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A Cave at Taranga

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Abstract

Environmental epidemiologists have endeavored to both track and offer ameliorative solutions for an age teeming with depression. The US Preventative Services Task Force (USPSTF), for example, describes eight primary tests utilized in the diagnosis of human psychological morbidity. But the characterizations scarcely account for what appears to be an unambiguous response to a massive set of ill-boding and self-imposed ecological circumstances. Yet, for several thousand years, our species has felt the pangs of loss, of self-infliction on others, and the inexplicable dilemma of being human amid biological whorls of chaos; a condition perhaps most assiduously studied in the annals of Jain ethics, and its remarkable culmination in the all-encompassing philosophy of ahimsa, nonviolence.

Keywords

  • Taranga
  • India
  • Jainism
  • Digambara monks
  • Mahavira
  • Nirvana
  • Environmental stress
  • Hopf Bifurcation
  • Pi
  • Jivas

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Fig. 18.1
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Notes

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    Colin McEvedy; Richard Jones (1978). Atlas of World Population History. New York: Facts on File. pp. 182–185.

  2. 2.

    See That Which Is – Tattvartha Sutra – A Classic Jain Manual For Understanding The True Nature of Reality, Translated by Nathmal Tatia, With the combined commentaries of Umasvati/Umasvami, Pujyapada and Siddhasenagani, With a foreword by L.M.Singhvi and an introduction to the Jaina fath by Padmanabsh S. Jaini, The Institute of Jainology, HarperCollins Publishers, San Francisco, CA, 1994. In addition, see the three commentaries on the Tattvartha Sutra “used as the Basis of the Commentary” in the translation by Nathmal Tatia, namely: Svopajna Bhasya, by Umasvati and recognized as authentic by the Svetambara sect, ed. Pandit Khubchandji Siddhantashstri, Shrimad Rajchandra Jain Shastramala, Bombay, 1932; Svopajna Bhasya Tika, by Siddhasenagani, Svetambara sect, 2 vols., Seth Devchand Lalbhai Jain Pustakoddhara Fund, series nos. 67 & 76; and Sarvarthasiddhi, by Pujyapada Devanandi, of the Digambara sect, 4th edition,Bharatiya Jnanapitha, Delhi, 1989.

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    See Uttaradhyayana by Bhadrabahu, English translation by the great German Indologist, Hermann Jacobi, in the Sacred Books of the East, Volume XLV, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, 1895, Reprinted in 1980, Jaina Sutras, Part II, by Motilal Banarsidass Publishers PVT. LTD., Delhi Lecture XXIII, p. 128.

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    See Lord Mahavira And His Times, by Kailash Chand Jain, Motilal Banarsidass Publishers PVT. LTD., Delhi, Revised edition, 1991, p. 95.

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    ibid., Kailash Chand Jain, p. 94.

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    ibid., p. 111.

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    ibid., pp. 112–119.

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    See, for example, The Peaceful Liberators – Jain Art from India, by Pratapaditya Pal, with contributions by Shridhar Andhare, John E. Cort, Sadashiv Gorakshakar, Phyllis Granoff, John Guy, Gerald James Larson and Stephen Markel, Los Angeles County Museum Of Art, Los Angeles, 1994, p. 76, Cat. 105, “Hall of the Universal Sermon, (Samavasarana, detail) Rajasthan, Jaipur, c. 1800.

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    For a superb overview of such paintings, see, Treasures of Jaina Bhandaras, General Editors, Dalsukh Malavnia, and Nagin J. Shah; Edited by Umakant P. Shah, L.D.Series 69, L.D.Institute Of Indology, Ahmedabad, 1978. See also the three-volume, Jaina Art And Architecture, Published on the Occasion of the 2500th Nirvana Anniversary of Tirthankara Mahavira, Edited by A. Ghosh, Bharatiya Jnanpith, New Delhi, 1974; and see, Kalpasutra – Eighth Chapter of the Dasasrutaskandha of Bhadrabahu, with Hindi and English Versions and Coloured Reproductions of Original 16th Century Miniatures, Editor & Hindi Translator, Mahopadhyaya Vinaya Sagar, English Translation by Dr. Mukund Lath, Note on Paintings by Dr. (Smt.) Chandramani Singh, Published by D. R. Mehta, Prakrit Bharati, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India, 1977.

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    See the PBS documentary, “Ahimsa-NonViolence,” by Michael Tobias, 1987, as well as the book, Life Force – The World of Jainism, by Michael Tobias, Asian Humanities Press, Freemont, CA, 1981.

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  12. 12.

    Translation by Dr. Padmanabh S. Jaini, in Life Force, ibid., p. 92.

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    The Akaranga Sutra, Book I, Lecture 1, Lesson 3, in Jaina Sutras, Translated from Prakrit by Hermann Jacobi, Motilal Banarsidass, New Delhi, 1980, pp. 4–5. First published by Oxford University Press, 1884, with Translations by Hermann Jacobi. Moreover, when Mahavira spoke of earth-bodies, he was explicitly referencing every life-form imaginable, from “seeds” and “sprouts” to “lichens,” “water-bodies and fire-bodies and wind-bodies…” (1.8.1.11–12, Jacobi, 1884).

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    See Environmental Meditation, by Michael Tobias, Crossing Press, Freedom, CA, 1993, pp. 47–65; See also, Hermann Jacobi’s essay, “On Mahavira and His Predecessors,” in Indian Antiquary, IX, pp. 158–163.

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    See “Ecological anxiety disorder: diagnosing the politics of the Anthropocene” Paul Robbins, Sarah A. Moore, First Published January 7, 2013, https://doi.org/10.1177/1474474012469887

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    Immanuel Kant’s Critique Of Pure Reason, translated by F. Max Müller, Macmillan Company, London 1896, pp. xvii–xviii.

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    See, for example, World Health Organization tabulations of depression globally – said to be the number one disabler of individuals: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/depression, Accessed March 31, 2019; And the WHO statistics on the approximately 800,000 suicides per year worldwide: https://www.who.int/mental_health/prevention/suicide/suicideprevent/en/. Accessed March 31, 2019.

  22. 22.

    From “Meditative Sequences,” quoted in Contemplation and The Creative Process, by Ann T. Foster, The Edwin Mellen Press, Lewiston, NY, 1985, p. 102.

  23. 23.

    ”Buddha’s last words,” in The Wisdom of Buddhism, edited by Christmas Humphreys, Random House, New York, 1961, p.94.

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    See Lagerblad, Anna (December 6, 2010). “Climate anxiety new phenomenon in psychiatry”. Svenska Dagbladet. Schibsted.

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    See for example, “Grown-Ups Get a Scolding on Climate,” Inspired by a Swedish teenager, students around the world on Friday will protest political inaction, By The Editorial Board; The editorial board represents the opinions of the board, its editor and the publisher. It is separate from the newsroom and the Op-Ed section.

    March 12, 2019, https://www.nytimes.com/2019/03/12/opinion/climate-change-children-greta-thunberg.html, Accessed April 1, 2019; See also, “There is hope amidst environmental anxiety, says a scholar of ecotheology,”University of Helsinki, Public Release, Dec. 14, 2018. https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2018-12/uoh-tih121418.php, Accessed March, 26, 2019; See also, “Burger King is rolling out a meatless Whopper. Can McDonald’s be far behind?” By Tim Carman, April 1 2019, The Washington Post, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/voraciously/wp/2019/04/01/burger-king-is-rolling-out-a-meatless-whopper-can-mcdonalds-be-far-behind/?noredirect=on&utm_term=.a2d3341ac836, Accessed April 1, 2019. See also “The meat industry will be completely gone in 15 years, Impossible Foods CEO says,” by Steve Goldstein, MarketWatch, June 24, 2020, https://finance.yahoo.com/m/22bde9f5-dab7-34d2-9616-7e204d78796a/the-meat-industry-will-be.html?.tsrc=applewf

  38. 38.

    Santisuri, Jiva Vicara Prakaranam, along with Pathaka Ratnakara’s Commentary, Edited by Muni Ratna-Prabha Vijaya, translated by Jayant P. Thaker, Madras 1950.

  39. 39.

    See op.cit., Life Force – The World Of Jainism, Tobias, p. 67.

  40. 40.

    ibid., p. 66.

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Tobias, M.C., Morrison, J.G. (2021). A Cave at Taranga. In: On the Nature of Ecological Paradox. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-64526-7_18

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