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The Abiotic Environment

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Abstract

Current, substrate, and temperature strongly influence species occurrence and abundance for the denizens of running waters. Current governs the physical form of habitat and affects organisms through drag and dislodgment, but also delivers food and nutrients while removing wastes. A variety of sophisticated methods measure current and associated hydraulic forces on substrate and organisms, but it remains challenging to quantify the forces exerted on small organisms residing on substrates, due to both scale and turbulence. Substrate encompasses a wide variety of inorganic and organic material from fine silt to boulders and large wood, making it challenging to quantify. Because most stream-dwelling organisms are ectotherms, temperature influences their metabolic rates, distributions, and quite possibly their success in interacting with other species. Stream temperature can vary on seasonal and daily time scales and among locations due to climate, extent of streamside vegetation, and the relative importance of groundwater inputs. Human activities alter the natural temperature regime by removal of shade, changes to flow paths such as increased impervious surface, construction of impoundments, and by influencing the climate. Stream restoration commonly requires methods to reverse habitat degradation due to human-caused changes in these features of the abiotic environment.

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  • DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-61286-3_5
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Fig. 5.1

(Reproduced from Jowett 2003)

Fig. 5.2

(Reproduced from Hart and Finelli 1999)

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(Reproduced from Hart and Finelli 1999)

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(Reproduced from Lacey and Roy 2008)

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(Reproduced from Brooks et al. 2005)

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(Reproduced from Nikora et al. 1998)

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(Reproduced from Mérigoux and Dolédec 2004)

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(Reproduced from Lamouroux et al. 2010)

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(Reproduced from Barnes et al. 2013)

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(Reproduced from Kemp et al. 2011)

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(Reproduced from Descloux et al. 2013)

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(Reproduced from Thomaz and Cunha 2010)

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(Reproduced from Thomaz and Cunha 2010)

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(Reproduced from Thomaz et al. 2008)

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(Reproduced from Singer et al. 2010)

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(Reproduced from Whiteway et al. 2010)

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(Reproduced from Miller et al. 2010)

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(Reproduced from Lorenz et al. 2012)

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(Reproduced from Olden and Naiman 2010)

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(Reproduced from Olden and Naiman 2010)

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(Reproduced from Sweeney and Vannote 1981)

Fig. 5.22

(Reproduced from Domisch et al. 2011)

Fig. 5.23

(Reproduced from Jonsson and Jonsson 2009)

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Correspondence to J. David Allan .

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Allan, J.D., Castillo, M.M., Capps, K.A. (2021). The Abiotic Environment. In: Stream Ecology . Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-61286-3_5

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