Institutions of higher education and workplaces were not designed with women in mind. External paid work was always meant for men, which led to the creation of organizations with structures, systems, and processes created by men. These settings have also had cultures and chilly climates, generally not welcoming for women. As a result, women have often had outsider status, experienced discriminatory practices based on gender and race, and struggled to achieve their career goals. Though adaptable because they have been socialized to engage in networks and learn from their environments, the costs for women in STEM have been high. Experiences with presumed incompetence and other forms of unconscious bias and disrespect have placed STEM women in double binds, requiring them to work twice as hard, be hypervigilant about their surroundings, and self-affirm they are competent.
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Arredondo, P., Miville, M.L., Capodilupo, C.M., Vera, T. (2022). Organizational Culture and Climate: Historic Systemic Barriers for Women. In: Women and the Challenge of STEM Professions. International and Cultural Psychology. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-62201-5_3
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