Skip to main content

A Cave at Taranga

  • 174 Accesses


Environmental epidemiologists have endeavored to both track and offer ameliorative solutions for an age teeming with depression. The US Preventative Services Task Force (USPSTF), for example, describes eight primary tests utilized in the diagnosis of human psychological morbidity. But the characterizations scarcely account for what appears to be an unambiguous response to a massive set of ill-boding and self-imposed ecological circumstances. Yet, for several thousand years, our species has felt the pangs of loss, of self-infliction on others, and the inexplicable dilemma of being human amid biological whorls of chaos; a condition perhaps most assiduously studied in the annals of Jain ethics, and its remarkable culmination in the all-encompassing philosophy of ahimsa, nonviolence.


  • Taranga
  • India
  • Jainism
  • Digambara monks
  • Mahavira
  • Nirvana
  • Environmental stress
  • Hopf Bifurcation
  • Pi
  • Jivas

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-64526-7_18
  • Chapter length: 18 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
USD   39.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-3-030-64526-7
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Softcover Book
USD   54.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Hardcover Book
USD   54.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Fig. 18.1
Fig. 18.2
Fig. 18.3


  1. 1.

    Colin McEvedy; Richard Jones (1978). Atlas of World Population History. New York: Facts on File. pp. 182–185.

  2. 2.

    See That Which Is – Tattvartha Sutra – A Classic Jain Manual For Understanding The True Nature of Reality, Translated by Nathmal Tatia, With the combined commentaries of Umasvati/Umasvami, Pujyapada and Siddhasenagani, With a foreword by L.M.Singhvi and an introduction to the Jaina fath by Padmanabsh S. Jaini, The Institute of Jainology, HarperCollins Publishers, San Francisco, CA, 1994. In addition, see the three commentaries on the Tattvartha Sutra “used as the Basis of the Commentary” in the translation by Nathmal Tatia, namely: Svopajna Bhasya, by Umasvati and recognized as authentic by the Svetambara sect, ed. Pandit Khubchandji Siddhantashstri, Shrimad Rajchandra Jain Shastramala, Bombay, 1932; Svopajna Bhasya Tika, by Siddhasenagani, Svetambara sect, 2 vols., Seth Devchand Lalbhai Jain Pustakoddhara Fund, series nos. 67 & 76; and Sarvarthasiddhi, by Pujyapada Devanandi, of the Digambara sect, 4th edition,Bharatiya Jnanapitha, Delhi, 1989.

  3. 3.

    See Uttaradhyayana by Bhadrabahu, English translation by the great German Indologist, Hermann Jacobi, in the Sacred Books of the East, Volume XLV, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, 1895, Reprinted in 1980, Jaina Sutras, Part II, by Motilal Banarsidass Publishers PVT. LTD., Delhi Lecture XXIII, p. 128.

  4. 4.

    See Lord Mahavira And His Times, by Kailash Chand Jain, Motilal Banarsidass Publishers PVT. LTD., Delhi, Revised edition, 1991, p. 95.

  5. 5.

    ibid., Kailash Chand Jain, p. 94.

  6. 6.

    ibid., p. 111.

  7. 7.

    ibid., pp. 112–119.

  8. 8.

    See, for example, The Peaceful Liberators – Jain Art from India, by Pratapaditya Pal, with contributions by Shridhar Andhare, John E. Cort, Sadashiv Gorakshakar, Phyllis Granoff, John Guy, Gerald James Larson and Stephen Markel, Los Angeles County Museum Of Art, Los Angeles, 1994, p. 76, Cat. 105, “Hall of the Universal Sermon, (Samavasarana, detail) Rajasthan, Jaipur, c. 1800.

  9. 9.

    For a superb overview of such paintings, see, Treasures of Jaina Bhandaras, General Editors, Dalsukh Malavnia, and Nagin J. Shah; Edited by Umakant P. Shah, L.D.Series 69, L.D.Institute Of Indology, Ahmedabad, 1978. See also the three-volume, Jaina Art And Architecture, Published on the Occasion of the 2500th Nirvana Anniversary of Tirthankara Mahavira, Edited by A. Ghosh, Bharatiya Jnanpith, New Delhi, 1974; and see, Kalpasutra – Eighth Chapter of the Dasasrutaskandha of Bhadrabahu, with Hindi and English Versions and Coloured Reproductions of Original 16th Century Miniatures, Editor & Hindi Translator, Mahopadhyaya Vinaya Sagar, English Translation by Dr. Mukund Lath, Note on Paintings by Dr. (Smt.) Chandramani Singh, Published by D. R. Mehta, Prakrit Bharati, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India, 1977.

  10. 10.

    See the PBS documentary, “Ahimsa-NonViolence,” by Michael Tobias, 1987, as well as the book, Life Force – The World of Jainism, by Michael Tobias, Asian Humanities Press, Freemont, CA, 1981.

  11. 11.

    See A Sourcebook In Jaina Philosophy, by Devendra Muni Shastri, Translated into English by Dr. T. G. Kalghatgi, Edited by Dr. T.S. Devodoss, Sri Tarak Guru Jain Granthalaya, Udaipur, India, 1983, p. 538.

  12. 12.

    Translation by Dr. Padmanabh S. Jaini, in Life Force, ibid., p. 92.

  13. 13.

    See Asceticism In Ancient India, by Haripada Chakraborti, Punthi Pustak Publishing, Calcutta, 1973, pp. 423, 425.

  14. 14.

    The Akaranga Sutra, Book I, Lecture 1, Lesson 3, in Jaina Sutras, Translated from Prakrit by Hermann Jacobi, Motilal Banarsidass, New Delhi, 1980, pp. 4–5. First published by Oxford University Press, 1884, with Translations by Hermann Jacobi. Moreover, when Mahavira spoke of earth-bodies, he was explicitly referencing every life-form imaginable, from “seeds” and “sprouts” to “lichens,” “water-bodies and fire-bodies and wind-bodies…” (–12, Jacobi, 1884).

  15. 15.

    See Times of India, September 1, 2018,, Accessed March 30, 2019; See also, “Jainism - Its relevance to psychiatric practice; with special reference to the practice of Sallekhana,” by Ottilingam Somasundaram, A. G. Tejus Murthy,1 and D. Vijaya Raghavan, Indian J Psychiatry. 2016 Oct-Dec; 58(4): 471–474., PMCID: PMC5270277, PMID: 28197009, PMC, NCBI, US National Library of Medicine, Accessed March 26, 2019.

  16. 16.

    See Environmental Meditation, by Michael Tobias, Crossing Press, Freedom, CA, 1993, pp. 47–65; See also, Hermann Jacobi’s essay, “On Mahavira and His Predecessors,” in Indian Antiquary, IX, pp. 158–163.

  17. 17.

    See Ajahn Sucitto. Turning the Wheel of Truth: Commentary on the Buddha’s First Teaching, Shambhala Publishers, Vermont, 2010

  18. 18.

    See “World population stabilization unlikely this century,” Patrick Gerland, Adrian E. Raftery, Hana Ševčíková, Nan Li, Danan Gu, Thomas Spoorenberg, Leontine Alkema, Bailey K. Fosdick, Jennifer Chunn, Nevena Lalic, Guiomar Bay, Thomas Buettner, Gerhard K. Heilig, John Wilmoth, Accessed March 28, 2019; See also, “What if fertility decline is not permanent? The need for an evolutionarily informed approach to understanding low fertility,” Oskar Burger and John P. DeLong, The Royal Society Publishing, Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci, 19, v.371(1692); 2016 Apr 19,PMC4822437, 20150157., PMCID: PMC4822437, PMID: 27022084, Accessed March 28, 2019.

  19. 19.

    See “Ecological anxiety disorder: diagnosing the politics of the Anthropocene” Paul Robbins, Sarah A. Moore, First Published January 7, 2013,

    Volume: 20 issue: 1, page(s): 3–19, Article first published online: January 7, 2013; Issue published: January 1, 2013, Sage Journals, Cultural Geographies,, Accessed March 31, 2019.

  20. 20.

    Immanuel Kant’s Critique Of Pure Reason, translated by F. Max Müller, Macmillan Company, London 1896, pp. xvii–xviii.

  21. 21.

    See, for example, World Health Organization tabulations of depression globally – said to be the number one disabler of individuals:, Accessed March 31, 2019; And the WHO statistics on the approximately 800,000 suicides per year worldwide: Accessed March 31, 2019.

  22. 22.

    From “Meditative Sequences,” quoted in Contemplation and The Creative Process, by Ann T. Foster, The Edwin Mellen Press, Lewiston, NY, 1985, p. 102.

  23. 23.

    ”Buddha’s last words,” in The Wisdom of Buddhism, edited by Christmas Humphreys, Random House, New York, 1961, p.94.

  24. 24.

    Four Birds of Noahs Arke, republished b Appleton & Co., New York, 1925; See also, Sarah Hinlicky Wilson’s review of a 2017 edition, “Review of ‘Four Birds of Noah’s Ark,’ by Thomas Dekker,” Lutheran Forum, October 9, 2017,, Accessed March 31, 2019.

  25. 25.

    “Chronic Environmental Change: Emerging ‘Psychoterratic’ Syndromes,” by Albrecht G. In: Weissbecker I., ed., Climate Change and Human Well-Being. International and Cultural Psychology. Springer, New York, NY,, First Online 22 June 2011, Springer, New York, NY; See also, “Flooding and mental health: A systematic mapping review,” Fernandez, A., Black, J., Jones, M., Wilson, L., Salvador-Carulla, L., Astell-Burt, T., & Black, D. (2015), PLOS ONE, 10(4), e0119929; See also, Anderson, C. A. (2012). “Climate change and violence. In D. Christie (Ed.), The encyclopedia of peace psychology. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell.; See also, Hobfoll, S. E. (1989). “Conservation of resources: A new attempt at conceptualizing stress,” American Psychologist, 44(3), 513–524; See also, Lee, H. C., Lin, H. C., Tsai, S. Y., Li, C. Y., Chen, C. C., & Huang, C. C. (2006). Suicide rates and the association with climate: A population-based study,” by Lee, H. C., Lin, H. C., Tsai, S. Y., Li, C. Y., Chen, C. C., & Huang, C.C., Journal of Affective Disorders,, Accessed March 28, 2019; See also, Hanigan, I. C., Butlera, C. D., Kokicc, C. N., & Hutchinson, M. F. (2012). Suicide and drought in New South Wales, Australia, 1970–2007. PNAS, 109(35), 13950–13955; “Global warming is breeding social conflict: The subtle impact of climate change threat on authoritarian tendencies,” by Fritsche, I., Cohrs, J., Kessler, T., & Bauer, J.. Journal of Environmental Psychology 32(1): March 2012,; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Center for Environmental Health. (2014). “Impact of climate change on mental health,” Accessed March 28. 2019; See also, “How Climate-Related Natural Disasters Affect Mental Health,” American Psychiatric Association, by Joshua C. Morganstein, M.D. Robin Cooper, M.D, July 2017, Accessed Marche 28. 2019; “There is evidence that increases in mean temperature are associated with increased use of emergency mental health services.” “Mental Health and Our Changing Climate: Impacts, Implications and Guidance,” March 2017, American Psychological Association, Climate For Life and EcoAmerica, Editors and Contributors, Ashlee Cunsolo, PhD, Director, Labrador Institute of Memorial University Victoria Derr, PhD, Assistant Professor, Environmental Studies, California State University, Monterey Bay Thomas Doherty, PsyD, Licensed Clinical Psychologist Paige Fery, Research Coordinator, ecoAmerica Elizabeth Haase, MD, Chair, Climate Psychiatry Committee, Group for the Advancement of Psychiatry Associate Professor, University of Nevada, Reno, School of Medicine John Kotcher, PhD, Post-doctoral Research Fellow, Center for Climate Change Communication, George Mason University Linda Silka, PhD, Psychologist, Senior Fellow, Senator George J. Mitchell Center for Sustainability Solutions Lise Van Susteren, MD, Psychiatrist, Private Practice Jennifer Tabola, Senior Director, Climate for Health, EcoAmerica, Washington DC and San Francisco, 2017, p. 25., Accessed March 26.

  26. 26.

    See “Trends in mental illness and suicidality after Hurricane Katrina,” Ronald C. Kessler, Sandro Galea, Michael J. Gruber, Nancy A. Sampson, Robert J. Ursano, and Simon Wessely, Mol Psychiatry. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2008 Oct 1, PMCID: PMC2556982, NIHMSID: NIHMS69926, PMID: 18180768, PMC2556982, NCBI, US National Library of Medicine, Published in final edited form as:Mol Psychiatry. 2008 Apr; 13(4): 374–384. Published online 2008 Jan 8.,, Accessed March 26, 2019; See also, “Assessment of suicidal intention: The Scale for Suicide Ideation,” Beck, Aaron T. Kovacs, Maria Weissman, Arlene, Beck, A. T., Kovacs, M., & Weissman, A. (1979). Assessment of suicidal intention: The Scale for Suicide Ideation. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 47(2), 343-352.,, APA PsycNET,American Psychological Association.

  27. 27.

    See Lagerblad, Anna (December 6, 2010). “Climate anxiety new phenomenon in psychiatry”. Svenska Dagbladet. Schibsted.

  28. 28.

    See for example, “Sentinel Health Events (occupational): a basis for physician recognition and public health surveillance.”D D Rutstein, R J Mullan, T M Frazier, W E Halperin, J M Melius, and J P Sestito, Am J Public Health. 1983 September; 73(9): 1054–1062. PMCID: PMC1651048, PMID: 6881402,, Accessed March 28, 2019; See also, The Diseases of Occupations, Sixth Edition, Donald Hunter, C.B.E., D.Sc., M.D., F.R.C.P., Hodder and Stoughton, London. ISBN 0-340-22084-8, 1978

  29. 29.

    See Chapter 2 of Clarence J. Glacken’s Traces on the Rhodian Shore – Nature And Culture In Western Thought From Ancient Times To The End Of The Eighteenth Century, University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1967.

  30. 30., Accessed March 26, 2019. See, for example, “Environmental stress, adaptation and evolution: an overview,” R. Bijlsma and V. Loeschcke, First published: 13 July 2005, Journal of Evolutionary Biology,,

  31. 31.

    See Evol Appl. 2012 Feb;5(2):117–29. Epub 2011 Nov 7., “Genetic erosion impedes adaptive responses to stressful environments,” Bijlsma R, Loeschcke V, PMD, 25568035, PMCID:, PMC3353342,,, Accessed April 1, 2019.

  32. 32.

    For in-depth discussion, see the Author’s book, The Hypothetical Species: Variables of Human Evolution, Springer, New York, 2019.

  33. 33.

    See, for example, A&A 380, L5–L8 (2001) c ESO 2001 Astronomy & Astrophysics Zeeman-split opposite-polarity OH lines in sunspot spectra: Resolution of a puzzle S. V. Berdyugina1 and S. K. Solanki, October 2001;, Accessed March 26, 2019; See also,, Accessed √March 26,2019; See also, Song C, Phenix H, Abedi V, Scott M, Ingalls BP, et al. 2010, “Estimating the Stochastic Bifurcation Structure of Cellular Networks,” PLoS Comput Biol 6(3):,, Accessed April 1, 2019; See also, Gregor F. Fussmann, Stephen P. Ellner, Kyle W. Shertzer, and Nelson G. Hairston Jr. Crossing the Hopf Bifurcation in a Live Predator–Prey System. Science. 17 November 2000: 290 (5495), 1358–1360.

  34. 34.

    See Sir Thomas Little Heath’s work, A History of Greek Mathematics, Clarendon Press, Oxford, UK, 1921.

  35. 35.

    See N.V.R. Mahadev and Uri N. Peled, Threshold Graphs and Related Topics, North Holland, Volume 56, 1995; See also, the paper written by Leonhard Euler on the “Seven Bridges of Königsberg,” and published in 1736, See Biggs, N.; Lloyd, E.; Wilson, R. Graph Theory, 1736–1936, Oxford University Press, 1986.

  36. 36.

    See The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Back Depression inventory, Patient Health Questionnaire, Major Depression Inventory, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, Zung Self-Rate Depression Scale, Geriatric Depression Scale, and the Cornell Sale for Depression in Dementia. In addition are other related conditions including Postpartum Depression, Pediatric Depression, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Depression, and Respiratory Depression in the Postoperative period. In addition, there are innumerable approaches to ascertaining suicide in at risk populations. not to mention every analysis pertaining to suicide at risk populations, in addition to a slew of other psychiatric studies attempting to correlate such seemingly abstruse causes-and-effects between bacteria in the gut and depression, gum disease, cannabis use, and/or pomegranate juice in relation to Alzheimer’s or other type memory declines.MEDSCAPE,, Accessed March 26, 2019; See also, Screening Tests for Depression, Updated: Dec 23, 2018, Author: David Bienenfeld, MD; Chief Editor: David Bienenfeld, MD,

  37. 37.

    See for example, “Grown-Ups Get a Scolding on Climate,” Inspired by a Swedish teenager, students around the world on Friday will protest political inaction, By The Editorial Board; The editorial board represents the opinions of the board, its editor and the publisher. It is separate from the newsroom and the Op-Ed section.

    March 12, 2019,, Accessed April 1, 2019; See also, “There is hope amidst environmental anxiety, says a scholar of ecotheology,”University of Helsinki, Public Release, Dec. 14, 2018., Accessed March, 26, 2019; See also, “Burger King is rolling out a meatless Whopper. Can McDonald’s be far behind?” By Tim Carman, April 1 2019, The Washington Post,, Accessed April 1, 2019. See also “The meat industry will be completely gone in 15 years, Impossible Foods CEO says,” by Steve Goldstein, MarketWatch, June 24, 2020,

  38. 38.

    Santisuri, Jiva Vicara Prakaranam, along with Pathaka Ratnakara’s Commentary, Edited by Muni Ratna-Prabha Vijaya, translated by Jayant P. Thaker, Madras 1950.

  39. 39.

    See op.cit., Life Force – The World Of Jainism, Tobias, p. 67.

  40. 40.

    ibid., p. 66.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2021 Springer Nature Switzerland AG

About this chapter

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this chapter

Tobias, M.C., Morrison, J.G. (2021). A Cave at Taranga. In: On the Nature of Ecological Paradox. Springer, Cham.

Download citation