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Paradoxical Frontiers

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Abstract

Wherein we examine “proof by assertion” in order to question key concepts that will prevail throughout the treatise: paradox, fallacy, contradiction, cause, consequence, explanation, nothingness. Nothing about our language groups has yet translated thought into ecologically gentle understanding at the level of a global human population grappling with such terms and ideas. Not unlike the dour and devolving “units of production” implicated in so much of humanity’s destructive behavior, our language-based causes and actions have yet to demonstrate the humility and restraint which a few individuals among our species have managed. This taxa paradox between the one and the many of the same species is a critical minefield which remains entirely unknown in its multiple contradictions and evolutionary pathways.

Keywords

  • Baruch (Benedict de) Spinoza
  • Nirvana Fallacy
  • The Netherlands Fallacy
  • Manure
  • Biomass
  • Sir Thomas More
  • Lotka-Volterra equations
  • Ludwig Wittgenstein

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Notes

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    The Chief Works Of Benedict De Spinoza, Vol., II, De Intellectus Emendatione – Ethica, Revised Edition, Bohn’s Philosophical Library, Translated From The Latin With An Introduction by R. H. M. Elwes, G. Bell And Sons, Ltd., London, 1912, pp.259–260.

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    See Bar-Hillel, Yehoshua (1950) “Bolzano’s Definition of Analytic Propositions” Methodos, 32–55. [Republished in Theoria 16, 1950, pp. 91–117; reprinted in Aspects of language: Essays and Lectures on Philosophy of Language, Linguistic Philosophy and Methodology of Linguistics, Jerusalem, The Magnes Press 1970 pp. 3–28.

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    Kaplan, Oxford University Press, New York, 2000 p. 180.

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    See “What is a Climax Forest?” by Michael Snyder, Northern Woodlands, September 1, 2006, https://northernwoodlands.org/articles/article/what_is_a_climax_forest, Accessed January 29, 2019.

  5. 5.

    For an interesting discussion of this centuries-old debate in the contexts of different possibilities for meaning, see Antony Adolf’s essay, “Multi-Lingualism and the (In)Stability of Meaning: A Neo-Heideggerian Perspective,” https://www.brunel.ac.uk/creative-writing/research/entertext/documents/entertext032/Antony-Adolf-Multi-Lingualism-and-the-InStability-of-Meaning-A-Neo-Heideggerian-Perspective-An-Essay.pdf, Brunei University, London.

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    See John Bibby, 1974. “Axiomatisations of the average and a further generalization of monotonic sequences”. Glasgow Mathematical Journal. 15: 63–65. doi:https://doi.org/10.1017/s0017089500002135.

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    Stunning Photographs That Inspire And Astonish, Foreword by George Steinmetz, Text by Susan Tyler Hitchock, National Geographic, Washington D.C., 2016.

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    According to the OECD-FAO Agricultural Outlook from 2011, as cited in The Dutch Ministries of Economic Affairs and Infrastructure and the Environment publication, Manure: A Valuable Resource, Wageningen, The Netherlands, 2014, http://edepot.wur.nl/294017.

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    “Quick Scan Soils in The Netherlands - Overview of the soil status with reference to the forthcoming EU Soil Strategy,” P.F.A.M. Römkens and O. Oenema (eds.), p.4, http://webdocs.alterra.wur.nl/pdffiles/alterraRapporten/rapport%20948.pdf, Accessed January 27, 2019.

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    Animal cruelty in Dutch animal agriculture and why this also concerns people outside the Netherlands,” The Green Vegans, https://thegreenvegans.com/animal-cruelty-in-dutch-animal-agriculture-and-why-this-also-concerns-people-outside-the-netherlands/Accessed January 27, 2019.

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    See “Mont Saint-Michel’s Lost Causeway Stirs Local Passions,” re-printed from Le Monde in The Guardian, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2012/may/15/france-conservation, Accessed February 2, 2019.

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    See Hester’s Design for Ecological Democracy, The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 2006, p.5.

  18. 18.

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    See “The Isle of Gigha: An Assessment of a Sustainable Rural Community,” by Brendan Craig, 2005, http://www.globalislands.net/userfiles/scotland_9.pdf, Accessed January 27, 2019.

  20. 20.

    See Spengler’s 2-volume Der Untergang des Abendlandes, 1918–1922, Oskar Beck, Munich, 1922.

  21. 21.

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  22. 22.

    See Medieval Must-Haves – The Book of Hours, by Sandra Hindman, Les Enluminures, Paris and New York, 2018, p. 11.

  23. 23.

    See “The Pros and Cons of a Trade Deficit,” by Adam Hayes, May 15, 2015, https://www.investopedia.com/articles/investing/051515/pros-cons-trade-deficit.asp, Accessed January 21, 2019.

  24. 24.

    See Lotka, A. J. (1920). ”Analytical Note on Certain Rhythmic Relations in Organic Systems”. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.6: 410–415. doi:https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.6.7.410. PMC 1084562. PMID 16576509. See also, Volterra, V. (1931). “Variations and fluctuations of the number of individuals in animal species living together”. In Chapman, R. N. Animal Ecology. McGraw–Hill; and Abrams, P. A.; Ginzburg, L. R. (2000). “The nature of predation: prey dependent, ratio dependent or neither?”. Trends in Ecology & Evolution. 15 (8): 337–341. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/s0169-5347(00)01908-x. For a superb recent overview of the theories post-Lotka and Volterra, see “Dynamics from a predator-prey-quarry-resource-scavenger model,” by Joanneke E. Jansen and Robert A. Van Gorder, Theoretical Ecology 11, 19–38(2018), September 14, 2017, Springer Link, https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12080-017-0346-z, Accessed April 28, 2020.

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    See Protractatus, An early version of Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus by Ludwig Wittgenstein, Edited by B. F. McGuinness, T. Nyberg and G. H. von Wright, with a translation by D. F. Pears and B. F. McGuinness, an historical introduction by G. H. von Wright and a facsimile of the author’s manuscript, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, 1971; Philosophical Investigations, 1953, G.E.M. Anscombe and R. Rhees (eds.), G.E.M. Anscombe (trans.), Oxford: Blackwell.

  26. 26.

    See Atlas Of Remote Islands – Fifty Islands I have Never Set Foot On and Never Will, by Judith Schalansky, Translated from the German by Christine Lo, Penguin Books, New York, 2010, p. 10.

  27. 27.

    ibid., p.23.

  28. 28.

    ibid., 26.

  29. 29.

    See Earth’s Earliest Biosphere – Its Origin And Evolution, Edited by J. William Schopf, Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 1983, Chapter 14, “Early Proterozoic Microfossils,” by Hans J. Hofmann and J. William Schopf, pp.321–360.

  30. 30.

    See “UCMP Phylogeny Wing: The Phylogeny of Life,” by Ben Waggoner, http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/alllife/threedomains.html, Accessed January 21, 2019. See also the six, seven and eight kingdom of life theories, Cavalier-Smith, Thomas (2006).”Rooting the tree of life by transition analyses”. Biology Direct. 1: 19. doi:https://doi.org/10.1186/1745-6150-1-19. PMC 1586193. PMID 16834776.

  31. 31.

    Field Notes from a Catastrophe – Man, Nature, And Climate Change, by Elizabeth Kolbert, Bloomsbury Publishing, New York, 2006, pp. 94–95.

  32. 32.

    https://cop24.gov.pl/

  33. 33.

    Written from Monticello, February 17, 1826, in The Writings Of Thomas Jefferson, Collected And Edited By Paul Leicester Ford, G. P. Putnam’s Sons, New York, London, 1899, Volume X, p.377.

  34. 34.

    “Climate Change, Population Growth, and Hunger in the 21st Century – A MAHB Dialogue with Gernot Laganda,” by Geoffrey Holland, https://mahb.stanford.edu/blog/climate-change-population-growth-hunger-21st-century-mahb-dialogue-gernot-laganda/Accessed January 25, 2019.

  35. 35.

    See https://www.learner.org/courses/envsci/unit/text.php?unit=5&secNum=4; See also Population Reference Bureau’s http://www.worldpopdata.org/Accessed January 27, 2019.

  36. 36.

    See Beethoven’s Ninth – A Political History, by Esteban Buch, Translated by Richard Mille, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Ill., 2003, Chapter Ten. That Beethoven was, after all, vulnerable; a human being, member of a population, is borne out by one particularly curious piece of memorabilia: a handwritten “shopping list” given to his servant and “comprising six items including a mousetrap and a metronome.” See “Inlibris at the 2020 Ludwigsburg Antiquarian Book Fair and the California International Antiquarian Book Fair,” https://www.google.com/search?q=Inlibris+at+the+2020+Ludwigsburg+Antiquarian+Book+Fair+and+the+California+International+Antiquarian+Book+Fair,%E2%80%9D&client=safari&rls=en&source=lnms&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjD5Oe5lZrnAhUDPH0KHX8aAmYQ_AUIDCgA&biw=1439&bih=821&dpr=2, Accessed January 23, 2020.

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    See “Understanding the Land Ethic,” by Jennifer Kobylecky, May 29, 2015, The Aldo Leopold Foundation, https://www.aldoleopold.org/post/understanding-land-ethic/Accessed January 23, 2019; See also, A Sand County Almanac Illustrated, by Aldo Leopold, Photographs by Tom Algire, Tamarack Press, Madison, Wisconsin, A special edition for the benefit of the Leopold Fund, 1978; See also, Leopold Archives: https://uwdc.library.wisc.edu/collections/aldoleopold/.

  38. 38.

    See The Theoretical Individual: Imagination, Ethics and the Future of Humanity, by M.C.Tobias and J.G.Morrison, Springer Nature, New York and Switzerland, 2018; See also, The Hypothetical Species: Variables of Human Evolution, by M.C.Tobias and J.G.Morrison, Springer Nature, New York and Switzerland, 2019.

  39. 39.

    From Translator’s Note, Utamaro: A Chorus Of Birds, with an Introduction by Juia Meech-Pekarik, and a Note on kyõka and translations by James T. Kenney, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, A Studio Book – The Viking Press, New York, 1981.

  40. 40.

    See See Paul Horwich, “The Nature of Paradox” in his book, Truth-Meaning-Reality, Oxford University Press, New York, 2010, DOI:https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199268900.003.0011. Oxford Scholarship Online, Chapter 2, Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: February 2010, http://www.oxfordscholarship.com/view/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199268900.001.0001/acprof-9780199268900-chapter-2, Accessed January 23, 2019. See also, “How we know biodiversity: institutions and knowledge-policy relationships,” by Rajeswari S. Raina and Debanjana Dey, Sustainability Science, Sustain Sci 15, 975–984 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11625-019-00774-w, January 2, 2020, https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11625-019-00774-w?sap-outbound-id=5476E303368693D1AE8022A18261041F4DA33070&utm_source=hybris-campaign&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=000_NISH01_0000002209_SPSN_AWA_KN01_GL_WED2020&utm_content=EN_internal_7025_20200606&mkt-key=42010A0557EB1EDA9BA8DCC3BF5B4FBD

  41. 41.

    Gallimard Publishers, Paris, 1938; for quotation, see “The Chestnut Tree: The Experience of Contingency,” http://twren.sites.luc.edu/phil120/ch10/nausea.htm.

  42. 42.

    Émile Cioran, History And Utopia, Translated from the French by Richard Howard, Seaver Books, New York, 1960, p. 83.

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Tobias, M.C., Morrison, J.G. (2021). Paradoxical Frontiers. In: On the Nature of Ecological Paradox. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-64526-7_8

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