Co., San Francisco.

  9. 9.

    Whereunto Is Prefixed, A Briefe And True Description Of That Island, With Most Probable Arguments Of A Hopefull And Fit Plantation Of A Colony There. Published for Nathaniel Butter, London.

  10. 10.

    See George Catlin And His Indian Gallery, by Brian W. Dippie, Therese Thau Heyman, Christopher Mulvey and Joan Carpenter Troccoli, Edited by George Gurney and Therese Thau Heyman, Smithsonian American Art Museum and W.W.Norton & Company, Washington D.C., 2002, from Christopher Mulvey’s essay, “George Catlin in Europe,” pp. 63–64.

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    See “Soul At the White Heat: The Roman of Emily Dickinson’s Poetry,” by Joyce Carol Oates, Critical Inquiry 15, Summer 1987, The University of Chicago, p. 806, https://www.jstor.org/stable/1343529?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents, Accessed February 2, 2019.

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    Harper Collins/Flamingo, London, 2001-2.

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    See Godehard Link (2004), One hundred years of Russell’s paradox, p. 350, ISBN 978-3-11-017438-0; See also From Frege to Godel, a Source Book in Mathematical Logic, 1879–1931, edited by Jean van Heijenoort, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1967.

  14. 14.

    The booke of Marcus Tullius Cicero entituled Paradoxa Stoicorum Contayninge a precise discourse of diuers poinctes and conclusions of vertue and phylosophie according the traditions and opinions of those philosophers, whiche were called Stoikes. Wherunto is also annexed a philosophicall treatyse of the same authoure called Scipio hys dreame. Anno. 1569. Cicero, Marcus Tullius., Newton, Thomas, 1542?-1607., Cicero, Marcus Tullius. Somnium Scipionis. Imprinted at London: In Fletestreate neare vnto Sainte Dunstones Church by T. Marshe, [1569]; See D Mehl (2002). C Damon; JF Miller; KS Myers, eds. The Stoic Paradoxes according to Cicero (in) Vertis in Usum. Walter de Gruyter. p. 39. ISBN 3598777108; See M.O. Webb (1985). Cicero’s Paradoxica Stiocorum: A New Translation with Philosophical Commentary (PDF). Texas Tech University.

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    Random House, New York.

  16. 16.

    See https://www.dw.com/en/stark-warning-on-melting-himalayan-glaciers/a-47353374, Accessed February 4, 2019

  17. 17.

    See “Hyper-contradictions, generalized truth values and logics of truth and falsehood,” by Yaroslav Shramko & Heinrich Wansing, Journal of Logic, Language and Information 15 (4):403–424 (2006); and Journal of Philosophical Logic, Vol. 8, No. 1, “The Logic of Paradox,” by Graham Priest, Vol. 8, No. 1 (Jan., 1979), pp. 219–241, Published by Springer, https://www.jstor.org/stable/30227165; See also, Paradox and Paraconsistency: Conflict Resolution in the Abstract Sciences, by John Woods, Cambridge University Press, 2002.

  18. 18.

    See, for example, “Nomadic-colonial life strategies enable paradoxical survival and growth despite habitat destruction,” Zong Xuan Tan, Kang Hao Cheong, eLife 2017;6:e21673 DOI: https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.21673, https://elifesciences.org/articles/21673v4, Accessed September 21, 2018; and “A Paradoxical Evolutionary Mechanism in Stochastically Switching Environments,” Nature.com, Article | OPEN | Published: 14 October 2016, Kang Hao Cheong, Zong Xuan Tan, Neng-gang Xie & Michael C. Jones, Scientific Reports, Volume, 6, Article number: 34889 (2016), https://www.nature.com/articles/srep34889, Accessed September 21, 2018.

  19. 19.

    For a superb bibliography of Primary Sources concerning these topics, from 1897 to 1945, as well as Recent Sources, see “Paradoxes and Contemporary Logic,” the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/paradoxes-contemporary-logic/, Accessed February 6, 2019. In Jainism, for example, there are at least eleven forms of infinity. See “Zero and Infinity in Mathematics: Ayoga Kevali and Siddha in Jain Philosophy,” by Medhavi Jain, II ISJS-Transaction, Vol. 4, no. 1, Jan-Mar., New Delhi, India, 2020, pp. 18–19.

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Tobias, M.C., Morrison, J.G. (2021). The Obsolescence of Presuppositions. In: On the Nature of Ecological Paradox. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-64526-7_9

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