Well-Partitioned Chordal Graphs: Obstruction Set and Disjoint Paths
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We introduce a new subclass of chordal graphs that generalizes split graphs, which we call well-partitioned chordal graphs. Split graphs are graphs that admit a partition of the vertex set into cliques that can be arranged in a star structure, the leaves of which are of size one. Well-partitioned chordal graphs are a generalization of this concept in the following two ways. First, the cliques in the partition can be arranged in a tree structure, and second, each clique is of arbitrary size. We provide a characterization of well-partitioned chordal graphs by forbidden induced subgraphs, and give a polynomial-time algorithm that given any graph, either finds an obstruction, or outputs a partition of its vertex set that asserts that the graph is well-partitioned chordal. We demonstrate the algorithmic use of this graph class by showing that two variants of the problem of finding pairwise disjoint paths between k given pairs of vertices is in FPT parameterized by k on well-partitioned chordal graphs, while on chordal graphs, these problems are only known to be in XP. From the other end, we observe that there are problems that are polynomial-time solvable on split graphs, but become NP-complete on well-partitioned chordal graphs.
KeywordsWell-partitioned chordal graph Chordal graph Split graph Disjoint paths Forbidden induced subgraphs
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