Skip to main content

History of the Corporatization of American Medicine: The Market Paradigm Reigns

  • Chapter
  • First Online:
The Corporatization of American Health Care

Abstract

Economic systems have been analyzed and debated by economists and governmental leaders for centuries. Historically, economic systems have been assessed by the products and techniques of production and how they are distributed, today with capitalism predominant and with mounting inequality within every society. Under global capitalism, ownership of land and productive capital is chiefly in private hands, with the role of the state fiercely debated with continual attempts seeking to restrain its oversight. Social justice in more liberal advanced societies has been championed over time, but the rise of finance capital and its presence in corporate-dominated economies has emerged with a massive concentration of ownership in almost every sector of the American economy. With its tendency toward managerial and administrative quantifications to fix existing flaws in the system, neoclassical economics has prevailed; few alternative or opposing perspectives rarely get debated. Thus, the overall structure is taken as a given and immutable. Global efforts toward privatization and monopolization mark the current stage of development.

The institutional structure of American health care became elaborated under this system of capitalism and reflects much of the larger political economy. As seen in the medical-industrial complex, we are now witnessing a corporate takeover of the supply industries, insurance sector, and provider segments for their profit-making possibilities. What was once a professional dominated service sector with not-for-profit providers has now witnessed a rapid corporate transformation.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

eBook
USD 16.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book
USD 16.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info
Hardcover Book
USD 159.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

References

  • Alinsky, S. (1950). John L. Lewis: An unauthorized biography. JSTOR, 44(4), 1019–1021.

    Google Scholar 

  • Alvarez, L. S., Salmon, J. W., & Swartzman, D. (2011). Int J Health Serv, 41(2):355–370.

    Google Scholar 

  • Anderson, M. R., Smith, L., & Sidel, V. W. (2005). What is social medicine? Monthly review magazine. Available via DIALOG. https://monthlyreview.org/2005/01/01/what-is-social-medicine/. Accessed 1 Mar 2018.

  • Armour, S. (2018). Skimpier health plans get boost. The Wall Street Journal, 21 Feb 2018.

    Google Scholar 

  • Arnsdorf, I., & Greenberg, J. (2018). The VA’s private care program gave companies billions and vets longer wait. ProPublica. Available via DIALOG. https://www.propublica.org/article/va-private-care-program-gave-companies-billions-and-vets-longer-waits. Accessed 14 Sept 2019.

  • Aronowitz, S., & Giroux, H. (1985). Education under siege: The conservative, liberal, and radical debate over schooling. London, UK: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Baran, P., & Sweezy, P. (1966). Monopoly capital: An essay on the American economic and social order (pp. 1–389). New York: Penguin Books.

    Google Scholar 

  • Barnet, R. J., & Muller, R. E. (1974). Global reach: The power of the multinational corporations. New York: Simon and Schuster.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bauman, P. (1976). The formulation and evolution of the health maintenance organization policy 1970-1973. Social Science and Medicine, 10, 129–142.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Bell, C. W. (1996). U.S healthcare piques interest abroad. Modern Healthcare, 26(13), 78.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Berliner, H. S. (1977). Philanthropic foundations and scientific medicine. Unpublished thesis at Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD.

    Google Scholar 

  • Berliner, H. S., & Regan, C. (1987). Multinational operations of US for-profit hospital chains: Trends and implications. American Journal of Public Health, 10(77), 1280–1284.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bhagwati, A. (2019). Private care for vets. The New York Times.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bosch, S. J. (2000). Is Argentina ready for managed care? Community Health, 25(2), 89–94.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Brasfield, M. H. (1993). Health politics and policy, by Theodore Litman and Leonard Robins. Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law, 18(4), 1001–1003.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bresnick, J. (2018). DOJ recovers $2.5B in healthcare fraud, false claims in 2018. Health payer intelligence. Available via DIALOG. https://healthpayerintelligence.com/news/doj-recovers-2.5b-in-healthcare-fraud-false-claims-in-2018. Accessed 25 Jan 2019.

  • Brindle, J. (1969). Prospects for prepaid group practice. American Journal of Public Health, 59, 37–45.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Brinkerhoff, M. B., & Kunz, P. R. (1972). Complex organizations and their environments. Dubuque, IA: WC Brown Co.

    Google Scholar 

  • Brown, E. R. (1976). Public health in imperialism: Early Rockefeller programs at home and abroad. American Journal of Public Health, 66, 897–903.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Brown, E. R. (1983). Medicare and Medicaid: The process, value, and limits of health care reforms. Journal of Health Policy, 4(3), 335–366.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Brown, E. R. (1990). DRGs and the rationing of hospital care. In V. G. Anderson & G. R. Anderson (Eds.), Hospital ethics: Guide for ethical thinking and decision making (pp. 69–90). Germantown, WI: Aspen.

    Google Scholar 

  • Brown, L. D. (1985). Technocratic corporatism and administrative reform in Medicare. Journal of Health Politics, Policy, and Law, 3(10), 579–600.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Brown, M., & McCool, B. P. (1986). Vertical integration: Exploration of a popular strategic concept. Health Care Management Review, 11(4), 7–19.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Capitman, J. (1996). HMOs and the elderly. Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law, 21(2), 380–384.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cassel, C. K. (1985). Doctors and allocation decisions: A new role in the new Medicare. Journal of Health Politics, Policy, and Law, 3(10), 549–564.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Church, J., Gerlock, A., & Smith, D. L. (2018). Neoliberalism and accountability failure in the delivery of services affecting the health of the public. International Journal of Health, 48(4), 641–662.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cohen, J. K. (2019). VA, Defense to establish new office for HER projects. Modern Healthcare.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cohen, R. L. (1985). Aids: The impending quarantine. Health Policy Advisory Center, 4(16), 9–14.

    Google Scholar 

  • Di Leo, J. R., Giroux, H. A., McClennen, S., & Saltman, K. (2013). Neoliberalism, education, and terrorism. New York: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Disch, L. (1996). Publicity-stunt participation and sound bite polemics: The health care debate 1993-94. Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law, J21(1), 3–34.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Donay, C. (2018). Innovation drives deep changes in the structure of economies. Pictet’s View.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dossey, L. (1982). Space, time, and medicine. Boulder, CO: Shambhala.

    Google Scholar 

  • Doyal, L., & Rennell, I. (1979a). Health, illness and the development of Capitalism in Britian. In The political economy of health (pp. 96–138). Boston, MA: Little, Brown.

    Google Scholar 

  • Doyal, L., & Rennell, I. (1979b). Understanding medicine and health. In The political economy of health (pp. 11–46). Boston, MA: Little, Brown.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dranove, D. (2017). The Anthem-Cigna merger: A post-mortem. Health Affairs. Available via DIALOG. https://www.healthaffairs.org/do/10.1377/hblog20170905.061802/full/. Accessed 7 Feb 2019.

  • Dranove, D., & White, W, D. (1997). Medicaid-dependent hospitals and their patients: How have they fared? Dissertation, Northwestern University, University of Illinois at Chicago.

    Google Scholar 

  • Drucker, J., Silver-Greenberg, J., & Kliff, S. (2020). Wealthiest Hospitals Got Billions in Bailout for Struggling Health Providers. Available at: https://www.nytimes.com/2020/05/25/business/coronavirus-hospitals-bailout.html. Accessed October 11, 2020.

  • Edwards, R., Reich, M., & Weisskope, T. (Eds.). (1972). The capitalist system. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Engel, G. (1977). The need for a new medical model: A challenge for biomedicine. Science, 196, 129–136.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Ellwood PM, Anderson NN, Billings JE, Carlson RJ, Hoagberg EJ and McClureW (1971) Health Maintenance Strategy (Papers from the Workshop on International Studies of Medical Care), Medical Care 9(3), 291–298.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ellwood, P. M., Jr., Herbert, M. E. (1973). Health care: Should industry buy it or sell it? Harvard Business Review. (51):99–107.

    Google Scholar 

  • Etheredge, L. (1983). Reagan, congress, and health spending. Health Affairs Journal. Available via DIALOG. https://www.healthaffairs.org/doi/abs/10.1377/hlthaff.2.1.14. Accessed 12 Jan 2018.

  • Etzioni, A. (1961). A comparative analysis of complex organizations on power, involvement, and their correlates. New York: Free Press/Collier-Macmillan.

    Google Scholar 

  • Eyer, J. (1984). Capital, health, and illness. In J. McKinlay (Ed.), Issues in the political economy of health. New York: Tavistock.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fanu, J. L. (1999). The rise and fall of modern medicine. New York: Carroll & Graf Publisher.

    Google Scholar 

  • Federation of American Hospitals. (1981). Federation of American Hospitals 1981 in review: Annual report. Little Rock, AR: Federation of American Hospitals.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ferguson, M. (1978). A new perspective on reality. Mind/Brain Bulletin, 3, 1–4.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fisher, I., Committee of One Hundred on National Health., United States. National Conservation Commission. (1909). Bulletin 30 of the Committee of One Hundred on National Health: being a report on national vitality, its wastes and conservation. Washington: Govt. Print. Off.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fleming, S. (1971). Health maintenance organizations. A prototype: California - Kaiser Foundation-Permanente Program. Hospitals, 45, 56–57.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Ford, J., & Plimmer, G. (2018). Britain was once the pioneer in privatization but now many people believe that investors have run rings around the regulators. That has prompted a rethink about how public utilities should be managed. Financial Times.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fox, D. M. (1979). From reform to relativism: A history of economists and health care. Milbank Memorial Fund Quarterly/Health and Society, 3(57), 297–336.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Frank, A. G. (1967). Capitalism and underdevelopment in Latin America: Historical studies of Chile and Brazil. New York: Monthly Review Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Frank, J. (1963). Persuasion and healing: A comparative study of psychotherapy. Schocken, NY: JHU Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Freidson, E. (1970a). Professional dominance. New York: Atherton Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Freidson, E. (1970b). Profession of medicine. New York: Harper and Row.

    Google Scholar 

  • Freidson, E. (1973). The hospital in modern society. New York: Free Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Freidson, E. (1980). Doctoring together. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Friedman, E. (1978). The end of the line: When a hospital closes. Hospitals, 52, 69–75.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Gilbert, J. (2019). GOA: Veterans health administration: Greater focus on credentialing needed to prevent disqualified providers from delivering patient care. Available via DIALOG. https://www.fedhealthit.com/2019/03/gao-vha-greater-focus-on-credentialing-needed-to-prevent-disqualified-providers-from-delivering-patient-care/. Accessed 17 Sept 2019.

  • Ginzberg, E. (Ed.). (1991). Health service research - Key to health policy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Goffman, E. (1961). Asylums: Essays on the social situation of mental patients and other inmates (pp. 1–386). Garden City, NY: Aldine Transaction.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gold, J. (2019). Will ties to a Catholic hospital system tie doctors’ hands? Kaiser health news. Available via DIALOG. https://californiahealthline.org/news/will-ties-to-a-catholic-hospital-system-tie-doctors-hands/. Accessed 14 Sept 2019.

  • Gooch, K. (2018). Dignity health workers protest amid pending CHI merger. Becker’s Hospital Review. Available via DIALOG. https://www.beckershospitalreview.com/human-capital-and-risk/dignity-health-workers-protest-amid-pending-chi-merger.html. Accessed 18 Jan 2018.

  • Gray, B. (1983). The new health care for profit: Doctors and hospitals in a competitive environment. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Groote, T. D., Paepe, P. D., & Unger, J. P. (2005). Colombia: In vivo test of health sector privatization in the developing world. International Journal of Health Services, 1(35), 125–141.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hagland, M. (1998). Americans abroad. Why United Healthcare went to Germany and what it learned there. Healthplan, 39(5), 67–72.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Ham, C. (1995). International models of managed care. Health Care Management, 2(1), 143–150.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hastings, A. C., Fadiman, J., & Gordon, J. S. (1980). Health for the whole person. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hensley, S. (1999). Brazilian healthcare at a crossroads. Modern Healthcare, 29(20), 34–38.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hermann, E. S. (1981). Corporate control, corporate power. Binghamton, NY: Cambridge Books.

    Google Scholar 

  • Homedes, N., Ugalde, A., & Rovira, F. (2005). The world bank, pharmaceutical policies, and health reforms in Latin America. International Journal of Health Services, 45(4), 691–717.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hotchkiss, D. R., & Jacobalis, S. (1999). Indonesian health care and the economic crisis: Is better managed care the needed reform? Health Policy, 46(3), 195–216.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hurley, E. R. (1995). Promise and performance in managed care: The prepaid group practice model. Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law, 20(4), 1051–1062.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hyans, L. A., Shapiro, W. D., & Brennan, A. T. (1996). Medical practice guidelines in malpractice litigation: An early retrospective. Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law, 21(2), 289–314.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Illich, I. (1976). Medical Nemesis. The expropriation of health. London, UK: McClelland and Stewart Limited.

    Google Scholar 

  • Institute of Medicine. (1986). For-profit enterprise in health care (pp. 1–556). Washington, DC: Institute of Medicine.

    Google Scholar 

  • Institute of Medicine. (2011). The Future of Nursing: Leading Change, Advancing Health, Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK209881/. Accessed on December 2, 2020.

  • Institute of Medicine Study, Gray, B. H., & WJ, M. N. (1986). For-profit enterprise in health care. New England Journal of Medicine, 314, 1523–1528.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Japsen, B. (2018). California clears CVS-Aetna deal after concession to ‘not increase premiums.’ Available via DIALOG. https://www.forbes.com/sites/brucejapsen/2018/11/15/california-clears-cvs-aetna-deal-after-concession-to-not-increase-premiums/#68334ee19814. Accessed 24 Jan 2019.

  • Johnson, D. E. (1984). Multi-unit providers: Survey plots 457 chains’ growth. Modern Healthcare, 14(5), 65–84.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Jopson, B., & Sevastropulo, D. (2017). Trump takes big steps to unwind Obamacare. Financial Times. Available via DIALOG. https://www.ft.com/content/f2ab3844-afc9-11e7-aab9-abaa44b1e130. Accessed 18 Jan 2018.

  • Joynt Maddox, K. E., Oray, E. J., Zheng, J., & Epstein, A. M. (2019). Post-acute care after joint replacement in Medicare’s bundled payments for care improvement initiative. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 67, 1027–1035. https://doi.org/10.1111/jgs.15803

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Jung, Y., & Kwon, S. (2018). How does stronger protection of intellectual property rights affect national pharmaceutical expenditure? An analysis of OECD countries. International Journal of Health, 48(4), 685–701.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kacik, A. (2019a). Catholic health initiatives and dignity health complete merger. Modern Healthcare. Available via DIALOG. https://www.modernhealthcare.com/article/20190201/NEWS/190209994/catholic-health-initiatives-dignity-health-combine-to-form-commonspirit-health. Accessed 14 Sept 2019.

  • Kacik, A. (2019b). One of the constants of healthcare: Rising executive pay. Modern Healthcare, pp. 26–30.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kacik, A., & Bannow, T. (2017). CHI- dignity mega-merger to test co-CEO model. Modern Healthcare. Available via DIALOG. https://www.modernhealthcare.com/article/20171209/NEWS/171209851. Accessed 12 Feb 2019.

  • Kelman, S. (1971). Toward political economy of medical care. Inquiry, 8(3), 30–38.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kennedy, L. (1985). The losses in profits: How proprietaries affect public and voluntary hospitals. Commentary, J23, 3–10.

    Google Scholar 

  • Keohane, D. (2018). France prepares for privatizations take-off. Financial Times.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kheel, R. (2019). VA unveils proposal to expand private health care for veteran. The Hill. Available via DIALOG. https://thehill.com/policy/defense/427704-va-unveils-proposal-for-expanded-private-healthcare-for-veterans. Accessed 7 Feb 2018.

  • Kinney, D. E. (1995). Malpractice reform in the 1990s: Past disappointments, future success? Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law, 20(1), 99–136.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Knowles, M. (2019). Why hospital mergers may harm care quality. Becker’s Hospital Review. Available via DIALOG. https://www.beckershospitalreview.com/quality/why-hospital-mergers-may-harm-care-quality.html. Accessed 17 Sept 2019.

  • Kolko, G. (1963). The triumph of conservatism. A reinterpretation of American History, 1900-1916. New York: The Free Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Krippner, S., & Villoldo, A. (1976). The realms of healing. Millbrae, CA: Celestial Arts.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lawlor, E. F. (1989). The rest of the story: Insights from a cluster of Chicago hospital closures. Dissertation, The University of Chicago.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lawthers, G. A., Localio, R. A., Laird, M. N., Lipsitz, S., Hebert, L., & Brennan, A. T. (1992). Physicians’ perceptions of the risk of being sued. Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law, 17(3), 463–482.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Leichter, M. H. (1993). Paying for health care: Public policy choices for Illinois. Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law, 18(4), 1008–1010.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Light, D. W. (1986). Corporate medicine for profit. Scientific American, 255(6), 38–45.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Light, D. W. (1991). Commentary: Professionalism as a countervailing power. Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law, 16(3), 499–506.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Liu, F., & Salmon, J. W. (2010). Comparison of herbal medicines regulation between China, Germany, and the United States. Integrative Medicine: A Clinician’s Journal, 9(6), 42–49.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ludmerer, K. M. (1985). Learning to heal: The development of American medical education. Rochester, NY: Johns Hopkins University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Luthi, S. (2019). GAO: VA kept medical staff despite misconduct allegations. Modern Healthcare. Available via DIALOG. https://www.modernhealthcare.com/politics-policy/gao-va-kept-medical-staff-despite-misconduct-allegations. Accessed 14 Sept 2019.

  • MacColl, W. (1966). Group practice and prepayment of medical care. Washington, DC: Public Affairs Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • MacLeod, G. K., & Prussin, J. A. (1973). Special article: The continuing evolution of health maintenance organizations. New England Journal of Medicine, 288, 439–443.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Maio, F. D., & Ansell, D. (2018). “As natural as the air around us”: On the origin and development of the concept of structural violence in health research. International Journal of Health, 48(4), 749–759.

    Google Scholar 

  • Market Research. (2018). The 2019–2024 world outlook for internet of things (IoT) healthcare. Available via DIALOG. https://www.marketresearch.com. Accessed 5 Jan 2018.

  • McKenzie, N. F. (1994). Beyond crisis confronting health care in the United States. New York: Meridian.

    Google Scholar 

  • McKinlay, J. B., & McKinlay, S. (1979). Examining trends in the nation’s health. Paper presented at the American Public Health Association Annual Meeting, New York, November, 1979.

    Google Scholar 

  • McKinlay, J. B., McKinlay, S. M., & Beaglehole, R. (1989). A review of the evidence concerning the impact of medical measures on recent mortality and morbidity in the United States. International Journal of Health Services. Available via DIALOG. http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.2190/L73V-NLDL-G7H3-63JC. Accessed 20 Feb 2018.

  • McLafferty, S. (1982). Neighborhood characteristics and hospital closure: A comparison of the public, private, and voluntary hospital systems. Social Science & Medicine, 16, 1667–1674.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • McLafferty, S. (1986). The geographical restructuring of urban hospitals: Spatial dimensions of corporate strategy. Social Science & Medicine, 23(10), 1079–1086.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Mechanic, D. (1991). Sources of countervailing power in medicine. Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law, 16(3), 485–498.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Meyer, H. (1997). Exporting expertise. Healthplan, 38(1), 44–50.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Meyer, H. (2016). Why patients still need EMTALA. Modern Healthcare. Available via DIALOG. https://www.modernhealthcare.com/article/20160326/MAGAZINE/303289881. Accessed 7 Feb 2019.

  • Meyer, H. (2019). VA launches expanded private care as stakeholders worry about glitches. Modern Healthcare, p. 10.

    Google Scholar 

  • Meyer, H., & Bannow, T. (2018). CHI- dignity merger cleared by Vatican. Modern Healthcare. Available via DIALOG. https://www.modernhealthcare.com/article/20181016/NEWS/181019911. Accessed 12 Feb 2019.

  • Meyers, H. (1970). The medical-industrial complex. Fortune, 81(1), 90–126.

    Google Scholar 

  • Miliband, R. (1970). The state in capitalist society: An analysis of the system of power. London, UK: Weidenfeld and Nicholson.

    Google Scholar 

  • Miller, I. (1992). The blue cross association’s voluntary institution building approach to HMO policy: Social learning, leading and language. Unpublished thesis. Union Institute, Cincinnati, OH.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mills, A. (1998). To contract or not to contract? Issues for low and middle-class income countries. Health Policy and Planning, 13(1), 32–40.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Milmo, S. (1987). Private healthcare expected to grow in Europe. Modern Healthcare, pp. 94–95.

    Google Scholar 

  • Moccia, P. (1994). Percent distribution of selected health care practitioners by gender (chart). In Beyond crisis confronting health care in the United States (p. 384). New York: Meridian.

    Google Scholar 

  • Modern Healthcare. (2017a). Largest healthcare management consulting firms. Ranked by 2016 Total healthcare revenue, in millions. Modern Healthcare.

    Google Scholar 

  • Modern Healthcare. (2017b). Largest U.S healthcare public relations and marketing agencies. Ranked by 2016 U.S. revenue, in millions. Modern Healthcare.

    Google Scholar 

  • Modern Healthcare. (2018a). By the numbers: Resource guide 2018–2019. Modern Healthcare.

    Google Scholar 

  • Modern Healthcare. (2018b). CHI- dignity merger cleared by Vatican. Modern Healthcare.

    Google Scholar 

  • Modern Healthcare. (2018c). Largest healthcare management consulting firms. Modern Healthcare, p. 34.

    Google Scholar 

  • Modern Hospital. (1971). Kaiser plan: Planned surplus gives doctors incentives, keeps facilities up to date. Modern Hospital, 116, 91–93.

    Google Scholar 

  • Monica, K. (2008). McKesson wins $400M DoD imaging health IT system contract. EHRIntelligence. Available via DIALOG. https://ehrintelligence.com/news/mckesson-wins-400m-dod-imaging-health-it-system-contract. Accessed 7 Feb 2018.

  • Morrisey, M. A., Gibson, G., & Asby, C. S. (1983). Hospitals and health maintenance organizations: An analysis of the Minneapolis-St. Paul experience. Health Care Financing Review, 4(3), 59–69.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Mowery, C. D., & Mitchell, V. (1995). Improving the reliability of the U.S. vaccine supply: An evaluation of alternatives. Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law, 20(4), 973–1000.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Muller, J. Z. (2008). Thinking about capitalism. Lecture courses. Washington, DC: Catholic University of America.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mullner, R. (1988). Modeling hospital closure relative to organizational theory: The application of ecology theory’s environmental determinism and adaptation perspectives. Social Science and Medicine, 27(11), 1287–1294.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Mullner, R., & Gifford, B. D. (1986). Rural and urban closures: A comparison. Health Affairs, pp. 131–141.

    Google Scholar 

  • Munnell, A. H. (1985). Paying for the Medicare program. Journal of Health Politics, Policy, and Law, 3(10), 489–512.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Navarro, R. P. (1995a). Exportation of U.S. pharmacy benefit management companies to Canada. Medical Interface, 8(7), 72–74.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Navarro, R. P. (1995b). Exporting managed care: Importing quality lessons. Manage Care Interface, 11(4), 61–62.

    Google Scholar 

  • Navarro, V. (1976). Medicine under capitalism. New York: Prodist.

    Google Scholar 

  • Nelson, E. (2018). The dismal cost of economics’ lack of racial diversity. Quartz. Available via DIALOG. https://qz.com/1492283/economics-has-a-crisis-of-diversity/. Accessed 8 Jan 2018.

  • Newton, S. H. (1973). The integration of occupational and family health services in a health maintenance organization. Presented at 58th annual meeting of the industrial medical association, Currigan convention Hall, Denver, Colorado, 19 April 1973.

    Google Scholar 

  • O’Connor, J. (1973). The fiscal crisis of the state (p. 196). New York: St. Martin’s Press.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • O’Connor, J. (1974). The corporations and the state: Essays in the theory of capitalism and imperialism. New York: Harper.

    Google Scholar 

  • O’Connor, J. (1981). The fiscal crisis of the state revisited: Economic crisis and Reagan’s budget policy. In Kapitalistate working papers on the capitalist state (pp. 41–62). New Brunswick, NJ: Kapitalistate.

    Google Scholar 

  • O’Toole, P. (2019). Theodore Roosevelt cared deeply about the sick. Who knew? The New York Times. Available via DIALOG. https://www.nytimes.com/2019/01/06/opinion/theodore-roosevelt-health-care-progressive.html. Accessed 18 Jan 2019.

  • Oloroso, A. Jr. (1988). What’s next? More inner-city hospitals imperiled. Chicago Reporter. Chicago, 2 October 1988.

    Google Scholar 

  • Oloroso, A., Jr. (1989). Strapped inner-city hospitals sump patients to avoid red ink. The Chicago Reporter, 19(1), 6–9.

    Google Scholar 

  • Owens, T. (2019). 1 big thing: A reality check on hospital mergers. Axios. Available via DIALOG. https://www.axios.com/reality-check-on-hospital-mergers-aha-economists-91007ae4-6776-4f33-9c61-db41c945482a.html. Accessed 17 Sept 2019.

  • Peikes, D., Dale, S., Ghosh, A., Taylor, EF., Swankoski, K., O’Malley, A. S., Day, D. J., Duda, N., Singh, P., Anglin, G., Sessums, L. L., & Brown, R. S. (2018). The Comprehensive Primary Care Initiative: Effects On Spending, Quality, Patients, And Physicians. Health Affairs, 37(6):890–899.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pelletier, K. R. (1976). Mind as healer, mind as slayer. New York: Delta/Delacorte.

    Google Scholar 

  • Perez-Stable, E. J. (1999). Managed care arrives in Latin America. The New England Journal of Medicine, 340(14), 1110–1112.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Perna, G. (2018). Avoid an HER-related malpractice lawsuit. Medical Economics, pp. 28–31.

    Google Scholar 

  • Price, S. L., & McGillis Hall, L. (2013). The history of nurse imagery and the implications for recruitment: A discussion paper. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 7(70), 1502–1109.

    Google Scholar 

  • Quinton, S. (2017). Team approach to health care means new role for doctors. Health & Spirit. Available via DIALOG. https://www.arcamax.com/healthandspirit/health/healthtips/. Accessed 6 Feb 2018.

  • Rau, J. (2017). Nursing home industry wins as penalties are relaxed. The New York Times. Available via DIALOG. https://www.nytimes.com/2017/12/24/business/trump-administration-nursing-home-penalties.html. Accessed 24 Jan 2019.

  • Rau, J. (2018). Care suffers at nursing homes as profits rise. The New York Times. Available via DIALOG. https://www.nytimes.com/2018/01/02/business/nursing-homes-care-corporate.html. Accessed 24 Jan 2019.

  • Reich, R. (2018). The privatization myth: Here are 5 ways conservatives’ free market ideology can destroy public goods. Alter Net. Available via DIALOG. https://www.alternet.org/2018/12/privatization-myth-here-are-5-ways-conservatives-free-market-ideology-can-destroy-public/. Accessed 8 Jan 2018.

  • Relman, A. S. (1980). The new medical-industrial complex. New England Journal of Medicine, 303, 963–970.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Reverby, S. (1994). Nursing and caring: Lessons from history interview. In Beyond crisis confronting health care in the United States (p. 386). New York: Meridian.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rich, R. (1982). The political economy of public services. In N. Fainstein & S. Fainstein (Eds.), Urban policy under capitalism. Beverly Hills: Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  • Roemer, M. I. (1956). Medical care in relation to public health. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.

    Google Scholar 

  • Roemer, M. I. (1978). Social medicine: The advance of organized health services in America. Springer Series on Health Care and Society, 3, 1–560.

    Google Scholar 

  • Roemer, M. I., & Shain, M. (1959). Hospital utilization under insurance (p. 39). Chicago, IL: American hospital association.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rorem, R. (1931). Private groups clinics. Chicago, IL: Milbank Memorial Fund.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rosen, G. (1958). The bacteriological era and its aftermath. In A history of public health (pp. 294–343). New York: MD Publications.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Rosen, G. (1963). The hospital in modern society. In The hospital: Historical sociology of a community institution (pp. 1–36). New York: The Free Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rosen, G. (1975). Preventive medicine in the United States, 1900–1975: Trends and interpretations. New York: Science History.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rothfeld, M. B. (1973). Sensible surgery for welling medical costs. Fortune, 4, 110–152.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sager, A. (1983). The reconfiguration of urban hospital care: 1937–1980. In A. Greer & S. Greer (Eds.), Cities and sickness (pp. 55–98). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  • Salmon, J. W. (1978). Corporate attempts to reorganize the American health care system. Unpublished thesis at Cornell University, Ithaca, NY.

    Google Scholar 

  • Salmon, J. W. (1990). The corporate transformation of health care (Vol. 1). Amityville, NY: Baywood Publishing.

    Google Scholar 

  • Salmon, J. W., & Goepel, E. (1990). Symposium papers of the international symposium on community participation and empowerment strategies in health promotion. ZIF Center for interdisciplinary studies, Bielefeld, Federal Republic of Germany.

    Google Scholar 

  • Saward, E. W. (1969a). The relevance of prepaid group practice to the effective delivery of health services. Presented at 18th annual group health institute, Ontario, Canada, 18 June 1969.

    Google Scholar 

  • Saward, E. W. (1969b). The relevance of the Kaiser-permanent experience to the health services of the eastern United States. Bulletin New York Academy of Medicine, 46, 707–717.

    Google Scholar 

  • Saward, E. W. (1980). Health maintenance organizations. Scientific American, 4(243), 47–53.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Saward, E. W., Blank, J. D., & Greenlick, M. R. (1968). Documentation of twenty years of operation and growth of a prepaid group practice plan: Kaiser foundation medical care plan, may/June 1968. Medical Care, 6, 231–244.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Schiff, R. L., Ansell, D. A., Schlosser, J. E., Idris, A. H., Morrison, A., & Whiteman, S. (1986). Transfers to a public hospital. New England Journal of Medicine, 314(9), 552–557.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Schlesinger, M., Blumenthal, D., & Schlesinger, E. (1986). The economic performance of investor-owned and non-profit health maintenance organizations. Medical Care, 24, 615–627.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Schlesinger, M., Gray, B., & Bradley, E. (1996). Charity and community: The role of nonprofit ownership in a managed health care system. Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law, 21(4), 697–752.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Schneider, A. G., & Stern, J. B. (1975). Health maintenance organizations and the poor: Problems and prospects. Northwestern University of Law Review, 1(70), 90–138.

    Google Scholar 

  • Shryock, R. H. (1936). Practice in a changing society. In The development of modern medicine (pp. 369–423). Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Shryock, R. H. (1959). The history of nursing: An interpretation of the social and medical factors involved. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sigerist, H. E. (1960). The social history of medicine. In On the history of medicine. New York: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Smith, R. S., & Lipsky, M. (1996). Privatization in health and human services: A critique. Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law, 17(2), 233–254.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Snow, C. (1996). U.S. HMOs aim to go global via overseas deals. Modern Healthcare, 26(26), 130, 132, 155.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sommers, B. D., Maylone, B., Blendon, R. J., Oray, E. J., & Epstein, A. M. (2017). Three-Year Impacts Of The Affordable Care Act: Improved Medical Care And Health Among Low-Income Adults. Health Affairs, 36(6):1119–1128.

    Google Scholar 

  • Spurr, J. S., & Simmons, O. W. (1996). Medical malpractice in Michigan: An economic analysis. Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law, 21(2), 315–346.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Starr, P. (2011). Remedy and reaction. The peculiar American struggle over health care reform. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Steinhauer, J., & Philipps, D. (2019). V.a. to propose shifting billions into private care. The New York Times. Available via DIALOG. https://www.nytimes.com/2019/01/12/us/politics/veterans-administration-health-care-privatization.html. Accessed 7 Feb 2019.

  • Stevens, R. (1971). American medicine and the public interest. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Stocker, K., Iriart, C., & Waitzkin, H. (1999). The exportation of managed care to Latin America. New England Journal of Medicine, 340(14), 1131–1136.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Sweeney, J. J. (1986). International healthcare union conference on privatization. Washington, DC.

    Google Scholar 

  • Swider, S. M., & Kulbok, P. A. (2015). Creating the future of public health nursing: A call to action. Public Health Nursing, 2(32), 91–93.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Szasz, T. (1977). The theology of medicine: The political-philosophical foundations of medical ethics. New York: Baton Rouge Louisiana State University Press.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Tanenbaum, J. S. (1995). Medicaid eligibility policy in the 1980s: Medical utilitarianism and the “deserving” poor. Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law, 20(4), 909–932.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Terhune, C. (2018). As billions in tax dollars flow to private Medicaid plans, who’s minding the store?. Kaiser Health News. Available via DIALOG. https://khn.org/news/as-billions-in-tax-dollars-flow-to-private-medicaid-plans-whos-minding-the-store/. Accessed 18 Jan 2019.

  • The Committee on the Costs of Medical Care. (1932). Medical care for the American people. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • The Economist. (2014). The $272 billion swindle: Why thieves love America’s health-care system. Miami, NY: The Economist.

    Google Scholar 

  • The Economist. (2019a). How wising rail fares and falling punctuality undermine confidence. The Economist. Available via DIALOG. https://www.economist.com/britain/2019/08/15/how-rising-rail-fares-and-falling-punctuality-undermine-confidence. Accessed 14 Sept 2019.

  • The Economist. (2019b). The treasury plans to privatise Fannie Mae and Fannie Mac. New York: The Economist.

    Google Scholar 

  • The Morgan Guaranty Survey. (1972). Changing the system of health care. The Morgan Guaranty Survey.

    Google Scholar 

  • Traige Health Law Blog. (2019). Health care fraud leads $2.8 billion collection for false claims. Lexology. Available via DIALOG. https://www.lexology.com/library/detail.aspx?g=3ceb03cf-88d8-4fb4-bb4b-31b26db1edec. Accessed 25 Jan 2019.

  • Uzych, L., & Kinney, D. E. (1996). Medical malpractice and no-fault systems. Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law, 21(1), 153–158.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Vladeck, B. C. (1985). Reforming Medicare provider payment. Journal of Health Politics, Policy, and Law, 3(10), 512–532.

    Google Scholar 

  • Waitzkin, H. (1978). A Marxist view of medical care. Annals of Internal Medicine, 89, 263–278.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Waitzkin, H. (1983). The second sickness: Contradictions of capitalist health care. New York: Free Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Waitzkin, H., & Hellander, I. (2016). The history and future of neoliberal Reform: Obamacare and its predecessors. International Journal of Health Services, 46, 747–766.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Whitcomb, E. M. (1996). Commentary-physicians supply policy: A victim of politics in the era of pork. Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law, 21(4), 855–862.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • White, W. D., Salmon, J. W., & Feinglass, J. (1994). The Changing Doctor-Patient Relationship and Performance Monitoring: An Agency Perspective in: Salmon JW: The Corporate Transformation of Health Care – Part 2: Perspectives And Implications, Amityville, NY: Baywood.

    Google Scholar 

  • Whiteis, D. G. (1992). Hospital and community characteristics associated with urban hospital closure. Public Health Reports, 107(4), 409–416.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Whiteis, D. G. (1997). Unhealthy cities: Corporate medicine, community underdevelopment, and the public health in the U.S. International Journal of Health Services, 27(2), 227–242.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Whiteis, D. G. (1998). Third-world medicine in first first-world cities: Underdevelopment and public health in the U.S. Social Science & Medicine, 47(6), 795–808.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Whiteis, D. G. (2000). Poverty, policy, and pathogenesis: Economic justice and public health in the US. Critical Public Health, 10(2), 257–271.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Whiteis, D. G., & Salmon, J. W. (Eds.). (1990a). The proprietarization of health care and the underdevelopment of the public sector. In The corporate transformation of health care: Issues & directions, pp. 117–131. Amityville, NY: Baywood.

    Google Scholar 

  • Whiteis, D. G., & Salmon, J. W. (1990b). Public health care delivery systems in selected U.S. cities: Findings of the urban public health care system study tours project. Health and medicine policy research group, University of Illinois at Chicago College of Pharmacy, Chicago.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wigger, U. (1996). Medical students and primary care physicians’ opinions and concerns on the use of information technology. Unpublished dissertation, University of Illinois at Chicago.

    Google Scholar 

  • Williams, G. (1971). Kaiser delivery system: Less utilization, more productivity. Modern Hospital, 116, 81–85.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Woodson, J. (2017). Future of the global retail clinics market- growth, latest trend, and forecast 2022. Newsient.

    Google Scholar 

  • Young, Q. (1995). Personal communication. April 28. Chicago, IL.

    Google Scholar 

  • Young, Q. (2013). Everybody in, nobody out: Memoirs of a rebel without a pause. Harbor, WA: Copernicus Healthcare.

    Google Scholar 

  • Zola, I. K. (1972). Medicine as an institution of social control. The Sociological Review, 20, 487–504.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2021 Springer Nature Switzerland AG

About this chapter

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this chapter

Salmon, J.W., Thompson, S.L. (2021). History of the Corporatization of American Medicine: The Market Paradigm Reigns. In: The Corporatization of American Health Care. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-60667-1_1

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-60667-1_1

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Cham

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-030-60666-4

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-030-60667-1

  • eBook Packages: MedicineMedicine (R0)

Publish with us

Policies and ethics