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Protected Area Dilemmas

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Abstract

This chapter looks at contradictions in protective network comparisons, rankings, and their overall place within a biosphere whose vulnerabilities continue to be exploited by one species. The dialectic at the heart of ecological paradox is unsparing. Since October 1945, when the UN was founded, the human population has soared over 300%, from approximately 2.5 billion to over 7.8 billion.

During that same period the Green Revolution came of age, spawning great faith in technology to feed humanity through more genetic hybrid innovation, more sustainable land tenure and agricultural reforms that all promise greater parity, empowerment of women, environmental justice, and sustainable land use. Instead, other paradoxes—famine amid plenty, of a parched and violent world—have cascaded. Since the mid-1980s, our species has exceeded the appropriation of 40% of all the products of photosynthesis on the planet, or NPP, net primary production. No species has ever so trespassed, throwing into confusion the very nature of globalization, given our one species’ surreal sense of superiority and accompanying dominion by force over every continent.

Keywords

  • Net primary production
  • Green Revolution
  • EPA
  • US Wilderness Act
  • Gross national happiness
  • Bhutan
  • John Ruskin
  • George Kennan

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Notes

  1. 1.

    See “Biodiversity Conservation in Russia,” by D. S. Pavlov and M. I. Shatunovsky, Area Studies-Russia (Regional Sustainable Development Review) – Vol. 1, in Nicolay Pavlovich Laverov, (editor), Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems, EOLSS/UNESCO, Oxford, UK, 2009, pp.159-165, https://www.eolss.net/Sample-Chapters/C16/E1-56-08.pdf

  2. 2.

    See “The countries that are best at conservation are the ones that depend on wildlife tourism,” by Neha Thirani Bagri, Quartz, May 9, 2017, https://qz.com/979450/the-countries-that-are-best-at-conservation-are-the-ones-that-depend-on-wildlife-tourism/Accessed February 22, 2020.

  3. 3.

    See “Political Institutions and Conservation Outcomes: Wildlife Policy in Zambia,” by Clark C. Gibson, Swiss Political Science Review 6(1): 87-121, 2000, https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/j.1662-6370.2000.tb00287.x, Accessed February 22, 2020.

  4. 4.

    See “On the frontline of Africa’s wildlife wars,” by John Vidal, The Guardian, May 7, 2016, https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2016/may/07/africa-frontline-of-wildlife-wars, Accessed February 22, 2020.

  5. 5.

    See “For the famed chimps of Gombe, human encroachment takes a toll,” by Anthony Langat, February 28, 2019, Mongabay, https://news.mongabay.com/2019/02/for-the-famed-chimps-of-gombe-human-encroachment-takes-a-toll/Accessed February 22, 2020.

  6. 6.

    See “World Population Review,” “Africa Population 2020,” http://worldpopulationreview.com/continents/africa-population/Accessed February 22, 2020.

  7. 7.

    See Mountain Gorilla Conservation Fund, http://www.saveagorilla.org/60-Questions.html,Accessed February 22, 2020.

  8. 8.

    The chicken statistic cited in, “Noah Strycker’s ‘Thing with Feathers’,” by Brendan Francis Newnam, Dinner Party, March 8, 2014, http://www.dinnerpartydownload.org/noah-strycker/: The Cyclothone number taken from, “This strange, glowing fish is more abundant than rats, chickens, and humans combined,” by Cody Sullivan, June 30, 2015, Business Insider, https://www.businessinsider.com/bristlemouth-fish-is-the-most-abundant-vertebrate-on-earth-2015-6, which in turn borrows from, “An Ocean Mystery in the Trillions,” by William J. Broad, The New York Times, June 29, 2015, https://www.nytimes.com/2015/06/30/science/bristlemouth-ocean-deep-sea-cyclothone.html, Accessed February 22, 2020.

  9. 9.

    See 2018 United Nations List of Protected Areas, Supplement on protected area management effectiveness, pp. 40-43, https://wdpa.s3.amazonaws.com/UN_List_2018/2018%20List%20of%20Protected%20Areas_EN.pdf

  10. 10.

    See https://www.wilderness.org/articles/article/wilderness-designation-faqs, Accessed February 22, 2020.

  11. 11.

    See, for example, community monitoring in Colorado, https://wildernessworkshop.org/wilderness-monitoring/

  12. 12.

    See “Terrestrial Protected Areas,” Index Mundi, https://www.indexmundi.com/facts/indicators/ER.LND.PTLD.ZS/rankings, Accessed February 22, 2020.

  13. 13.

    See Himalayan Transitions: An Assessment of Conservation Priorities in Bhutan, Unpublished Manuscript in Review, by Dr. Ugyen Tshewang, Michael Charles Tobias, and Jane Gray Morrison, Dancing Star Foundation Research Project, 2021.

  14. 14.

    See “Slovenia Country Briefing – The European Environment – state and outlook 2015, February 18, 2015, https://www.eea.europa.eu/soer-2015/countries/slovenia, Accessed February 22, 2020.

  15. 15.

    See A Compendium of Gross National Happiness (GNH) Statistics, National Statistics Bureau of Bhutan; See also: The Last Shangri-la? A Conversation with Bhutan’s Secretary of the National Environment Commission, Dr. Ugyen Tshewang, Michael C. Tobias, 2011, Forbes.

  16. 16.

    See www.un-redd.org/aboutredd

  17. 17.

    See http://www.rewildingeurope.com/areas/

  18. 18.

    See “New Conservation Corridor Latest Environmental Triumph for Suriname,” by Dr. Russell A. Mittermeier, April 14, 2015, https://www.conservation.org/blog/new-conservation-corridor-latest-environmental-triumph-for-suriname/Accessed March 3, 2020.

  19. 19.

    Island Press/Shearwater Books, Washington, D.C., 2000.

  20. 20.

    See “red fox genome assembly identifies genomic regions associated with tame and aggressive behaviours,” by Anna V. Kukekova, Jennifer L.Johnson, Goujie Zhang, et al., Nature Ecology & Evolution, August 6, 2018, ISSN 2397-334X (online), Accessed August 6, 2018; and “Open Questions: How many genes do we have?” by Steven L. Salzbert, BMC Biology 16, Article number: 94 (2018) BMC Biol 16, 94, August 20, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1186/x12915-018-0564-x, Accessed February 22, 2020.

  21. 21.

    See “Industrial farming is one of the worst crimes in history,” by Yuval Noval Harai, The Guardian, September 25, 2015, https://www.theguardian.com/books/2015/sep/25/industrial-farming-one-worst-crimes-history-ethical-question

  22. 22.

    See M. C. Tobias and J. G. Morrison, God’s Country: The New Zealand Factor, A Dancing Star Foundation Book, Zorba Press, Los Angeles CA and Ithaca, NY, 2010.

  23. 23.

    See “Seeing the forest and the trees, all 3 trillion of them,” by Kevin Dennehy, September 2, 2015, YaleNews, https://news.yale.edu/2015/09/02/seeing-forest-and-trees-all-3-trillion-them, Accessed February 22, 2020.

  24. 24.

    See “Get Back In The Car: Vegetarian IPCC Chairman Rajendra Pachauri Says Less Meat Will Slow Global Warming,” News Staff at Scientific Blogging, September 6, 2008, https://www.science20.com/news_releases/get_back_in_the_car_vegetarian_ipcc_chairman_rajendra_pachauri_says_less_meat_will_slow_global_warming_more; See also, “Go vegetarian to limit climate change: IPCC report,” by Graham Lloyd, The Weekend Australian, August 8, 2019, https://www.theaustralian.com.au/nation/go-vegetarian-to-limit-climate-change-ipcc-report/news-story/411604a4b88159d85859e72fa5aee888, Accessed February 22, 2020.

  25. 25.

    See Donald K. Anton, “`Treaty Congestion’ in International Environmental Law,” International Law Reporter, January 24, 2012, http://ilreports.blogspot.com/2012/01/anton-treaty-congestion-in.html; and Lawrence Susskind, “Strengthening the Global Environmental Treaty System,” Issues in Science and Technology, Volume XXV, Issue 1, Fall 2008, http://issues.org/25-1/susskind/; See “IEA Project Contents” for “Environmental agreements currently in the database,” https://iea.uoregon.edu/iea-project-contents, Accessed May 13, 2020.

  26. 26.

    See New Zealand to turn Kermadec into vast marine reserve, BBC News, September 29, 2015, http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-34387945

  27. 27.

    See “Human Appropriation of the Productions of Photosynthesis,”by Peter Vitousek, Paul R. Ehrlich, Anne H. Ehrlich and Pamela Matson, 1986, http://dieoff.com/page83.htm; See also, also: http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/GlobalMaps/view.php?d1=MOD17A2_M_PSN

  28. 28.

    See Sign Systems Studies, 33 (1):205-226 (2005) https://philpapers.org/rec/LOTOTS-2

  29. 29.

    See http://www.environmentandsociety.org/mml/should-trees-have-standing-law-morality-and-environment, Accessed July 29, 2020.

  30. 30.

    See http://www.nybooks.com/articles/archives/1981/jul/16/a-modest-proposal/

  31. 31.

    See “Anthropocene: the human age,” by Richard Monastersky, Nature, March 11, 2015, http://www.nature.com/news/anthropocene-the-human-age-1.17085

  32. 32.

    George Urban, September 1976, “From Containment to Self-Containment: A conversation with George Kennan”, Encounter, p.17.

  33. 33.

    See “Ecological Challenges in a Global Context,” November 4, 2015, https://mahb.stanford.edu/library-item/ecological-challenges-in-a-global-context/; See also, https://en.globalistika.ru/mediateka, and https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jzKFe1hoNHc.

  34. 34.

    See “About the Sustainability Development Goals,” https://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/sustainable-development-goals, Accessed July 24, 2020.

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Tobias, M.C., Morrison, J.G. (2021). Protected Area Dilemmas. In: On the Nature of Ecological Paradox. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-64526-7_4

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